Skip to main content

Full text of "The house of Cromwell : a genealogical history of the family and descendants of the protector"

See other formats









3 1833 00674 5670 







H Gcnealooical ftnston? of tbe jfamil\> ano 
£>escenoants of tbe protector. 


Sometime Secretary of Thomas Carlyle. 




Hon. Canon of Durham. 



[All rights reserved.) 





IN order to render Mr. Waylen's book more complete 
and interesting to the general reader, the Publisher 
has decided to prefix a new chapter designed to 
trace as far back as possible the family from which the 
Great Protector derived his origin. He has also added 
a chapter at the end on the Cromwells in America. 
The book, which has been revised throughout and very 
much condensed, now presents the history of the family 
from the fourteenth to the nineteenth century. It may 
seem proper, but almost unnecessary, for the editor to 
say that he does not agree with the sentiments of the 
late Mr. Waylen upon very many subjects. 



THE following pages arc primarily designed to 
contain genealogical tables of the Protector 
Oliver's descendants to the present day, 
and thus to carry down through another 
century the family history which terminated in 1785 
with the publication of Mark Noble's " History of the 
Protectoral House." Other miscellaneous matter is added, 
illustrative of the Protector's character, all which will 
speak for itself. But the mention of matter, supple- 
mentary to Mr. Carlyle's collection of the Protector's 
" Letters and Speeches," claims a few preliminary obser- 

About the year 1842, Mr. John Langton Sanford, of the 
Temple, struck by the astounding discrepancies which had 
long been conspicuous among the biographers of Oliver 
Cromwell, resolved to make an independent investigation 
on his own account, and to commence the task by forming 
as complete a collection as possible of the hero's letters 
and speeches. Of these, he had brought together about 
three hundred, when Mr. Carlyle's work on the same 
subject came forth to light in 1845. As each collection 

viii Preface. 

contained documents which were wanting in the other, 
Mr. Sanford promptly and generously surrendered his own 
contingent, which accordingly made part of Mr. Carlyle's 
second edition of 1846. To specify what that contingent 
supplied would now be a superfluous task ; it may suffice 
to mention that it included the Clonmacnoise Manifesto — 
perhaps the most masterly and characteristic specimen on 
record of Cromwell's polemical discernment. 

It is agreeable to add that the results of these studies on 
Mr. Sanford's own mind were already in felicitous accord- 
ance with the Carlylean decisions, and had issued, to use 
his own terms, in a clear conviction that the theory of 
Cromwell's hypocrisy and selfish ambition was devoid 
of all support in the real facts. He had learnt also that 
the lives of Pym, Hampden, and many others of that 
time, required re-writing quite as much as that of Crom- 
well ; and he became increasingly solicitous that his ac- 
cumulated stores " might be moulded into a work supple- 
mentary to that of Mr. Carlyle, and affording a critical 
refutation of the large mass of calumnious anecdote which 
still passes for history in works of such general value and 
authority as Mr. Forster's " Statesmen of the Common- 
wealth." Such a work, therefore, appeared in 1858 — the 
original title of " Life of Oliver Cromwell " being sup- 
planted by " Studies and Illustrations of the Great Rebel- 
lion " — and a very fascinating book it is, fully answering 
the proposed design, without in the smallest degree dis- 
turbing the majestic supremacy of the Protector. It 
closes with a graphic account of the fight at Marston 
Moor, which had never before been rightly adjusted ; and 
it supplies a few additional letters, which also may now be 
read in Carlyle's later editions. 

But, indeed, that gallant crisis in the fortunes of England 
and of Europe may well sustain other supplementary 
illustration besides Mr. Sanford's classic essays. The 
position which the British Protector appeared to be as- 

Preface. ix 

suming in the councils of foreign nations when death laid 
him low is apprehended by very few. Englishmen seem 
to have forgotten the motives which prompted him to 
snatch from Papal Spain the port of Dunkirk and adjacent 
part of Flanders. Nay, the majority of his compatriots 
seem to have forgotten that he ever held Dunkirk at all. 

The loss of Calais was more than redeemed ; and the 
Protestant ensign, under which Gustavus Adolphus fought 
and fell, floated over territory torn from Papal Spain. The 
whole affair was eminently calculated to re-awaken the 
enthusiasm which the leadership of the Protector had 
formerly kindled ; for the Flanders campaign, though 
executed by deputy, was rightly felt to be animated by his 
spirit. His representatives, meanwhile, at the Gallic Court, 
where Huguenots had sued in vain, received homage which 
was withheld from the very Legate of Rome — a strange 
spectacle, startling to all Europe — alike anomalous, por- 
tentous, and inexplicable. To many a lip the question must 
then have risen, which in later years has again and again 
baffled the logic of Oliver's defamers : Wherein lay the 
divining power which could thus bring an aspiring Cardinal 
and a French autocrat under the fascination of a heretical 
island chieftain, whose political aspirations, all undisguised 
as they were, were backed by but a very moderate military 
power ? The answer, surely, is found in the fact, that 
every step in his career was known to be the expression 
and outcome of habitual faith in the Unseen. To his 
Parliaments, and to those who came still more closely in 
contact with him, it was sufficiently manifest that his 
every thought was with the Eternal ; but Milton gives us 
further to understand that the contagion of his spiritual 
force carried the better part of the nation along with him. 
Through Lockhart's medium the same sentiment would 
remotely influence Mazarin, offering a more honourable — 
and shall we not say rational ? — explanation of his bearing 
towards the English Protector than the mere vulgar fear 

x Preface. 

which is all that the Cardinal's enemies can discover in 
him. The downright integrity and absence of self-seeking 
of Oliver was a new phenomenon in the history of 
monarchs, and at the bottom of their hearts the people 
hailed his advent as that of a practical saviour. In short, 
" There has not been a supreme governor worth the meal 
upon his periwig, in comparison, since this spirit fell 
obsolete," says Carlyle, in his comments on Speech V. 
There, gentlemen, is that strong enough ? That it will 
for ever silence his detractors, can hardly be looked for. 
But it is in the firm belief, that the majority of his country- 
men are rapidly reaching the same conviction, that the 
tribute of the following pages has been rendered. 

Should it be objected against him, that his organization 
of parochial religious life was a mongrel affair, let it also 
be remembered that in the transition age through which 
the nation was passing it was a matter of exceptional per- 
plexity. Robert Hall, in many respects a kindred spirit, 
when repelling on one occasion the notion that any 
particular form of Church-government was stereotyped for 
all ages, exclaimed, " That which is best administered is 
best." That Cromwell's administration of this and 
every other department was the very best conceivable 
is not the thing to be proved. That he deemed it the 
best under the actual circumstances of the hour, and 
made it the best by the simple force of his personal 
Christianity, is all that his admirers claim — sufficiently 
entitling him to the eulogy above expressed, ratified as 
it is by the testimony of a contemporary who, having, 
like many others, watched him long and closely, pro- 
nounced him " the justest of conquerors." (Carrington's 
" Life of Oliver Cromwell.") 








I 9 











SCENDANTS . . . -43 

xii Contents. 






DESCENDANTS . . . . . 87 







DESCENDANTS . . . . . I 23 











S early as 1308 we find a nobleman bearing the 
name of Baron John de Cromwell,* who held 
the high and responsible office of Constable of 
the Tower of London. He was regularly sum- 
moned to Parliament till his death, which occurred in 
I 335« His seat in the country was Tattershall Castle, not 
far from Boston, in Lincolnshire. He was succeeded by 
Baron Ralph de Cromwell, who died in 1399 ; by another 
of the same name, who died in 1419 ; and then by a third 
of the same name, who died in 1455. This nobleman at- 
tained to the dignity of Lord High Treasurer of England, 
under Henry VI., the pious founder and princely benefactor 
of Eton. In the churchwardens' accounts of the parish of 
St. Margaret's, Westminster, we find mention of a " Lorde 
Crumwell " (sic) as a resident f therein in the year 1572. 

The investigations made by Mr. Carlyle for his edition 
of " Oliver Cromwell's Letters and Speeches" led him to 
conclude that there were other Cromwells in the Fen 
counties ; and, in his own quaint phraseology, he says 
that "without any ghost to teach us we can understand 

* Vide " Historic Peerage," by Sir Harris Nicholas. 

f Vide "Westminster Tobacco-box," by Mr. J. E. Smith, i8S7. 

The House of Cromwell. 

that the Cromwell kindred all got their name in very old 
times indeed" from the village of "Cromwell," which 
lies about five miles north of Newark. 

Owing to the industry of an indefatigable antiquary of 
this generation, Mr. John Phillips, we have been enabled 
to trace a clear link of connection between one of the 
lords of Tattershall Castle and a resident near Newark 
named " John Cromwell." The way in which this dis- 
covery was made was as follows. Mr. Phillips was 
fortunate enough to obtain the permission of Earl 
Spencer, the Lord of the Manor of Wimbledon, to 
examine carefully the Court Rolls of the manor for the 
fifteenth century. Therein he discovered numerous 
entries of the name of " Cromwell." The first of that 
name mentioned in those old musty documents was one 
John Cromwell, who is therein stated to have come from 
Norwell, a village not far from the village of Cromwell. 
He was a fuller by trade, and he obtained the lease of a 
fulling-mill for twenty-one years, together with a residence 
and six acres of land belonging thereto, situate near the 
river Wandle, in the ancient Manor of Wimbledon. This 
lease was granted to John Cromwell in the year 1452, by 
the Archbishop of Canterbury, who was then the Lord 
of the Manor. Now, we happen to know that the custo- 
dian of the temporalities of the Archbishop at that time 
was a certain Sir Gervase Clifford, who also held the 
office of Secretary to the Lord Treasurer Cromwell of 
Tattershall Castle. It requires no great stretch of imagin- 
ation to suppose that it was due to the tie of consan- 
guinity that John Cromwell obtained his lease through 
the hands of his powerful kinsman's secretary. 

It is easy to conjecture that John Cromwell desired to 
push his fortune by removing from a country village to 
the immediate neighbourhood of London, where he could 
pursue his business as a cloth-fuller to greater advantage 
and profit than he could down in Nottinghamshire. We 

The House of Cromwell. 

learn that John's father, William Cromwell, held a lease 
of Palme Hall, at Norwell, and that he was a grandson 
of William, fourth son of the sixth Ralph de Cromwell, 
of Lambley, Nottingham. It will not escape the reader's 
observation that Ralph was the favourite name of the 
above-mentioned Barons de Cromwell, who resided in 
Lincolnshire. We may conclude, with every appearance 
of certainty, that the Cromwells of Lincolnshire had 
originally sprung from the Cromwells of Nottinghamshire, 
and that some connection continued to be kept up 
between the two branches of the family at least down to 
the middle of the fifteenth century. 

Let us see what more can be gleaned about John 
Cromwell, the cloth-fuller from Norwell. His fulling- 
mill appears to have stood near the river Wandle, in a 
lane formerly called Fulling-mill Lane, in the parish of 
Wandsworth. Here cloth, imported into London from 
Flanders by London merchants, was brought to be 
" fulled," and then dyed and finished ready for the cloth 
fairs held at Smithfield Market. For eight-and-twenty 
years John Cromwell pursued his business on the Wandle, 
and appears to have been diligent and successful in his 
business ; for he acquired, in addition to the lease of his 
fulling-mill, with land and house adjoining, the copyhold 
of some land at Putney, which is called "Cromwell's" 
in the existing Court Rolls of the manor. At his death, 
which occurred about 1480, he was buried in Wimbledon 
churchyard, overlooking the Valley of the Wandle. Behind 
him he left two sons, John and Walter, and one or two 
daughters. Follow we first the history of John, the 
eldest son. He became a copyholder of land in the 
parish of Lambeth, and also of a brewery at Stockwell 
Green, where he carried on his business as a brewer till 
his death, in 1523, and was buried in Lambeth church- 
yard. In the churchwardens' accounts of the parish of 
Lambeth the following entries occur : 

The House of Cromwell. 

" 1514. Rec d of John Cromwell towards making our suits 
of vestments 6 s 8 d . 

1515. Rec d for the burial of John Cromwell's woman- 
servant 4 d . 

152 1. Rec d from John Cromwell for reparation of the 
Church 20 s o d . 

1523. Rec d for burial of John Cromwell 8 s 6 d , and for 
ringing his knell 6 d ." 

In his will he directed that his body should be buried 
in the churchyard of " our Lady of Lambithe " (Lam- 
beth now), that 4s. should be given to the " High 
Altar " for " tithes and oblations forgotten," that 3s. 4d. 
should be given to the " fraternity of S l Christopher," 
and 6s. 4d. to the reparation of the church. It will be 
remembered, of course, that a shilling then was worth 
almost as much as a sovereign now. His two sons 
followed their father's occupation as brewers, and their 
names are found, together with that of their distinguished 
cousin Thomas, amongst the members of the household 
of Cardinal Wolsey, at Hampton Court, in the subsidy 
assessment for the year 1526. 


Having followed far enough the history of the eldest 
son of John Cromwell of Norwell, let us now fix our 
attention upon his second son, Walter, for it was through 
him that the most eminent members of the family derived 
their origin. To the Court Rolls of the Manor of Wimble- 
don we are again led by Mr. John Phillips for information. 
It thence appears that Walter succeeded his father (John) 
in the business at the fulling-mill on the Wandle ; for 
when the lease, originally granted to John Cromwell of 
Norwell, expired, in 1473, it was renewed in favour of his 
son Walter, who added to the business of a fuller of cloth 
several other kinds of business. We learn that he held 
in the parish of Putney several copyhold lands and tene- 

The House of Cromwell. 

ments, and there he carried on business as a smith, an 
armourer, a brewer, and a " hostelry-keeper." 

In thus combining under one management so many 
diverse kinds of business, Walter may be almost said to 
have anticipated some of the big London firms of the 
nineteenth century. 

In his youth he was apprenticed to his maternal uncle, 
who was a smith and brewer at Putney, and when his 
apprenticeship expired, he joined his father in conducting 
the fulling-mill on the Wandle, but did not forget or 
abandon his original trade as a smith and armourer, and 
thus he was described in the local records sometimes as 
a smith, sometimes as a fuller, and sometimes as a brewer. 
Indeed, in the Court Rolls he is variously entered as 
"Walter Cromwell otherwise called Walter Smyth," and 
" Walter Smyth alias Cromwell," and "Walter Cromwell 
alias Smyth." 

It is suggested that the reason why he was sometimes 
called " Smyth" was because his uncle's name, to whom 
he was apprenticed, was William Smith, armourer, smith, 
and brewer, at Putney. 

In the parish of Putney, Walter Cromwell held thirty 
acres of land under the Lord of the Manor of Wimbledon, 
which had belonged to the successive Archbishops of 
Canterbury from the days of William the Conqueror. 
Some of this land is said to have been situated close to 
the Thames, between the west side of Brewhouse Lane 
and the east side of Putney Churchyard. His brewery 
and hostelry were in Brewhouse Lane, and the hostelry 
was conveniently near to the " hithe," or landing-place, 
where no doubt a good deal of business was done ; for 
Putney was always a busy and important place, owing to 
its being on the direct line of transit between London and 
West Surrey, while ferry-boats constantly plied between 
Putney and Fulham, and boats and barges, some filled 
with rich merchandise and some with pleasure-seekers, 

The House of Cromwell. 

came up from London and Westminster. For more than 
a quarter of a century Walter Cromwell is known to have 
carried on his various kinds of business at Putney, and 
in 1500 we find that he received a considerable addition 
to his property in land. For in that year the Court Rolls 
tell us that " Walter Cromwell, otherwise called Walter 
Smyth, took of the Lord of the Manor six entire virgats " 
{i.e., ninety acres) " of land, as well as divers arable lands 
in Roehampton." After describing fully and minutely 
the exact situation of all these lands in legal phraseology, 
the copy of Court Roll concludes by recording that Walter 
Cromwell was not required to pay anything for all this 
land, "because the Lord" (of the Manor) "for certain 
considerations . . . had pardoned payment therefor." 

In these quaint words there is something very signifi- 
cant, and we ask with curiosity what could have been the 
" certain considerations " that moved Archbishop Morton 
of Canterbury to make a free grant of ninety acres of 
land, together with " divers arable lands in Roehampton," 
to Master Walter Cromwell, in the year of grace 1500. 
The answer to this question probably will be found in 
the following facts. The maternal grandfather of Walter 
Cromwell, like his maternal uncle, was by trade an 
armourer and smith, and in that capacity he had found 
employment during the Wars of the Roses amongst the 
Lancastrian Barons, whose cause he espoused, and whom 
he accompanied, like a brave man, to the field of battle ; 
where his strong arms, both as a soldier and a smith, were 
doubtless very useful. In one of the numerous battles 
fought during the thirty years' Civil War he was killed, 
fighting on the Lancastrian side. For services thus 
rendered by the armourer of Putney, and by his sons, to 
the great party which eventually placed Henry VII. upon 
the throne of England, it is conjectured that the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury was moved to grant freely those 
lands in Putney and Roehampton to " Walter Cromwell 

The Hotise of Cromwell. 

alias Smyth," whose mother was both a daughter and a 
sister of a Lancastrian armourer. Other reasons likewise 
may have moved Archbishop Morton to take this course, 
for it is conjectured that some of those lands had been 
torn from the Putney armourers by a former Archbishop 
(Bourchier), who was a strong partisan of the Yorkist 
cause, and therefore the grant made to Walter Cromwell 
was probably an act of partial restitution. Be this as it 
may, we find Walter Cromwell, near the end of his life, 
in possession of a considerable amount of property at 
Putney, Wandsworth, and Roehampton, though later on 
he seems to have lost much of it, and to have died at 
his cottage on Wimbledon Green, about the year 15 16, 
and was buried probably in Wimbledon churchyard, 
beside his father and mother. The reader is doubtless 
aware that it is next to impossible to give the exact date 
of the birth, marriage, or death of anybody in England 
prior to 1538, because before that year there was no 
regular and systematic registration of births, marriages, 
and deaths kept in this country. It was Thomas Cromwell 
who first ordered registers to be kept in all parish churches, 
and thus instituted that system of registration which con- 
tinues in force with some alterations at the present day. 

Before passing from the biography of Walter Cromwell, 
it may be mentioned that he twice discharged the office 
of " Constable of Putney," in 1495 and 1496, a parochial 
office that in all parishes used to be held in turn by 
the principal householders in a parish. Three children 
survived him — Katharine, born about 1477; Thomas, about 
1485 ; and Elizabeth, about 1487. Our interest will be 
with Katharine and Thomas principally. 

Place aux dames. The lady must come first, in spite 
of the fact that her brother afterwards became the most 
powerful subject of King Henry VIII. 

It was in Putney Church, in the year of grace 1494, 
that Katharine Cromwell, then a young lady about 

The House of Cromwell. 

eighteen years of age, was married to a young man of 
Welsh extraction named Morgan Williams. From the 
issue of this marriage sprang in the fourth generation, 
as we shall presently see, the renowned Lord Protector 
of England, Oliver Cromwell. 

Morgan Williams was the son of John Williams, who 
had migrated from the parish of Llanishen, near Cardiff, 
about the end of the fifteenth century, and took up his 
abode at Mortlake ; where he married an English wife 
distantly connected with the Cromwell family at Putney, 
and pursued the avocations of accountant, land-agent, 
and lawyer. He seems to have been employed about the 
Court at Richmond in the time of Henry VII. and 
Henry VIII., and his eldest son, John Williams, is desig- 
nated in the record of a lawsuit in the King's Bench 
as " de Hospice de Regni," i.e., " of the Royal House- 
hold." In 1515 he was appointed " Yeoman of the 
Crown " with 6d. a day, thus becoming one of that royal 
bodyguard, composed of stalwart Welshmen, on whose 
loyalty the two first Tudor Kings could rely ; and we 
must never forget that Henry VII. was as much a 
Welshman as James I. was a Scotchman, and George I. 
was a German. Welshmen, therefore, were naturally 
held in favour about the Courts of Henry VII. and his 
son, bluff King Harry the Eighth. 

In due time a son was born as issue of the marriage 
of Katharine Cromwell and Morgan Williams, and the 
child was called Richard. Of his early life little is 
recorded, but we may conjecture, with every probability 
in our favour, that he joined the royal bodyguard of 
Welshmen, to which one of his paternal uncles already 
belonged ; and that it was thus he became so proficient 
in the use of arms, that at a grand tournament held by 
the King in 1539 he was* successful in defeating a 
Mr. Culpeper and two of the bravest foreign champions 

* Vide Dugdale's " Baronetage," ii. 370. 

The House of Cromwell. 

who had been invited from the Continent to take part 
in the royal festivities. It is said that Henry VIII. was 
so highly delighted with Richard Cromwell's success in 
beating the two foreigners, that he knighted him on the 
spot, gave him a ring from his own finger, and said: 
" Henceforth thou shalt be my knight." Richard thence- 
forth, if not before, abandoned his father's surname, 
Williams, and assumed that of his mother's family, 
" Cromwell." He had a potent reason for making this 
change in his name, for by so doing he proclaimed to 
the courtiers his close kinship to the King's chief adviser 
and Minister, Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex, who had 
not as yet fallen beneath the royal displeasure. In 
memory of the great tournament and of its fateful results, 
Sir Richard Cromwell and his descendants after him 
adopted as their crest a lion rampant holding up a ring 
in his right paw. 

Leaving for a time the history of Sir Richard, we shall 
find much to interest us in recovering the story of the 
early life of his maternal uncle Thomas, the son, as we 
have seen, of Walter Cromwell of Putney, for it is full 
of adventure, and not a little romance. 

Mr. John Phillips, to whom we are indebted for so 
many interesting particulars derived from the Court Rolls 
of Wimbledon Manor, says : " We are inclined to think 
that Thomas Cromwell, after leaving school, resided at 
Mortlake with John Williams ; that he assisted him to 
collect rents and debts on the manor . . . and learnt 
from him to prepare legal documents for leases and 
mortgages. ... At Putney he saw and conversed with 
the merchants who came there to buy wool, and heard 
much about Italy and other foreign countries." Hence, 
says Foxe : " A great delight came into his mind to see 
the world abroad, and to gain experience, whereby he 
learned such tongues and languages as might better serve 
his use hereafter." 

io The House of Cromwell. 

In prosecution of his desire to see " forraine " countries, 
he passed over sea to the great commercial port of 
Antwerp, where, says Foxe, " he was retained of the 
English merchants " (who at that time resided together 
in a factory for mutual protection and convenience) " to 
be their dark or secretarie, or in some like condition 
pertaining to their affaires." When he was thus employed 
at Antwerp, there arrived two merchants from Boston 
on their way to Rome, commissioned by their townsmen 
to solicit from the Pope, Julius II., a renewal of "a 
pardon," as it was called, to the town of Boston, and 
to " the brethren and sisters of the gylde of our Lady 
in Saint Botulph's church at Boston." 

A copy of this " pardon " may be seen in Foxe, and 
very curious are the indulgences and relaxations granted 
by the Pope to all such as should resort to the Church 
of St. Botulph at the great Church festivals — indeed, 
his Holiness promised that they should have " pardon 
no less than if they themselves personally had visited 
the stations of Rome." For such a document as this, 
of course, the Court of Rome would demand a good round 
sum of money from the merchants who had undertaken 
the commission to obtain it. Foxe tells us that these 
Boston merchants felt themselves unequal to the task 
of " compassing such a weightie piece of worke," and 
finding that Thomas Cromwell had acquired some skill 
in the Italian tongue, they induced him to accom- 
pany them to Rome, and assist them in their weighty 

By making acceptable presents to the Pope and his 
courtiers, and by offering for his acceptance some "jolly 
junkets and fine dishes of jellie made after the best 
fashion and manner, which to them of Rome was not 
known nor seene before," Thomas Cromwell and his 
friends from Boston obtained the coveted "pardon." 
This was in the year of our Lord 1510, says our historian 

The House of Cromweti. 1 1 

Foxe. Thomas would then be about twenty-five years 
of age. 

Never had the Court of Rome been more notoriously 
and shamelessly corrupt than it was at the beginning of 
the sixteenth century, and Cromwell must have seen and 
heard strange things about the Pope and Cardinals during 
his stay at Rome. No doubt his visit to the Eternal City 
helped to colour many of his opinions and actions in his 
subsequent career as malleus monachorum in England. 
Alexander Borgia, one of the most profligate Popes that 
ever disgraced and polluted an episcopal throne, had 
died in 1503 after a week's illness, induced by drinking 
a poisoned cup intended, as was commonly believed, for 
one of the guests that sat by his side at supper. "The 
moral degradation into which the Papacy sank under 
Alexander," says the historian Robertson, " has no parallel 
either in its earlier or in its later history. . . . The Pope 
and his children " (the notorious Caesar and Lucretia 
Borgia) " are accused of profligacy which hesitated at 
nothing for its gratification, and never scrupled to remove 
obstacles by murder. The Vatican was polluted by revels 
and orgies of the most shameless and loathsome obscenity, 
of which the Pope and his daughter are represented as 
pleased spectators. A letter of the time paints the morals 
of the Papal Court in the darkest colours, and speaks of 
the Pope as a man stained with every vice. . . ." It was 
during the Papacy of this infamous man that the great 
Florentine preacher and reformer, Savonarola, was con- 
demned, after a mock trial before the Papal Commissioners 
at Florence, to be hanged and burnt, and his ashes to 
be cast into the Arno. 

At the time when Thomas Cromwell (1510) was at 
Rome, the occupant of the Papal throne was Julius II., 
a prelate who was accustomed personally to conduct 
campaigns, sieges, and other military enterprises, which 
were much more congenial to his taste than the perform- 

12 The House of Cromwell. 

ance of any episcopal functions. Neither age nor sick- 
ness could damp his military impetuosity. In the midst 
of winter he laid siege to the fortress of Mirandola, and 
in spite of frost and heavy snow he personally super- 
intended the pointing of his cannon, and gave the word 
of command for their discharge. Can we be surprised 
at all, that almost every man who paid a visit to Rome 
during the Papacy of such Popes as Alexander Borgia, 
Julius II., and Leo X. should go away from its gates 
with mingled feelings of disgust and disappointment, as 
well as with a determination to aid in producing a refor- 
mation of abuses in the Church ? Undoubtedly such were 
the impressions made respectively upon Thomas Crom- 
well, upon Erasmus, and upon Luther by their respective 
visits to Rome in the opening years of the momentous 
sixteenth century. 

After having remained in Italy for some little time, 
Thomas Cromwell returned by slow journeys to Antwerp, 
and afterwards settled (1514) in London as a wool and 
cloth merchant, and also practised as a lawyer and 
scrivener in Fenchurch Street. About 1522 he removed 
from Fenchurch Street to Throgmorton Street, and shortly 
afterwards took a lease from the Mercers' Company of 
a mansion called " Great Place," at Stepney. In 1524 
he entered the service of the King's chief Minister and 
favourite, Cardinal Wolsey, by whom he was confidentially 
employed in prosecuting the Cardinal's great undertaking 
of building the college of Christ Church at Oxford. In 
order to acquire sufficient funds for this purpose, the 
Cardinal employed Cromwell in suppressing a certain 
number of small monasteries and priories " in divers 
places of the realm," and their lands were seized for the 
benefit of the new college. Not many years passed before 
all the monasteries in England were suppressed by the 
same hands. His wife, whom he had married soon after 
he had settled in London, died in 1529, and on July 12 

The Hotise of Cromwell. 13 

of that year he made his will, which has been printed 
at the end of the first volume of Froude's " History of 
England." It may be seen now in the Record Office, 
with the erasures and interlineations made by the hand 
of Thomas Cromwell himself. As a proof that he had 
not been unsuccessful in his pursuits, it may in passing 
be mentioned that the value of the property included in 
his will would at the present day be about £36,000. His 
subsequent history and sudden downfall are so fully 
recorded in every history of England that we need not 
further follow his eventful career, which was terminated 
on Tower Hill by the axe of the executioner on July 28, 

It is now time for us to return to Sir Richard Cromwell 
and trace the links of connection between him and the 
Lord Protector of England. As we have seen, he had 
managed to win the special favour of that most capri- 
cious monarch Henry VIII., and hence when monasteries 
and abbeys and priories were suppressed, and their broad 
acres and immense wealth were seized by the royal hand, 
Sir Richard's claims were not forgotten by Henry and by 
his Minister, Thomas Cromwell, the maternal uncle, be it 
remembered, of Sir Richard. In the county of Huntingdon 
the monks of Ramsey Abbey had secured the possession 
of extensive estates and manors, and to Sir Richard and 
his heirs all those estates were granted by royal favour. 
Thus he became the possessor of the estates that had 
formerly belonged to the Abbey of Ramsey, the Convent 
of Hinchinbrook, and the priories of Saltrey, Huntingdon, 
and St. Neot's. He was made a Gentleman of the Privy 
Chamber, Constable of Berkeley Castle, and Captain of 
the Horse sent into France under Sir John Wallop. Like 
many other English gentlemen of that generation, he 
seems to have used the stones of the dismantled abbeys 
and priories for the erection of convenient and comfortable 
manor-houses at Ramsey and at Hinchinbrook. His 

14 The House of Cromwell. 

wife was Frances, daughter and co-heiress of Sir Thomas 
Murfyn, Lord Mayor of London, and by her he had a son, 
Henry, named, as is conjectured, after the King's majesty. 
His wife's fortune formed a considerable addition to his 
great possessions in Huntingdonshire. In due time Henry 
succeeded his father, and having married Joan, daughter 
of another Lord Mayor of London — Sir Ralph Warren — 
was knighted by Queen Elizabeth, and died in 1603. By 
this marriage with the daughter of a wealthy London mer- 
chant, no doubt the wealth of the family was still further 
augmented. Upon account of his great wealth, munifi- 
cence, and hospitality, Sir Henry was called " the Golden 
Knight."* His uncommon liberality was long remem- 
bered and spoken of by the good folk of Ramsey, who had 
been accustomed to see him throw money out of his coach 
amongst the crowd as he passed along the street of the 
little town. When he died, he left the bulk of his estates 
to his eldest son, Oliver, but he provided, it is said, £500 
a year in land for each of his other sons— Robert, Henry, 
and Philip. Very shortly after Oliver had entered upon 
possession of his estates at Hinchinbrook, he was called 
upon to entertain King James I.,f then on his way from 
Scotland to London, there to be crowned King of England, 
and so hospitably did the owner of Hinchinbrook enter- 
tain his Sovereign, that the King, as a mark of royal 
favour, conferred upon him the honour of knighthood. 
Thus we see that three members of the family were 
knighted by three successive Sovereigns — Richard by 

* When Queen Elizabeth was returning from Cambridge in 1564, she slept 
at Hinchinbrook, the seat of Sir Henry Cromwell, and was most handsomely 
entertained by him. He represented the county of Huntingdon in Parliament 
in 1563, and was Sheriff of the two counties of Huntingdon and Cambridge 
in four different years. 

f Not only did the worthy Knight entertain his Sovereign and retinue 
in a princely fashion, but likewise at his departure he made him handsome 
presents of a "large cup of gold, goodly horses, deep-mouthed hounds, doves, 
and hawks of excellent wing." These royal visits were expensive luxuries, 
as we know from other sources. 

The House of Cromwell. 15 

Henry VIII. , Henry by Queen Elizabeth, and Oliver by 
James I. 

Sir Oliver's first wife was a daughter of Sir Thomas 
Bromley, Lord Chancellor of England ; and his second 
wife was the widow of Sir Horace Pallavacini, a wealthy 
Genoese merchant. He lived to the advanced age of 
ninety-three, and was buried at Ramsey on August 28, 
1655. By his two wives he had a numerous progeny, viz., 
five daughters and five sons, all of whom, like their father, 
were distinguished for their loyalty to the crown and their 
opposition to the Republican party. 

One of Sir Oliver's sons, John, was a Captain in a regi- 
ment of English soldiers sent by James I. to assist in 
recovering the Palatinate for his son-in-law, and subse- 
quently he became the Colonel of an English regiment in 
the service of Holland. Singularly enough, he was selected 
by the Prince of Wales, then an exile in Holland, to carry 
letters to Oliver, his cousin, and to intercede with him 
for sparing the life of the King — but in vain. Another 
son of Sir Oliver — William — also took service under 
Frederic, Elector-Palatine, and became a Colonel in his 
wars for the crown of Bohemia. He also held the office 
of " carver " in the household of the Princess Elizabeth, 
wife of Frederic. 

No trace of any issue from either John or William has 
yet been discovered. 

So deeply did the elder branch of the family detest the 
proceedings of their cousin Oliver, the Lord Protector, 
that some of them dropped the very name of Cromwell, 
and reverted to the name of Williams. Sir Oliver's ex- 
treme liberality towards all, from King to peasant, com- 
pelled him to sell Hinchinbrook in 1627 to Sir Sidney 
Montague, an ancestor of the Earl of Sandwich ; and 
later on he had to part with Newport and Easton, in 
Essex, to Henry Maynard, Esq., an ancestor of the pre- 
sent Countess of Warwick, to whom Easton Park now 

1 6 The House of Cromwell. 

(1896) belongs. The exactions and oppressions, more- 
over, of the Republican party, directed against all rich 
Royalists, almost ruined old Sir Oliver and his sons, so 
that nearly all their estates had passed from their hands 
by the year 1675, when Ramsay became the property of 
Colonel Titus, author of the famous pamphlet entitled 
"Killing no Murder." 

Henry, the eldest son of Sir Oliver Cromwell, born in 
1586, took an active part on the Royalist side in the Great 
Rebellion, and in consequence his estate was sequestered 
by the Parliamentary Commissioners ; but his cousin 
Oliver, the Lord Protector, caused the fine to be remitted 
and the land to be restored to its owner. Henry sur- 
vived his father only two years, and died in 1657, leaving 
several daughters and one son, Henry. His eldest son, 
James, a Colonel in the Royalist army, had died before 
his father, without leaving, so far as is known, any issue. 
He fought on the Royalist side, and commanded a regi- 
ment of Cavaliers. His other son, Henry, born in 1625, 
succeeded to the family estate on the death of his father ; 
retook the name of Williams ; sat in several Parliaments 
as member for Huntingdonshire, and gave his vote in 1660 
for the restoration of Charles II. to the throne of his 
father. Notwithstanding the leniency shown to him by 
his cousin, the Lord Protector, so many demands had 
been made upon his patrimony that he died a poor man 
in 1673, leaving no son behind him, but a widow in pos- 
session of a very small jointure. The extensive estates, 
derived originally from the spoliation of the abbeys, had 
gradually passed from the hands of the Cromwells, who 
had been for a hundred years one of the most opulent and 
important families in Huntingdonshire. It will be noticed 
that the property had been acquired by a man who belonged 
to the Reformation party in the sixteenth century, and 
was lost by men who took the side of the Royalist party 
in the seventeenth century. 

The House of Cromwell. 17 

Though the elder branch of the family thus disappeared, 
there remained numerous representatives of the name, 
sprung from the three other sons of Sir Henry, " the 
Golden Knight," namely, Robert, Henry, and Philip. 
Moreover, the Rev. Mark Noble, in his " Memoirs of the 
House of Cromwell," published in 1787 (vol. i., p. 81), 
expressed an opinion that from Francis, the brother of 
" the Golden Knight," a family descended, who bore the 
name of Cromwell, alias Williams, and possessed property 
both in Huntingdonshire and Glamorganshire. Noble 
expresses himself very positively, saying, " It appears to 
me almost certain to a demonstration that these are the 
descendants of Francis Cromwell, Esq., the younger son 
of Sir Richard." From this family it is quite possible 
that some of those who bear the name of Cromwell at the 
present day may have descended, although the genealogical 
line cannot now be distinctly traced. 

From Robert, the second son of Sir Henry, "the Golden 
Knight," sprang Oliver, the Lord Protector, born in St. 
John's parish, Huntingdon, on April 25, 1599, and 
baptized in the parish church on the 29th day of the 
same month, receiving his name from his uncle and god- 
father, Sir Oliver, of Hinchinbrook. Into the history of 
that most remarkable man, who was at once one of the 
ablest statesmen and one of the most daring, skilful, and 
successful generals that have ever sprung from the Anglo- 
Saxon race, it is not intended fully to enter. From the 
time when he entered Parliament, in 1640, to the day of 
his death, September 3, 1658, his history forms an im- 
portant part of the history of England. During those 
eighteen eventful years he plstyed a conspicuous part — 
hated and feared by thousands, and admired, almost 
adored, by at least an equal number. He received his 
early education at the grammar-school of his native town, 
and in April, 1616, he entered as an undergraduate at 
Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge. Upon the death of 

The House of Cromwell. 

his father, in 1617, he went to study law at Lincoln's Inn, 
and the most damaging stories were told in after-years by 
his political enemies respecting this portion of his life. 
" If his professed enemies be credited," says Noble, " it 
will appear he had no guard whatever upon his actions at 
this period." But we cannot believe all that his professed 
enemies said about him. When his father died, Oliver 
was only eighteen years of age. At twenty-one he was 
married in St. Giles's Church, Cripplegate — the church 
where John Milton was buried. In 1628 he was sent to 
Parliament as member for the borough of Huntingdon. 
In 1631 he sold all his property in Huntingdon, and went 
to St. Ives, where he resided upon a farm till 1636, when 
he took up his residence at Ely, and farmed some land 
which had been recently bequeathed to him by his maternal 
uncle, Sir Thomas Steward. There he continued to reside 
in a house adjoining St. Mary's Church till 1647, and he 
seems to have taken an active part in the management of 
local affairs and charities. In 1640 he took his seat in the 
famous Long Parliament as member for Cambridge, and 
then began the long and bitter struggle between King and 

The history of that fierce struggle, as already remarked, 
belongs to the general history of England, and does not 
enter into the plan of this book. The foregoing pages 
have been written with the object of placing before the 
reader a succinct account of the House of Cromwell, so far 
as is known, from the year 1308 to the opening of the 
great Civil War of the seventeenth century. In the suc- 
ceeding pages will be found a genealogical account of the 
descendants of Oliver, the Lord Protector, followed by an 
account of the male descendants of his uncles, Henry and 



OLIVER CROMWELL, the only surviving son 
of Mr. Robert Cromwell, of Huntingdon, and 
Elizabeth Steward, of Ely, was born at Hunt- 
ingdon, April 25, 1599, and christened in the 
parish church of St. John, receiving his baptismal name 
from his uncle and godfather, Sir Oliver Cromwell, of 
Hinchinbrook, Knight. On August 22, 1620, he was married 
at St. Giles's Church, Cripplegate, London, to Elizabeth, 
daughter of Sir James Bourchier, of Felsted, in Essex, 
Knight, and had issue five sons and four daughters, namely : 

Robert, baptized at Huntingdon, October 13, 1621 ; 
buried at Felsted, May 31, 1639. 

Oliver, baptized at Huntingdon, February 6, 1623 ; died 
of small-pox, 1644. 

Richard, who succeeded his father in the Protectorate, 
born at Huntingdon, October 4, 1626 ; died at Cheshunt, 
July 12, 1712. 

Henry, Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, born at Huntingdon, 
January 20, 1628 ; died at Spinney Abbey, March 23, 

James, baptized at Huntingdon, January S, 1632 ; died 
in infancy. 

20 The House of Cromwell. 

Bridget, baptized at Huntingdon, August 4, 1624 ; 
buried at St. Anne's, Blackfriars, July 1, 1662. 

Elizabeth, christened at Huntingdon, July 2, 1629 ; 
died at Hampton Court, August 6, 1658. 

Mary, born at Ely, christened at Huntingdon, Feb- 
ruary 9, 1637 ; died at Chiswick, March 14, 1713. 

Frances, christened at St. Mary's, Ely, December 6, 
1638 ; died [at Spinney Abbey ?] January 27, 1721. 

Note.— In the above list, and in all subsequent dates throughout this work, 
the year will be treated as commencing, not (as was the practice in England 
at the Civil War period) on March 25, but on January 1. 


The scurrilous literature which at the period of the 
Restoration found a victim in the quiet, dignified Lady 
Protectress is beneath notice. She was not without 
annoyance from the Government itself. Even before the 
King's return the newspapers were charging her with 
secreting sundry goods at a fruiterer's warehouse near 
the Three Cranes in Thames Street, including pictures and 
other royal property, with a view to exportation. And a 
few weeks later a search-warrant was issued, directing her 
and her sons to deliver up various deeds and evidences 
belonging to the Marquis of Worcester. These tribula- 
tions drew from her the following petition : 

" To the King's Most Excellent Majesty. 

"The humble petition of Elizabeth Cromwell, widow, — 
Sheweth, that among the many sorrows wherewith it hath 
pleased the allwise God to exercise your petitioner, she is 
deeply sensible of those unjust imputations whereby she 
is charged of detaining jewels and other goods belonging 
to your Majesty ; which, besides the disrepute of it, hath 
exposed her to many violences and losses under pretence 
of searching for such goods, to the undoing of her in her 

Oliver, Lord Protector. 21 

estate, and rendering her abode in any place unsafe ; — 
she being willing to depose upon oath that she neither 
hath nor knows of any such jewels or goods. And 
whereas she is able to make it appear by sufficient testi- 
mony that she hath never intermeddled in any of those 
public transactions which have been prejudicial to your 
Majesty's royal father or yourself, and is ready to yield 
an humble and faithful obedience to your Majesty in 
your government, — She therefore humbly prays that your 
Majesty would be pleased to distinguish betwixt the con- 
cernments of your petitioner and those of her relations 
who have been obnoxious ; and out of your princely 
goodness vouchsafe her a protection, without which she 
cannot expect, now in her old age, a safe retirement in 
any place of your Majesty's dominions. And she shall 
ever pray, etc. „ £ Cromwell." 

This document is endorsed, " The petition of Old Noll's 
Wife." As to the venerable lady's whereabouts during 
this revolution of things, we have but scanty evidence. 
She had been ordered to quit the Cockpit soon after her 
son Richard's abdication ; and we can hardly doubt that 
Henry, whose return from Ireland she was anxiously 
soliciting, now took her under his protection. Just 
before the King's arrival, Henry Coventry, writing to the 
Marquis of Ormond, April 27, says : " Cromwell's widow 
is stolen out of town, and her nighest friends pretend not 
to know whither." It has been asserted that for awhile 
she sought retirement in Wales, and even in Switzerland. 
All we know for certain is that she eventually found a 
permanent asylum at Northborough House in North- 
amptonshire, near Market Deeping, the residence of her 
son-in-law Claypole (still standing as a farmhouse), and 
that there she died on November 19, 1665. Further par- 
ticulars respecting her latter days will occur in the lives 
of her children, Richard, Mary, and Frances. 

J^j., -,-.». a:-, -"s,?-yr»'^r?r;^"",T, ,-':.. ■\;^^^', 7 .- 7 ^^ rgg i I -y :i -,- i . j -- ? . 



ROBERT was sent, together with his brother 
Oliver, and perhaps also with Richard, to the 
free grammar-school of Felsted, then under the 
management of Mr. Holbeach. This school, 
which had been founded by Lord Rich in 1564, was then 
in considerable repute. Drs. John Wallis and Isaac 
Barrow are said to have received their early education 
there. But what principally recommended the place to 
the judgment of Oliver was, no doubt, the circumstance 
that his sons would there be under the watchful observa- 
tion of their maternal grandfather, Sir James Bourchier, 
whose seat, Grandcourts, was in the same parish on the 
road between Braintree and Felsted. Other neighbouring 
friends and relatives were the Mashams of Otes. The few 
scanty notices of this Robert, who was evidently a son 
after the father's heart, are of a very interesting character. 
The first occurs in 1638. Cromwell had been making a 
brief stoppage at Otes, where his cousin, Mrs. St. John, 
happened also to be paying a visit. Perhaps, as Mr. 
Carlyle suggests, he may have been taking one of his sons 
over to Felsted School, and on returning home took occa- 
sion to ride round by way of Otes and have a talk with his 

Robert, Eldest Son of the Protector. 23 

pious kinsmen. The discourse passing at that interview 
had evidently been of a devotional character ; so Mrs. St. 
John reminds him in a subsequent letter. Cromwell's reply 
to her is one of his most characteristic epistles ; but the 
only use we need make of it here is to quote the reference 
it contains to one of his sons, presumably Robert: "Salute 
all my friends in that family whereof you are yet a member. 
I am much bound unto them for their love, I bless the 
Lord for them, and that my son by their procurement is 
so well. Let him have your prayers, your counsel ; let 
me have them." 

Seven months later this Robert died at Felsted,* of 
small-pox, to the unspeakable grief of his father. It was 
to this event he alluded on his death-bed, when he said, 
"This text" ["I can do all things through Christ who 
strengthened me"] "did once save my life, when my eldest 
son died ; which went as a dagger to my heart ; indeed it 
did." It was long supposed that the son thus alluded to 
was young Oliver, who fought by his father's side ; and 
under this impression Mr. Carlyle inserted the name hypo- 
thetically into that colloquy, thus : " when my eldest son 
[poor Oliver] died " — which Monsieur Guizot copying, 
but failing to mark the doubt, introduced as " mon pauvre 
Olivier " into his own text, thus treating it as an un- 
questionable fact. The error had no doubt acquired con- 
firmation from a passage in the father's letter of condolence 
to his brother-in-law, Valentine Wauton, who lost a son 
at Marston Moor. " Sir," says he, " you know my own 
trials this way " ; and then soon after, recalling his 
favourite text, he adds, " You may do all things by the 
strength of Christ. Seek that, and you shall easily bear 
your trial." He had himself, in fact, just been compelled 
to put to the test the principle here recommended to his 

* The old schoolroom, in which Oliver's sons were taught by Mr. Holbeach, 
still stands, and now is used as the Sunday-school. The names of many 
scholars are cut into the old oak wainscot. 

24 The House of Cromwell. 

brother. It is now fully confirmed that Robert, and not 
Oliver, was the son whose premature death rose to his 
memory in the hour of his own closing conflict. The 
discovery of this interesting fact is due to a writer in the 
Edinburgh Review, January, 1856, whose narrative is as 
follows : " In the register of burials in the parish church 
of Felsted for 1639 occurs this entry : 

" Robertus Cromwell Alius honorandi viri Militis Oliveris 
Cromwell et Elizabeths uxoris ejus sepultus fuit, 31 die 
Maii. Et Robertus fuit eximie pius juvenis Deum timens 
supra multos." 



OLIVER accompanied his brother Robert, as stated 
above, to Felsted School. On the breaking out 
of hostilities, that brother having recently died, 
Oliver was the only one of the sons old enough 
to bear arms, and he could not have been more than 
twenty when his name appears as Cornet in Troop Eight 
of Earl Bedford's Horse. Very few traces of his military 
career survive, except in the form of a reference to him 
occurring in Simon Gunton's " History of Peterborough." 
In that chronicle the elder Cromwell is represented, ac- 
cording to the usual custom of ignorant church-guides, 
as having been engaged in the mutilation of the cathedral. 
Young Oliver's share in the transaction becomes visible 
through the medium of one of his troopers, who, being 
about to burn a manuscript relating to the antiquities of 
the see, was persuaded by Mr. Humphrey Austin, the 
precentor, to surrender it for the sum of ios., and to 
ensure its preservation by subscribing an acquittance on 
the fly-leaf, which Mr. Austin thereupon prefaced by the 
following "Memorandtn. — This book was hid in the Church 
by me, Humphrey Austin, February, 1643, and found by 
one of Colonel Cromwell's soldiers when they pulled down 

26 The House of Cromwell. 

all the seats in the Choir, 22 April, 1643. And I making 
inquiry among them for an old Latin Bible which was 
lost, I found out at last the party who had it, and I gave 
him for the book ten shillings, as you see by this acquit- 
tance " [here following]. 

" I pray let this scripture book alone, for he hath paid 
me for it, and therefore I would desire you to let it alone. 
By me Henry Topcliffe, soldier under Captain Cromwell, 
Colonel Cromwell's son. Therefore I pray you let it alone. 
Henry Topcliffe. 22 April, 1643." 

The book thus rescued was entitled, " The Leger-book 
of Peterborough," being the annals of the see, compiled 
by a monk of the establishment named Robert Swapham. 
We know full well that the Cromwell family, wherever they 
could make their influence felt throughout the war, rigor- 
ously discountenanced violations of this kind ; and a letter 
of the younger Oliver turns up at this very date to corro- 
borate the fact. 

" To the right worshipful and worthy friend Samuel Smythe, 
Esq., Steward of the City of Norwich. 

" Worthy Sir, 

" I am sorry that I should have such an occasion 
to write to Norwich, concerning those which say they 
came from that noble city which hath furnished our armies 
(I can speak by experience) with godly men ; but indeed 
I suppose them rather spurious offspring of some ignoble 
place. Sir, thus it is, that among honest men, some 
knaves have been admitted into my troop, who coming 
with expectation of some base ends but being frustrated 
of them, and finding that this cause did not nourish their 
expectations, have to the dishonour of God, and my dis- 
credit, and their own infamy, deserted the cause and me 
their captain. Therefore, Sir, look upon them as dis- 
honourers of God's cause, and high displeasers of my 

Oliver, Second Son of the Protector. 27 

father, myself, and the whole regiment. In brief, I would 
desire you to make them severe examples, by taking and 
returning the arms and horses of all that have not a ticket 
under my hand, and to clap them up into prison, and 
inflicting of such punishment as you shall think fit. Es- 
pecially I desire that you would deal severely with one 
Robert Waffe [Wasse ?] and Simon Scafe. Pray, Sir, 
cause to return speedily all that had liberty from me to go 
to their friends. And likewise I desire you would secure 
a good horse from some of your malignants to mount one 
of my soldiers, John Manning, now at Norwich, who was 
lately taken prisoner by the enemy and by that means 
destitute. And pray do me the favour to mount such men 
as this bearer, Richard Waddelow, my clerk, shall procure. 
And so I rest, 

" Yours to command, 

" Oliver Cromwell. 

" From my quarters at Peterborough, 
"15 Aug. 1643." 

Young Oliver died of small-pox at Newport Pagnell in 
the second week of March, 1644. He was a very hand- 
some young gentleman, says the author of the memoir 
of Richard Cromwell in " Lives and Characters of Illus- 
trious Persons dying in 171 1." " His father had suddenly 
summoned him to join the army, and he soon after fell a 
victim to that complaint in the flower of his youth." In 
opposition to the quite apocryphal statement contained in 
the " Squire Papers," the occasion and whereabouts of 
his death is authoritatively established by a passage in 
the Parliament Scout, March 15 to 22, 1644 : " Colonel 
Cromwell is gone with his forces from Burlingham to 
Stony Stratford and Brickhill, and begins to increase in 
power. He hath lost his eldest son, who is dead of the 
small-pox at Newport [Newport Pagnell], a civil young 
gentleman, and the joy of his father." 



LIKE his two elder brothers, Richard was sent to 
Felsted School ; after which he resided in the 
^j Temple in London during the war, and at the 
age of twenty was admitted to the Society of 
Lincoln's Inn. The Protectorate of Great Britain and 
Ireland, into which he was installed on the death of his 
father, was a troublous reign of eight months, the story 
of which would be unsuitable in this place. At the 
Restoration he fled the kingdom, more out of fear of his 
creditors than of the King, leaving his wife and children 
behind him at Hursley Lodge, near Romsey, in Hants. 
After twenty years' residence abroad in Paris and else- 
where, he returned to England in 1680 — a period when the 
increasing unpopularity of Charles II. divested such a step 
of any great danger — and, under the assumed name of 
Clarke, either occupied a small estate which he owned at 
Cheshunt, or shared the roof of his friend, Serjeant Sir 
Thomas Pengelly (afterwards Chief Baron of the Ex- 
chequer), whose house was that standing near Cheshunt 
Church, and subsequently known as the Rectory.* His 

* Pengelly House in modern times became the property of a gentleman 
named Atwood, who bequeathed it for charitable purposes. It was subse- 
quently used as a school. In l88oit was destroyed by fire ; estimated damage, 

Richard, Third Son of the Protector. 29 

wife had been dead five years ; his only surviving son 
was in possession of large property derived from her ; and 
of his daughters, one was already married to Dr. Gibson 
(of whom hereafter) ; another was perhaps still living at 
Hursley; and a third, Dorothy, just then nineteen years 
of age, was on the point of becoming the wife of John 
Mortimer, a Somersetshire squire. Richard's return to 
England at this juncture favours the suggestion that one 
of the objects he had in view was to be present at the 
ceremony. The young lady died the following year in 
childbed. There were now only two daughters and one 
son, Oliver, remaining out of a family of nine. This son 
died unmarried in 1705, when the question arose whether 
the Hursley estate which he inherited from his mother 
passed directly to his sisters as co-heirs, or to Richard 
their father for his life. The sisters proposed to compro- 
mise the affair by paying him an annuity ; but Richard, 
preferring that the matter should be decided in Chancery, 
obtained a decree in his own favour. 

This affair being settled, Richard appears to have spent 
a considerable portion of the remaining seven years of 
his life at Hursley, where in company with his daughters 
he attended the parish church on Sunday mornings, and 
in the afternoon rode alone in his coach to a Baptist 
meeting-house in Romsey. He died at Cheshunt July 12, 
1712, and lies buried in the chancel of Hursley Church. 
His death is said to have taken place in the house of 
his Cheshunt friend, Pengelly, above mentioned, the 
counsel who had successfully conducted his cause in 
1705, and to whom he was strongly attached. In his 
will he bequeaths a personal souvenir to his good friend 
Mrs. Rachel Pengelly. Some other names, too, are 
mentioned, but his daughters are not referred to. He 
knew that they would take the Hursley estate after him, 
and of personal property he probably had but little. He 
enjoyed, we are told, a good state of health to the last, 

3<D The House of Cromwell. 

and at fourscore would gallop his horse for several miles 
together. In person he is described as tall, fair-haired, 
and " the lively image of his father." A letter of T. 
Whiston, quoted by Mark Noble, asserts that the Crom- 
wells as a family possessed great bodily strength, and 
were of robust constitutions, many of them attaining 
considerable longevity. On the other hand, it is observable 
how many of them died in infancy, but this may have 
been owing to the ignorant medical treatment of those 

As to his character, Richard has shared in the defa- 
mation which, more or less, overtook all the members of 
his family. He is now known to have been an upright, 
generous, and sagacious man — fully aware that the turbu- 
lent crew around him when he became Protector had 
made peace impossible, but resolving at the same time not 
to shed a drop of blood in defence of a false position. A 
humane temper is not necessarily a weakness; and cer- 
tainly John Howe, who knew him well, did not deem 
him a weak man. On one occasion in after-years, when 
some person in Mr. Howe's presence charged the ex- 
Protector with weakness, the venerable divine exclaimed : 
" How could that man be termed weak who, when the 
army remonstrance was brought to him by Fleetwood, 
stood it out all night against the whole Council, and 
continued the debate till four o'clock in the morning, 
maintaining that to dissolve that Parliament would be 
his and their ruin — with none but Thurloe to abet him ?" 
Dr. Isaac Watts, who in his youthful days was privileged 
to hold many conversations with Richard Cromwell, 
testifies that his abilities were by no means contemptible. 
He further remarks that in all these interviews, the ex- 
Protector never but on one occasion referred to his former 
elevation, and then only in a very cursory manner. 
Another favourable witness was William Tonge, of 
Denmark Street, Soho, who described to Dr. Thomas 

Richard, Third Son of the Protector. 3 1 

Gibbons Richard's occasional visits to some friends there, 
his appearance in a place of worship, his unblemished 
character, and the pleasantry which characterized his talk. 
He corroborates Watts's remark about his unwillingness 
to refer to former times. 

John Howe, the divine above mentioned, who had 
been chaplain in succession to both the Protectors, died 
in London in 1702. He was visited in his last sickness 
by Richard Cromwell, then seventy-six years of age, who, 
hearing that his old friend was near his end, had come 
up from the country to make him a respectful visit and 
to take a final farewell. Much serious discourse, we are 
told, passed between the two patriarchal men, and their 
parting was solemn and affectionate. When Richard's 
own end was approaching, some few years later, he said 
to his two attendant daughters, " Live in love ; I am 
going to the God of love." His affectionate disposition 
is revealed in the following letter, written to one of these 
daughters from the house of his friend, Sir Thomas 
Pengelly, at Cheshunt, ten years after his return to 

Richard Cromwell to Mrs. Anne Gibson. 

"18 December, 1690. 


"Think not that I forget you, though I confess 
that I have been silent too long in returning and owning 
that of yours to me. That which was one bar, I knew 
not, upon Mrs. Abbott's removing, how to send so as my 
letter might come safe to you. For though we write 
nothing of State affairs, they being above our providential 
sphere, yet I am not willing to be exposed ; nor can there 
be that freedom when we are thoughtful of such restraint 
as a peeping eye. The hand by which this comes [to 
you] gave me a hint as if there were some foul play to 

32 The House of Cromwell. 

letters directed to him [to Pengelly ?] . Dear heart, I 
thank thee for thy kind and tender expressions to me, 
and I assure thee (if there had been cause) they would 
have melted me. There is a great deal of pity, piety, and 
love. What I had before, was so full that I had not the 
least room to turn a thought or surmise. But what shall 
I say ? My heart was full, but now it overflows. You 
have put joy and gladness into it. How unworthy am I 
to have such a child ! And I know I may venture to say 
that the like parallel is not to be found. What I said was 
experienced matter for information. What you replied 
was in behalf of those who professed themselves to be the 
Lord's people ; and they that are truly such are as tender 
as the apple of His eye. I rejoice in that we both of us 
love them ; yet we are not to deny our reasons as to the 
mischiefs some of them have been instrumental [in caus- 
ing] not only in particular to a family, but in general to 
the Church of Christ. Besides, what woes are hanging 
over these nations ! May we not go farther, and bring in 
all Christendom ? I have been alone thirty years banished 
and under silence ; and my strength and safety is to be 
retired, quiet and silent. We are foolish in taking our 
cause out of the hand of God. Our Saviour will plead, 
and God will do right [as] He hath promised. Let us 
join our prayers for faith and patience. If we have 
heaven, let whoso will, get the world. My hearty, hearty, 
hearty affection and love to your sister and self. Salute 
all friends. I rest, commending you to the blessing of the 
Almighty. Again farewell. 

" Your truly loving father, 

"R. C. 

" Present me to all friends. Landlord and Landlady 
[the Pengellys] present respects and service." 

Note. — In his extant letters he avoids names and places as much as possible, 
his object being to keep out of harm's way. 

Richard, Third Son of the Protector. $3 

The few incoherences visible in the above would pro- 
bably adjust themselves fairly enough, did we know the 
substance of the letter which brought them forth ; though 
it is not unlikely that an obscure and involved style would 
become habitual to one writing under the constant fear of 
having his letters opened ; to say nothing of his having 
spoken French for twenty years. 

The story of Richard's twenty years' exile is involved in 
much obscurity. The following document, preserved in 
the Record Office, may help in some small measure to 
remove it. It is numbered CLI. 17, State Papers, 
Domestic, Charles II., and was first brought before the 
public notice in the AthencBum, April 12, 1862, by Mrs. 
Everett Green, who opened the subject by stating that 
during the war with Holland the Government of 
Charles II., fancying that the English " fanatics " resident 
abroad were in league with the Provinces against their 
own country, came to the resolution of fetching them 
home by a threat of high treason. An Act was thereupon 
passed, beginning with the direct attainder of three, to 
wit, Thomas Dolman, James Bampfield, and Thomas 
Scott ; and further enacting that any others who should 
refuse to come when summoned would incur the like 
penalty. This was in 1665, and the next year it became 
known that a list of fugitives had been nominated, 
including Richard Cromwell. Mrs. Cromwell, his wife, 
becoming justly alarmed, sent her agent, William Mum- 
ford, twice up to London to procure, if possible, the 
withdrawal of her husband's name from the proclamation. 
As the opportunity seemed a favourable one for getting at 
the personal history of the ex-Protector, the agent himself 
was put under examination, and deposed as follows : 

"The examination of William Mumford of Hursley 
near Winchester Co. Hants, yeoman ; taken this 15 March, 
1666, before me Edmund Warcupp Esq. one of his 


34 The House of Cromwell. 

Majesty's Justices of the peace for the said county and 
liberties. This examinant saith that he is menial servant 
to Mrs. Dorothy Cromwell, wife to Richard Cromwell, 
living at Hursley ; and hath belonged to him and to her 
these eleven years last past, and now manageth Mrs. 
Cromwell's business in the country or London as her 
occasions require. He saith that he came to London 
about five weeks since to apply to Dr. Wilkins to move 
my Lord Chancellor [Hyde] that Richard Cromwell's 
name might be omitted in his Majesty's Proclamation to 
call his English subjects out of France, for that his debts 
would ruin him in case he should be necessitated to 
return into England ; and Dr. Wilkins informed this 
examinant that his lordship the Lord Chancellor told him 
he knew not of Richard Cromwell's name being at all 
put into the proclamation, whereupon this examinant 
immediately returned into the country. But the rumour 
continuing that Richard Cromwell's name would be in, 
he returned again to London by his mistress's order yes- 
terday was three weeks, and then lodged at one William 
Taste's a baker in Air Street, Piccadilly, and his horse 
stands at the Bear there ; — that at the first time of this 
examinant's being in town he received a letter from 
Richard Cromwell directed to himself but was for Mrs. 
Cromwell, the contents whereof was complaints for money 
and condoling for his mother's death ; and saith he 
knoweth not of any other person, that Richard Cromwell 
correspondeth with, but this examinant. He further saith, 
that this examinant's wife's sister Elizabeth Blackstone 
having by distraction murdered her neighbour's child and 
been committed to Newgate for the offence, this exam- 
inant repaired to Newgate to assist her in her distracted 
condition, and this was all the reason why he went to 
Newgate. He further saith, that as far as he knows or 
believes, the said Richard Cromwell doth not hold any 
intelligence with any Fanatics nor with the King of France 

Richard, Third Son of the Protector. 35 

or States of Holland ; and that to avoid any jealousy of 
it, the said Richard Cromwell is by Dr. Wilkins' advice 
gone or going into Italy or Spain, and that the last letter 
this examinant sent to him five weeks since was directed 
to John Clarke at Monsieur Bauvais' in Paris, by which 
name the said Richard Cromwell now passeth, and doth 
usually change his name with his dwelling, that he may 
keep himself unknown beyond the seas, so as to avoid 
all correspondency or intelligence, which this examinant 
knows he industriously avoideth ; for during last winter 
twelve month he lived with the said Richard Cromwell in 
Paris, and the whole diversion of him there was drawing 
of landscapes and reading of books ; And he saw no 
Englishman, Scotch, or Irishman in his company during 
that whole time, nor any Frenchmen but such as in- 
structed him in the sciences. This examinant further 
saith that he hath not any intelligence with any person 
whatsoever to his knowledge, that doth intend or act 
anything whatsoever against his Majesty ; and that he 
conceives himself bound in duty and conscience to dis- 
cover all traitors or traitorous conspiracies against his 
Majesty or his Government ; and that the estate of 
Richard Cromwell in right of his wife is but £600 per 
annum, and that he knoweth Richard Cromwell is not 
sixpence the better or richer for being the son of his 
father, or [for being] the pretended Protector of England ; 
and that the estate of old Mrs. Cromwell lately deceased 
was in the hands and management of Jeremy White, 
chaplain to Oliver Cromwell, and now at Sir John 
Russell's at Chippenham, who will not come to any 
account for the same, and who hath not yet conformed. 
This examinant further saith, that he knoweth not of any 
person who writes to the said Richard besides this exam- 
inant and Mrs. Cromwell his wife ; and that he knoweth 
not nor ever heard, that the Scotch regiment is coming 
out of France ; and he is certain that the said Richard 


2,6 The House of Cromwell. 

never intended to come over with it, but is gone or going 
into Spain or Italy as advised. He further saith, that he 
hath often heard Richard Cromwell pray in his private 
prayers for his Majesty, praying God to make his Majesty 
a nursing father to his people, speaking often with great 
reverence of his Majesty's grace and favour to himself and 
family in suffering them to enjoy their lives and the little 
fortunes they have ; And this examinant further saith that 
he will not meddle any further in the said Richard Crom- 
well's affairs, if it be any way prejudicial to his Majesty's 
service ; and that he hath not, nor the said Richard 
Cromwell, to this examinant's knowledge, acted directly 
or indirectly anything against his Majesty's Government 
since his Majesty's happy restoration, and that himself 
hath taken the Oaths of allegiance and supremacy. And 
further sayeth not. 

" William Mumford. 

" (Signed) Edmund Warcupp." 

The falsity of Hyde's statement that Richard Crom- 
well's name was not in the list is proved by another 
paper endorsed " 26 March, 1666, Names of the fourteen 
persons to be warned home by a proclamation in pursu- 
ance of the Act." They were as follows : William Scott, 
Sir Robert Honeywood, jun., Colonel John Disbrowe, 
Colonel Kilpatrick, John Grove, Algernon Sydney, Oliver 
St. John, Richard Steele, Newcomen and Hickman, two 
ministers, Richard Cromwell, John Phelps, Colonel 
Cobbett, Richard Deane. On maturer consideration, all 
these names were withdrawn except five, Richard Crom- 
well's being one of those withdrawn. 

Richard, Third Son of the Protector. 


Richard's wife, whom he married in 1649, shortly after 
the death of Charles I., was Dorothy, eldest daughter and 
co-heir of Richard Major, a wealthy landowner of Hursley 
aforesaid, and of Merdon, in Surrey. This was a marriage 
in which the elder Protector testified unqualified satisfac- 
tion, on account of the personal piety, not only of the 
father, but also of " Dear Doll " herself; and the allusions 
which he makes in his letters to her on-coming family 
look as though he cherished the hope that his grand- 
children would sustain his own greatness. The few sur- 
viving memorials of the lady herself represent her as a 
prudent, godly, and practical Christian, much devoted to 
acts of personal charity. For a while she was terribly 
cast down by the reverse of fortune which drove her hus- 
band and herself from the palace of Whitehall to the 
obscurity of the Hursley retreat, an event aggravated 
simultaneously by the decease of her father, Mr. Major, 
and the flight of her husband into prolonged exile. It is 
true, she had her infant family to rear, the birth of her 
youngest child, Dorothy, occurring just as her husband 
left the English shore ; but her bright hopes in respect of 
their future fortunes were utterly dashed, and the chagrin 
which darkened her own reflections seems traceable in 
their education. One result of affliction was the strengthen- 
ing of her Nonconformist principles, and her active bene- 
volence thenceforward found expression in endeavours to 
solace and protect divers ministers ejected by the Uni- 
formity Act of 1662. She died on January 5, 1676, in the 
forty-ninth year of her age, and lies buried in the chancel 
of Hursley Church. Her children, nine in number, were 
as follow-; : 

I. Elizabeth, born in 1650. This is "the little brat" 

38 The House of Cromwell. 

after whose welfare the elder Protector makes inquiry in 
a letter to Mr. Major on July 17, wherein also he chides 
the young parents for neglecting to write to him, and says 
of dear Doll, "I doubt not her husband hath spoiled her. 
... I hope you give my son good counsel : I believe he 
needs it ; he is in the dangerous time of his age, and it's 
a very vain world." Touching the baby, Mr. Carlyle 
thinks " the poor little thing must have died soon," and 
he adds that " in Noble's inexact lists there is no trace of 
its ever having lived." But Mark Noble is strictly exact 
in this matter, and gives us all the information we need. 
Oliver's good wishes, too, were amply fulfilled, for the 
little Elizabeth outlived all her brothers and sisters, and 
reached the age of eighty-one. She appointed as executors 
Richard and Thomas Cromwell, grandsons of Henry, 
Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, desiring them to erect in 
Hursley Church a monument setting forth all the par- 
ticulars of the Cromwell and Major alliances, a task which 
they duteously fulfilled. And as she was the last surviving 
representative of her father's house, a vast collection of 
portraits, letters, and other family relics, descended from 
her to her executors. She will again come under our 

II. Anne, born in 1651 ; died in infancy, and was 
buried at Hursley. 

III. A son, baptized at Hursley November 3, 1652 ; 
buried there in the following month. 

IV. Mary, born in 1654, died in infancy ; buried at 

V. A fourth daughter, born in 1655, lived only twelve 

VI. Oliver, son and heir, of whom hereafter (p. 41). 

VII. Dorothy, born in 1657; died next year during 
the Protectorate of her father, who prudently refrained 
from opening the Westminster Abbey vault, and caused 
the body to be quietly buried at Hursley. 

Richard, Third Son of the Protector. 39 

VIII. Anna, born in 1659 during her father's Pro- 
tectorate. She became the wife of Dr. Thomas Gibson, 
Physician-General of the Army, whom she survived many 
years. Her own death occurred in 1727, in the sixty- 
ninth year of her age, and a marble monument in St. 
George's Chapel in the Foundling Hospital commemo- 
rates husband and wife. Dr. Gibson by will appointed 
that after his wife's decease the whole of his property 
should pass to his nephew, Dr. Edmund Gibson, Bishop 
of London. The prelate maintained a respectful and 
intimate correspondence with his widowed aunt so long 
as she lived, and it is conjectured that the terse and com- 
prehensive Life of Oliver, which about that period went 
through so many editions, was the result of his honourable 
and appreciative attachment to the family. The two 
surviving sisters — that is to say, Mrs. Gibson and her 
elder sister, Miss Elizabeth Cromwell — lived together in 
Bedford Row, and after the death of their only brother, 
Oliver, must have been very wealthy. We catch an inter- 
esting glimpse of them in 1719 from the journal of 
Thomas Hearne, the antiquary, who long resided in St. 
Edmund Hall, Oxford : " On Saturday, 5 September, 
came to Oxford two daughters of Richard Cromwell, son 
of Oliver Cromwell, Protector, one of whom is married to 
Dr. Gibson, the physician, who wrote 'The Anatomy'; 
the other is unmarried. They are both Presbyterians, as 
is also Dr. Gibson, who was with them. They were at 
the Presbyterian Meeting-house in Oxford on Sunday 
morning and evening ; and yesterday they and all the 
gang with them dined at Dr. Gibson's, the Provost of 
Queen's, who is related to them, and made a great enter- 
tainment for them, expecting something from them, the 
physician being said to be worth £30,000. They went 
from Oxford after dinner." — (" Reliquiae Hearneanae," 
vol. ii.) 

Mr. Hewling Luson (related to Henry's line), of whom 

40 The House of Cromwell. 

more hereafter, says : "I have been several times in com- 
pany with these ladies. They were well-bred, well- 
dressed, stately women, exactly punctilious ; but they 
seemed, especially Mistress Cromwell, to carry about 
them a consciousness of high rank, accompanied with a 
secret dread that those with whom they conversed should 
not observe and acknowledge it. They had neither the 
good sense nor the great enthusiasm of Mrs. Bendysh. 
But as the daughter of Ireton had dignity without pride, 
the daughters of Richard Cromwell had pride without 
much dignity." 

Mr. Luson might have added that they habitually 
assisted other branches of the family who were in less 
prosperous circumstances than themselves. When the 
death of their father had left these two ladies at liberty to 
dispose of the family estate at Hursley, they sold it to Sir 
William Heathcote for £34,000 or £35,000, who at once 
proceeded to pull down the old mansion, and to rebuild it 
from the very foundations. In 1894 the Hursley estate 
passed from the Heathcote family into the possession of 
Mr. Baxendale. 

IX. Dorothy, born at Hursley, August 1, 1660. The 
date of her father's flight from England has been approxi- 
mately determined by Mark Noble as in July or August — 
that is to say, some few weeks after King Charles II. 's 
return, and it seems reasonable to suppose that his object 
in lingering here so long was to await the issue of this the 
last birth in the family, and, as it proved to be a girl, to 
give for the second time the beloved name of Dorothy, 
which conjecture may be coupled with the other already 
made, that his return to England in 1680 was in part 
prompted by the resolution to occupy his paternal place 
at her wedding. The young lady married John Mor- 
timer, Esq., of Somersetshire, F.R.S., author of " The 
Whole Art of Husbandry," published in 1708. He is said 
to have half ruined himself by experiments in agricultural 

Richard, Third Son of the Protector. 4 1 

science ; but before this happened his wife had died in 
child-bed within a year after her marriage. This was on 
May 14, 16S1. Dorothy therefore is not to be credited 
with any share in that transaction of her sisters when 
they disputed their father's rights in 1705. 

Oliver Cromwell, only surviving son of the Protector 
Richard, was born at Hursley in 1656. It was very 
natural that the elder Protector, after hearing of so 
many deaths among his grandchildren at Hursley, should 
express a partiality for one who at last gave fair promise 
of healthy existence. Little Oliver accordingly was 
brought up from Hampshire, probably to Hampton Court, 
and remained there till the deposition of his father, when, 
together with his sisters, he was sent down to Hursley. 
Of his early manhood little is known ; but at the period 
of the Revolution in 1688, being then in possession of the 
estate, which he inherited from his mother, he came 
forward with a patriotic proposal to raise a regiment of 
horse for service in Ireland, if he might be permitted to 
name his own officers. The politic William may have 
had no desire at that juncture of affairs to see a rival for 
popularity in the person of a second Oliver Cromwell, 
and the offer was declined. It was a like cautious feeling, 
perhaps, which gave bias to the Election Committee, who 
in the second year of William and Mary rejected the petition 
of Oliver Cromwell and Thomas Jervoise, Esquires, when 
they claimed to have been legally returned for the borough 
of Lymington. It is well known that the contested elec- 
tions, whose details crowd the Commons' Journals of that 
and the succeeding age, were often made to turn on 
arbitrary, diverse, and obsolete customs prevailing in this 
or that borough ; so that, as the law of one borough was 
no law for its neighbour, the returns could be adjusted 
pretty much as the Government desired. 

Mr. Say, the Dissenting minister, to whom we are 
indebted for so many reminiscences of the family, says 


The House of Cromwell. 

he had seen this Mr. Cromwell, and could testify that he 
had something of the spirit of his grandfather ; while 
another contemporary writer adds that "he had his look 
and genius." But notwithstanding that, like his own 
father, he presented the marks of robust manhood, he 
passed away prematurely in 1705 in the fiftieth year of 
his age, and was buried in the family vault at Hursley. 
His will, written in 1686, when thirty years old, makes 
mention of his " honoured father," but the principal 
money bequests are to his sisters, giving £2,000 to each, 
if they married in their father's lifetime. Legacies are 
also left to Benjamin Disbrowe of London, merchant, to 
Paris Slater and William Wightman of London, William 
Rudyard of Hackney, Edward Rayner and Mary his 
wife, John Leigh, Thomas Wade, his cousin Elizabeth 
Barton, his loving friend Samuel Tomlins, B.D., and 
Mrs. Anne Thomas. 



HENRY, like his brothers, received such brief 
education as the stormy times would permit, 
at Felsted. He joined his father in arms 
about the time of the remodelling of the army, 
being then only sixteen years of age ; and three years 
afterwards he held either a captaincy in Harrison's 
regiment or in Sir Thomas Fairfax's Life-Guards. In 
the summer of 1648 he served under his father in the 
North of England. Advanced to a colonelcy in February, 

1650, he accompanied his father in the short but decisive 
Irish campaign, being present at the death-bed of his 
brother-in-law, Henry Ireton, who died at Limerick in 

1651. At the age of twenty-five Henry sat in the Bare- 
bones Parliament in 1653 as a representative of Ireland. 
On May 10, 1653, he married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir 
Francis Russell of Chippenham, Bart., and on Feb- 
ruary 22 in the year following entered at Gray's Inn. His 
subsequent career as Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland brought 
to light all those faculties which proved him the worthy 
son of such a father. He remained at his post during the 
two Protectorates, having throughout a sore fight to 
maintain with fanatics of every class, but harassed prin- 

44 The House of Cromwell. 

cipally by the difficulty of getting the soldiers' pay from 
England. Rapin's observation, made after the event, 
has been accepted by most subsequent historians, namely, 
that if Henry had succeeded to the Protectorate instead 
of Richard, the Republican officers would have met their 

A strong attachment had sprung up between Henry 
Cromwell and his brother-in-law, Lord Fauconberg, even 
before they met. Henry and his wife were in Ireland at 
the time of Fauconberg's marriage with Mary Cromwell ; 
but from and after that event the letters passing between 
them were increasingly cordial and confidential. While 
their brother Fleetwood, in conjunction with Disbrowe, 
Lambert, Berry, and the rest, were plotting the fall of 
the Protector Richard, Fauconberg supplied Henry with 
constant information, and both united in scorn for the 
fanaticism which in Fleetwood they felt to be but the 
feeble resurrection of an obsolete creed — the theory, as 
Henry formulated it, of " Dominion founded in Grace." 
At the Restoration, Henry retired to the home of his 
father-in-law, Sir Francis Russell, at Chippenham, in 
Cambridgeshire, there to await the outcome of the 
political chaos. After a residence of five or six years at 
Chippenham, he removed to his own estate at Spinney 
Abbey near Soham, worth about £500 or £600 a year, 
which he purchased in 1661, where in rural occupations he 
passed the remaining nine years of his life. He died on 
March 23, 1674, of that painful disorder, the stone, in the 
forty-seventh year of his age, and was buried at Wicken 
Church, in Cambridge. Though he is styled plain " Henry 
Cromwell " on his tomb, yet in his will he writes himself 
" Sir Henry Cromwell of Spinney in Cambridgeshire, 
Knight," being not unwilling, suggests Noble, to let the 
world know, when he could not be called to account for 
it, that he thought it an honour to have received knight- 
hood from his father. He had also been made one of the 

Henry, FourtJi Son of the Protector. 45 

Lords of the Upper House in 1657, but his work in 
Ireland prevented his sitting. In his will he mentions 
only two names, those of his wife and his eldest son 
Oliver, to the former of whom he devises all his estates in 
England and Ireland with absolute power of disposal. 

The lands of Cromwell in Mcath and Connaught were 
confirmed to his trustees by special proviso of the Act of 
Settlement, but his family seems to have lost them in the 
next generation. 

It may not be left untold that after his retirement into 
private life he conformed to the Established Church, and 
that, too, at a period when imprisonment and confiscation 
were the weapons of the Church's warfare against many 
of his personal relations and political friends. He had 
learnt, it is true, during his dictatorship in Ireland the 
necessity of holding the scales of justice uninfluenced by 
polemical distinctions ; and it is evident that he acquired 
during the process much stronger prejudices than his 
father ever entertained against religious enthusiasts. 
While this may partly account for his subsequent choice, 
it is more than probable that his wife's preferences in the 
same direction operated as a concurrent influence. We 
are told that an Anglican chaplain was maintained at 
Spinney Abbey during her widowhood, till the Noncon- 
formity of the next generation displaced him. On the 
other hand, Henry had given asylum to Richard Parr, 
the Vicar of his own parish of Chippenham, when ejected 
for Nonconformity. 

Henry Cromwell's Petition to King Charles II, 

" Sheweth, 

" That your petitioner doth heartily acquiesce in 
the providence of God for restoring your Majesty to the 
government of these nations ; — That all his actions have 
been without malice cither to the person or to the interest 

46 The House of Cromwell. 

of your Majesty, but only out of natural duty to his late 
father ; — That your petitioner did, all the time of his power 
in Ireland, study to preserve the peace, plenty and splendour 
of that kingdom, did encourage a learned ministry, giving 
not only protection but maintenance to several Bishops 
there ; placed worthy persons in the seats of judicature 
and magistracy, and to his own great prejudice upon all 
occasions was favourable to your Majesty's professed 
friends. He therefore humbly beseeches your Majesty 
that the tender consideration of the premisses and of the 
great temptations and necessities your petitioner was 
under, may extenuate your Majesty's displeasure against 
him; — and that your Majesty, as a great instance of your 
clemency and an acknowledgement of the great mercy 
which your royal self hath received from Almighty God, 
would not suffer him, his wife and children to perish from 
the face of the Earth, but rather to live and expiate what 
hath been done amiss with their future prayers and services 
for your Majesty. In order whereunto your said peti- 
tioner humbly offers to your Majesty's most gracious con- 
sideration, that since he is already outed of about £2,000 
per annum which he held in England, and for which £4,000 
portion was paid by your petitioner's wife's friends to his 
late father, he may obtain your Majesty's grant for such 
lands already in his possession upon a common account 
with many others in Ireland, as shall by law be adjudged 
forfeited and in your Majesty's dispose. And forasmuch 
as your petitioner hath laid out near £6,000 upon the pre- 
mises, that your Majesty would recommend him to the 
next Parliament in Ireland to deal favourably with him 
concerning the same, and according to your petitioner's 
deportment for the common good of that place. And 
lastly your petitioner most humbly beseeches your most 
excellent Majesty, — that no distinction between himself 
and other your Majesty's good subjects may be branded on 
him to posterity ; — that so he may without fear, and as 

Hewy, Fourth Son of the Protector. 47 

well out of interest as duty, serve your Majesty all his 
days ; who shall ever pray, &c. 

" H. Cromwell." 

Certificate annexed. 

" Whereas we were desired to testify our knowledge 
concerning the value of the lands to be confirmed to 
Colonel Henry Cromwell, we do hereby certify as followeth, 
viz. — That the lands in Ireland possessed by the said 
Colonel Cromwell on 7 May 1659 were in satisfaction of 
£12,000 in debentures or near thereabouts ; — That deben- 
tures were commonly bought and sold for four, five, and 
six shillings in the pound, few yielding more even in the 
dearest times. According to which rates the said lands 
might have been had for between three and four thousand 
pounds. Which said sum with the improvements by him 
made thereupon, is as much as the same is now worth to 
be sold ; and is all we know he hath to subsist upon for 
himself and family. Given under our hands this 23 Feb- 
ruary 1661. 

" Massereene. 

" audley mervyn." 

Henry's wife Elizabeth, the daughter of Sir Francis 
Russell aforesaid, survived her husband thirteen years. 
Elegant in manners and exemplary in conduct, she was 
long remembered in the neighbourhood as " the good 
Lady Cromwell." Her grandson, William Cromwell, of 
Kirby Street, informed Dr. Gibbons that though, like 
many others, she had at first entertained a hostile feeling 
towards the Protector Oliver, yet on becoming his 
daughter-in-law, closer observation changed her antipathies 
into affectionate esteem, and led her to regard him as the 
most amiable of parents. Her death occurred on April 7, 
1687, in the fifty-second year of her age ; and her monu- 
ment, with those of others of the family, is preserved in 
Wicken Church, Cambridgeshire. 

48 The House of Cromwell. 

Issue of Henry Cromwell, Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, and 
the Lady Elizabeth Russell. 

I. Oliver, born in Dublin, 1656 ; died at Spinney 
Abbey, 1685, in the twenty-ninth year of his age, and, as 
is supposed, unmarried. The story of the infant's birth is 
thus recorded in a news-letter of the day : " From Dublin. 
On the 19th of April my lord Henry Cromwell became the 
joyful father of a son ; which, as it hath been matter of 
great joy to us, so I presume it will be welcome news to 
you. The earnest prayers of good people gave his lord- 
ship's lady so easy a deliverance that the most part of her 
ladyship's travail was spent in dispatching letters for 
England. The joy thereof confined not itself long within 
the walls of their private family, but was straight blazed 
by several bonfires throughout the city ; the honest towns- 
men seeming emulous who should contribute the greatest 
solemnity for so great a mercy. On the 24th following, 
the joys were more perfect, there being more congratula- 
tions for the infant's admission into the Church by baptism 
than for its entrance into the world by birth ; his lordship 
having openly in Christ-church offered up his child that 
day to the Lord in that ordinance, and given it His High- 
ness's name. Which so heightened the joy of the con- 
gregation, that I never saw in one meeting more eyes and 
I believe hearts more intently lifted up in prayer, never 
heard more passionate praises for a blessing, than on that 
day ; which gives no small support to my faith that a 
child of such prayers and praises shall not miscarry." 

II. Henry, born in Dublin in 1658 ; of whom hereafter. 

III. Francis, born at Chippenham in 1663 ; died un- 
married in 1719. 

IV. Richard, born at Spinney Abbey in 1665 ; died 
unmarried in London in 1687. 

V. William, born at Spinney Abbey in 1667 ; died un- 
married in the East Indies in 1692. 

Henry, Fourth Son of the Protector. 49 

VI. Elizabeth, born at Whitehall in 1654 ; died at 
Chippenham, 1659, in the house of her maternal grand- 
father, Sir Francis Russell. This is the " Sweet Betty " 
referred to in Fleetwood's letter to Henry in 1656. 

VII. Elizabeth, born just after the decease of the pre- 
ceding, therefore taking her name. On August 30, 1681, 
she was married at Dover to William Russell, of Ford- 
ham, son of Gerard Russell and grandson of Sir William 
Russell, the first Baronet, consequently first cousin to her 
mother, the Lady Elizabeth. Of this marriage the issue 
was fourteen children, but the habits of the parents appear 
to have been unthrifty. Moving for awhile among the 
county gentry, and maintaining with that object a style of 
living far beyond their means, Mr. Russell escaped his 
creditors only in the grave, and the widow fled with the 
surviving children to London, where she died in 171 1. 
Her family was as follows : 

I. O' Brian William, born 1684, fate unknown. 

II., III., IV., V., VI. Henry, John, William, 
Edward, Thomas, died young or unmarried, two of 
them at sea. 

VII. Francis, born 1692; became a hosier in 
London. His son Thomas, born 1724, had issue. 
William died abroad unmarried, and Rebecca, who 
died in 1832, by her second husband, William Dyer, 
of Ilford, Esq., a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant of 
Essex, left five children, viz. : (1) William Andrew, 
sometime of 34, Guildford Street, W.C. ; (2) Charles 
Adams, formerly of Canewdon Hall, Rochford, Essex; 
(3) Thomas John, in the East India Company's 
service ; (4) Mary Eliza ; (5) Louisa. 

VIII. Mar}-, of whom presently. 

IX. Sarah became the wife of Martin Wilkins, a 
substantial landowner of Soham, whose two children 
died in infancy. 


50 The House of Cromwell. 

X. Name unknown ; became Mrs. Nelson of Mil- 
denhall, and had a daughter, the wife of Mr. 
Redderock, a solicitor of that place, and the mother 
of several children. 

XI. Margaret, of whom presently (p. 52). 

Issue of Mary, eldest married daughter of William and 
Elizabeth Russell of Fordham. 

This lady married Mr. Robert D'Aye, of Soham, and 
long outlived him, her protracted widowhood being passed 
at Soham, where her poverty was in some measure 
relieved by an annual grant from the daughters of the 
ex -Protector, Richard Cromwell, both of whom also 
bequeathed her a legacy ; but as her own death did not 
occur till 1765, she must have long survived her bene- 
factors. Her family consisted of : (1) A son named 
Russell, who died at sea unmarried ; (2) a daughter 
married to Mr. Saunders, from whom she separated ; 
(3) Elizabeth, who introduces us to the 

Family of Addison. 

Elizabeth D'Aye, by her marriage, in 1762, with Mr. 
Thomas Addison, of Soham, became the mother of 

I. Mary, died in childhood. 

II. Elizabeth, the wife of John Hill ; left three sons 
— John, William, and Eden. 

III. Mary Russell, born 1764; became the wife of 
Mr. Robert Sunman, and died at Lambeth in 1800, 
having had Mary Addison, who died in youth, and 
Robert, born in 1786. 

IV. and V. Russell and Thomas, twins, born 1767. 
Thomas died in infancy. 

VI. and VII. Frances and William; both died in 

Henry, Fourth Son of the Protector. 5 1 

Russell, the only surviving son of this family, died at 
the age of twenty-five in 1792. His wife Anne outlived 
him fifty-four years, dying in 1846, at the age of eighty- 
five. By her he left one son, 

William, a surgeon of Soham, where he practised 
laboriously for more than half a century, being held in 
great esteem by rich and poor. Beyond this, his life may 
be described as uneventful, though it is due to him to 
state that the Cromwell monument, forming so striking 
an object in Soham Churchyard, and displaying the 
descent of the Addisons from Henry, the Lord-Lieutenant 
of Ireland, downwards, is the expression of his hereditary 
homage. It has been said that the career of his great 
progenitor was not often made by Mr. Addison the promi- 
nent subject of remark, yet the writer of this book well 
remembers the flashing up of the old fire at an interview 
held with him many years back, when the old gentleman 
modestly hinted that the Protector's facial lineaments 
were not yet obliterated in his descendants. Many will 
say that his son Thomas, the Ely solicitor, illustrates the 
fond belief even more than the father did. Mr. Addison 
died in 1868, having married Anne, daughter of Thomas 
Fox, of the Newlands, in Curdworth, co. Warwick, 
farmer, by whom he had three children. 

I. Thomas Russell, born 1828, a solicitor practising 
in Ely. 

II. William Oliver Cromwell, born 1832, a solicitor 
practising at Brierley Hill, co. Stafford, married 
Charlotte, daughter of Charles Woolverton, of Great 
Yarmouth, Esq., and has issue : (1) Charles William, 
1866; (2) Charlotte Barnby, 1869 ; (3) Frank, 1870; 
(4) Edith Maud, 1871. 

III. Henrietta Fox, married, 1859, to George H. 
Rust, son of the late Rev. E. Rust D'Eye, of Abbott's 
Hall, Stowmarket. His children are eleven in 
number, viz. : (1) Henrietta Fanny, 1862 ; (2) George 

52 The House of Cromwell. 

Edgar, 1863 ; (3) Agnes Elizabeth, 1864 ; (4) Isabel, 
1866 ; (5) Jane Louisa, 1868 ; (6) Henry, 1869 ; 
(7) Katharine Alice, 1870 ; (8) Evelyn, 1872 ; (9) 
Anne Georgina, 1874; (10) Mabel, 1875; (11) Emily, 

Issue of Margaret, sixth daughter of William and Elizabeth 
Russell of Fordham. 

She became the wife of Mr. Edward Peachey, and had 
an only daughter, Elizabeth, whose husband bore the 
name of Richard Peachey, but was not related to her 
father's family. By the will of her uncle, Martin 
Wilkins, who left his real estate to his wife Sarah, some 
of the lands in Horsecroft and the Great Fen were to 
descend in reversion to Elizabeth, daughter of Edward 
and Margaret Peachey, besides a bequest of £"500 and an 
annuity of £15 till she attained the age of twenty-one. 
By a codicil to his will, in 1749, the £500 is revoked, she 
being then the wife of Richard Peachey. This marriage 
produced three children, viz. : 

I. Richard, who died unmarried at the age of 

II. William, who in 1780 was of Cambridge 

III. Elizabeth, wife of Rev. Mr. Ellis, of Mil- 
borne, Cambs., and the mother of: (1) Thomas, a 
solicitor ; (2) William, a surgeon ; (3) Elizabeth, died 
unmarried ; (4) a daughter married to Mr. Burbage, 
practising in Leicestershire. 


Dismissing the families descended from the daughters 
of Henry, Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, we now revert to 
his son, Major Henry Cromwell, the only one who carried 

Henry, Fourth Son of the Protector. 53 

on the name. The politics and religious faith of this 
gentleman may be gathered from the fact of his marrying 
a young lady who only the year before had played a more 
conspicuous part than any other of her sex as intercessor 
for the victims of Jeffreys' " Bloody Assizes." This was 
Hannah, the daughter of Benjamin Hewling and grand- 
daughter of William Kyffin, two names conspicuous 
among the Nonconformists of that period, and among 
the adherents of the unfortunate Duke of Monmouth. 
Her interviews with Churchill and with King James II. 
in behalf of her brothers, Benjamin and William Hewling, 
are matters of general history. 

She was beyond all doubt a courageous and energetic 
woman. Nothing short of this conviction would have 
secured the notice and regard of her Tory aunt, Lady 
Fauconberg, who was greatly disconcerted at the depressed 
condition of so many of her relatives. After considerable 
solicitation, Lady Fauconberg was induced to push her 
nephew's fortunes in the army, and here we may suitably 
quote one of her letters as a sample of her style of mind 
and of her bearing towards her niece Hannah. 

"Lady Fauconberg to Henry Cromwell, of Spinney Abbey. 
To be left with the postmaster of Newmarket, Cambridge- 

29 January [1693?]. 

" Dear Nephew, 

" This comes to congratulate with you after your 
great fright for your excellent wife, for her safe recovery. 
And I hope, although she has lost her little one, God will 
bless you both with more. I am very glad to find by my 
cousin Hewling you design shortly for London, where I 
hope to see you both, and give thanks for your kind 
present, which came very safe to my hands. And pray 
tell my good niece that her good housewifery is both seen 
and tasted in it, and that it was as good as ever was 

54 The House of Cromwell. 

eaten. And I must not omit telling you that my lord as 
well as self returns thanks, and charges me to assure you 
both of his humble service. All friends here are, I bless 
God, very well, and present you both with their service. 
And I am, to my dear niece and yourself, a most affec- 
tionate aunt and servant. 

" M. Fauconberg." 

Another fragment of hers, dated 1689, thus refers to 
her efforts in Major Henry's behalf: 

" Dear Nephew, 

" I received yours, which this comes in answer to. 
My lord was on Thursday at Hampton Court, where he 
spake to the King [William III.] again as for your concerns, 
and your cousin's [Oliver, son of Richard]. But all the 
answer he could get was that he wanted money, and at 
present did not think of raising any more men, — which 
for your sakes I am concerned for. . . ." 

He parted with Spinney Abbey under stress of pecuniary 
difficulties, and probably lived thereafter an unsettled life 
in the neighbourhood of London. 

It was principally by the influence of the Duke of 
Ormond that Mr. Cromwell's promotion in the army was 
at last brought about, " in acknowledgment," as his Grace 
always declared, " of the great service and benefit which 
his family had received from Henry Cromwell while Lord- 
Lieutenant of Ireland." Mr. Cromwell's military status 
at the time of his death was that of Major of foot in 
Fielding's Regiment. He was cut off by fever at Lisbon 
while serving under Lord Galway in the war against 
Spain in Queen Anne's reign, in 1711, being then in his 
fifty-fourth year. His widow, who survived him twenty- 
one years, appears to have resided in or near London, for 
her burial took place in Bunhill Fields. The portraits of 

Henry, Fourth Son of the Protector. 55 

herself and of her husband — the latter being represented 
as a very handsome man — are still extant, being part of the 
Brantingsay Collection. 

Issue of Major Henry Cromwell and Hannah Hewling. 

I. Oliver, born at Spinney Abbey in 1687 ; died at 
Gray's Inn in London at the age of sixteen. This was 
the fourth Oliver Cromwell who by celibacy or premature 
death failed to carry on the first Protector's name. 

II. Benjamin Hewling, born at Spinney Abbey in 
1689 ; died at York in 1694. 

III. Henry, born at Spinney Abbey in 1692 ; died in 

IV. William, generally known as " Mr. Cromwell of 
Kirby Street," was born in the parish of Cripplegate, in 
London, in 1693. Being bred to the law, he passed a 
considerable portion of his life in Gray's Inn chambers, 
and it was not till he reached the age of fifty-seven that 
he married Mary, the daughter of William Sherwill of 
London, merchant, and the wealthy widow of Thomas 
Westby, of Linton, Cambs., Esq., consequent on which 
event he changed his abode to Bocking, in Essex. 
The lady herself was sixty years of age at the time of 
this her second marriage, and in the course of two years 
after the removal to Bocking she died, and Mr. Cromwell 
thereupon returned to London, and spent the remainder of 
his days in Kirby Street, Hatton Garden, where his own 
death occurred in 1772, at the age of seventy-nine. Husband 
and wife both lie in the family vault in Bunhill Fields. 
Mrs. Cromwell shortly before her second marriage had, 
in conjunction with Mrs. Bromsale, built and endowed at 
Hoxton the row of ten houses long known as " the old 
maids' almshouses," though, in fact, widows as well as 
single women were embraced in the charity, the only 
stipulation being that they were Protestant Dissenters. 
She thoroughly sympathized in the outspoken Noncon- 

56 The House of Cromwell. 

formity which distinguished her husband's confession of 
faith, who for fifty years was a member, and for nearly 
thirty years a deacon, of the church meeting at Haber- 
dashers' Hall ; and there his funeral sermon was preached 
by Dr. Thomas Gibbons. " He appeared," says the 
Doctor, " to be a Christian indeed ; not only by abstaining 
from what was gross and scandalous, profane and un- 
godly, but by a spirituality of temper, and by attention to 
inward religion and the pulse of his soul towards God ; 
and, indeed, his sentiments and conduct manifested a 
happy union of experimental and practical godliness. He 
met, and no wonder in so long a pilgrimage, very heavy 
afflictions, but never did I hear him murmur or repine, 
though I am persuaded he was not without quick and 
keen sensations. . . . He might have had genteel 
provision made for him in life beyond what Providence 
had otherwise given him, if he could have qualified as 
a member of the Church of England ; but he chose 
rather to preserve his conscience inviolate, and to re- 
main a Nonconformist, than advance himself in the 
world and depart from what appeared to him the line 
of duty." 

Mr. Hewling Luson, a son of Hannah's younger sister, 
bears a corresponding testimony, speaking of him as " the 
late Mr. Cromwell of Kirby Street, my near relation, and 
a most benevolent humble honest man." The journal of 
Thomas Hollis, the virtuoso, chronicles under date 1762 
an interview with " that worthy old gentleman Mr. William 
Cromwell, the great-grandson of the Protector," by whom 
he is then introduced to two nieces, Miss Elizabeth and 
Miss Letitia Cromwell, of Hampstead. The portrait- 
gallery of these ladies, and their museum of family relics, 
are then inspected, disclosing a variety of heirlooms, which 
Mr. Hollis then describes, but which must be left at 
present till the Brantingsay gallery and other collections 
of Cromwellian relics claim a final notice. 

Henry, Fourth Son of the Protector. 57 

Mr. Cromwell was on friendly terms with Henry Crom- 
well the poet, so well known by his published corre- 
spondence with Alexander Pope ; and though the family 
relationship between these two gentlemen was somewhat 
remote, yet, as they both derived from the knight of 
Hinchinbrook, they constantly maintained the form of 
calling one another " cousin." One of William Cromwell's 
early reminiscences was his having dined at Westminster, 
when a youth, with his great-uncle, Richard, the ex- 
Protector. There were present on that occasion, besides 
himself, Jerry White, the chaplain, and William Penn, 
the Quaker-founder of Pennsylvania. Mr. Cromwell 
rendered valuable aid to the compilers of "Thurloe's State 
Papers " by contributing a large collection of family docu- 
ments, which had come down to him from the original 
owners, and which are duly notified in the margin of that 

V. Richard, fifth son of Major Henry Cromwell and 
Hannah Hewling, was born at Hackney in 1695, and 
became an eminent attorney and solicitor in Chancery. 
In 1723, on his great-grandfather's auspicious day — 
September 3 — he married Sarah, the daughter of 
Ebenezer Gatton, of Southwark, who was also the niece, 
and eventually one of the co-heiresses, of Sir Robert 
Thornhill, a wealthy attorney of Red Lion Square. The 
ceremony was performed by Dr. Edmund Gibson, the 
Lord Bishop of London aforesaid, and the place selected 
was the chapel connected with the banqueting-house in 
the palace of Whitehall. Bishop Gibson, whose scholar- 
ship was of the most varied kind — linguistic, antiquarian, 
and forensic — was, moreover, what is commonly under- 
stoodasaliberal-minded Churchman ; while in his character 
of an official censor he poured through the press an un- 
ceasing stream of pamphlets and charges, with a view to 
the reformation of manners, and by his hostility to Court 
masquerades provoked the enmity of King George II. 

58 The House of Cromwell. 

Perhaps his admiration for Oliver was an additional 
stimulus to the royal displeasure. 

Mr. Richard Cromwell, after his marriage, continued to 
reside in London as his place of business, but eventually 
removed to Hampstead, where he died in 1759, and was 
buried in the family vault in Bunhill Fields. He had 
previously erected there an " altar-monument " to receive 
family inscriptions ; but this relic, like so many others 
around it, fell a prey to neglect, and the inscriptions are 
now almost obliterated, excepting the names of his 
brother William and wife. It has recently received at its 
foot the words, deeply chiselled, " RICHARD CROM- 
WELL, HIS VAULT. Restored by the Corporation of 
London." It must be with reference to this gentlemen 
that the following letter was published in the Gentleman's 
Magazine for July, 1777 : 

" Mr. Urban, 

" In order to render your former, as well as later, 
accounts of Cromwell's family as perfect as possible, I 
must observe that there was a Mr. Cromwell, an attorney 
by profession, with whom I frequently conversed, and who 
was well known to the old frequenters of Wills' coffee- 
house, near Lincoln's Inn Gate. I do not know in what 
degree of consanguinity he stood to Oliver, but that he 
was a descendant of his family none who saw him could 
doubt, for he was very like the best pictures of Oliver him- 
self. He was respected, too, as an honest man ; but 
he seemed to have only the external marks of his great 
predecessor. I think about the time ' I missed him at the 
accustomed tree ' was near twenty years ago, and he then 
appeared to be about seventy years of age. 

" P T " 

A subsequent correspondent conjectured that this might 
have been Henry, the sixth child of Hannah Hewling ; 

Henry, Fourth Son of the Protector. 59 

but Henry's occupation was not that of the law, nor do 
the dates fit so well as with Richard. Mr. Richard 
Cromwell had two sons and four daughters : 

I. Robert, born at Bartlett's Buildings. This 
gentleman inherited, in right of his mother, Sarah 
Gatton, a moiety of the manor of Cheshunt Park or 
Brantingsay aforesaid; but dying unmarried in 1762, 
at the age of thirty-seven, the said moiety went to his 
sisters ; and the other moiety also came to them 
eventually through the decease s.p. of their cousin 
Peter Hynde, only son and heir of Eleanor Gatton. 

II. Oliver, died in infancy. 

III. Elizabeth, died at Hampstead in 1792. 

IV. Anne, died at Berkhampstead in 1777. 

V. Eleanor, died in infancy. 

VI. Letitia, died at Hampstead, 1789. 

The survivors of these ladies, namely, Elizabeth and 
Letitia, on inheriting their brother Robert's estate, quitted 
Berkhampstead, and reoccupied the paternal mansion at 
Hampstead in Middlesex. Among the personal property 
which in like manner descended to them, they came into 
possession of a complete museum of historical relics, in- 
cluding a series of family portraits, dating from the six- 
teenth century downwards, all which subsequently found 
a fitting receptacle at Cheshunt. Elizabeth's death is thus 
recorded in the Gentleman's Magazine for November, 1792 : 

"At Hampstead, Mrs. Elizabeth Cromwell, eldest 
daughter and last surviving child of Mr. Richard Cromwell, 
grandson of Henry, Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland. She has 
left the bulk of her fortune to Mr. Oliver Cromwell, attorney, 
clerk of the Million Bank ; £500 to the children of Mr. 
Field of Newington, late an apothecary of Newgate Street, 
who married her cousin, her uncle Thomas's daughter ; and 
a handsome legacy to Mrs. Moreland, relict of Richard 
Hynde, Esq., whose mother was her maternal aunt, and 

60 The House of Cromwell. 

who with her brother jointly possessed Cheshunt Park, the 
moiety of which on his death devolved to them, subject to 
his widow's jointure." 

VI. Henry, sixth son of Major Henry Cromwell and 
Hannah Hewling, born 1698 ; was for some time in 
partnership with his brother Thomas as a wholesale pro- 
vision merchant, though he subsequently held a post in the 
Excise Office. He died unmarried in 1769, and was buried 
in Bunhill Fields, in the vault of his brother Thomas. 
The inscriptions on this tomb, like those on Richard's, are 
now also defaced, but the name HENRY CROMWELL 
has been recently cut in strong relief, and the following 
words : " Discovered seven feet beneath the surface, and 
restored by the Corporation of London, 1869." The ruin 
which some few years ago had, with increasing rapidity, 
been overspreading the memorials of Bunhill Fields through 
overcrowding, was happily brought to an end when all 
future interments were forbidden. Amongst many others, 
one of the Cromwell monuments, and also that of Lieu- 
tenant-General Fleetwood and Lady Hartopp, had gone 
quite out of sight, although both of them, especially that 
of Fleetwood, were capacious structures. 

VII. Thomas, the only one of the eight sons of Major 
Henry Cromwell and Hannah Hewling whose descendants 
survive, of whom presently (p. 61). 

VIII. Oliver, born in Gray's Inn in London, in 1704, 
just after the death of his eldest brother Oliver, and there- 
fore made to succeed him in name. He, like his father, 
served in the British Army, and held an ensigncy in an 
Irish regiment ; but disliking the situation, he resigned his 
commission, and passed the rest of his life in privacy, 
dying unmarried in 1748. 

IX. Mary, born at Newington Green in i6gi; died un- 
married in 1731 ; buried in Bunhill Fields. 

X. Hannah, born at Hackney in 1697 '■> died unmarried 
in 1732. 

Henry, Fourth Son of the Protector. 6 1 

VII. Thomas, seventh son of Major Henry Cromwell 
and Hannah Hewling, born at Hackney in 1699 ; became, 
in partnership with his brother Henry, a wholesale pro- 
vision merchant and sugar -refiner, on Snowhill. On 
quitting business he retired to Bridgwater Square, dying 
in 1748 (or 1752 ?), and was buried in Bunhill Fields. 
He was twice married ; first to Frances, daughter of 
John Tidman of London, merchant ; and secondly to 
Mary, daughter of Nicholas Skinner of London, mer- 
chant, of whom hereafter. The issue of the first marriage 
were : 

Oliver, Henry, Thomas, and Elizabeth, who all 
died young or unmarried; and Anne, who in 1753 was 
married at Edmonton to John Field, an apothecary, 
at that time of Newgate Street, but afterwards of 
Stoke Newington, of whom hereafter. 

Mr. Thomas Cromwell by his second wife, Mary Skinner, 

I. Oliver, his heir, of whom hereafter. 

II. Thomas, who in 1771 or 1773 died in the East 
India Company's service, just after obtaining a lieu- 

III., IV., V., VI. Richard, Elizabeth, and Hannah 
Hewling, who all died young; and Susanna, who for 
many years lived with her widowed mother in Carey 
Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields, subsequently at Ponders 
End. Leaving there after her mother's death, she 
occupied a cottage at Flamstead End in her brother 
Oliver's parish, and is supposed to have died there 
unmarried in 1834, but to have been buried in Bun- 
hill Fields. 

As for the widowed mother herself, she survived her 
husband more than sixty years, reaching at last the 
patriarchal age of one hundred and four; in fact, she 
was nearly one hundred and five. About the year 17S3, 

62 The House of Cromwell. 

being then seventy - four years of age, she quitted 
London in company with her daughter Susanna, and 
took up her final residence at Ponders End in the house 
of her deceased aunt, Lady Collett, who had long been a 
principal supporter of the Nonconformist interest in that 

Mrs. Cromwell's communion with her new friends as a 
church-member was considerably hindered by her loss of 
hearing, but she found a partial resource in the habitual 
record of her feelings in the form of a diary which must 
have covered a vast space of time. This chronicle of her 
hidden life was destroyed, in fulfilment no doubt of her 
own wishes ; but a fragment or two from its earlier pages 
have been rescued, from the tenor of which we may 
gather that the successive loss of her husband and children 
had been felt by her as a very sore affliction. Referring 
to the death of her daughter Elizabeth, above mentioned, 
who died at the age of thirteen, she makes the following 
reflection : " My God has seen fit in His infinite wisdom to 
remove another dear creature-comfort, a first-born ; one 
whom His grace made to differ, whose early piety appeared 
in her fear of offending God, her love to every duty of 
religion, her strict regard to truth, always dutiful, and 
conscientiously careful against sin. Her life was short, 
but well improved : she made haste and delayed not to 
keep the commandments of the Lord. Could I follow 
my dear delights no farther than the grave, I must sink 
under my afflictions — to see my comforts dropping off 
like leaves in autumn, wave after wave rolling over me, 
and leaving me a lonely survivor. But religion teaches 
me to converse with things above, leads me to see where 
real and lasting joys are to be found, and calls me to recol- 
lect my covenant-engagements. I then resolved to take 
up my cross." On the death of her husband, in October, 
1752, she had written, " . . . . Ere long my change will 
come. I think I am as weary of sin as of sorrow, though 

Henry, Fourth Son of the Protector. 63 

Death has been my worst enemy. May his next visit be 
in mercy, and may every wave of affliction leave me nearer 
the heavenly shore. Afflictions have drunk up my spirits. 
Thine arrows stick fast in me, and Thine hand presseth 
me sore. Therefore is my spirit overwhelmed within me ; 
my heart within me is desolate. Unless Thy law had 
been my delight I should have perished in my affliction." 
She had, however, after her retreat to Ponders End, an 
abiding consolation in the character and creditable career 
of her son Oliver, who, residing in the neighbouring parish 
of Cheshunt, often came over to see her, and was able 
before she died to invoke her blessing on seven of his own 
grandchildren. That he also took an interest in the 
religious community to which his mother was attached is 
evidenced by the appearance of his name in a subscrip- 
tion list preserved in the records of that church for en- 
larging the building in 1815, towards which object " Oliver 
Cromwell" gives ten guineas, and " Susannah Cromwell" 
five guineas. 

As might have been expected, Mrs. Cromwell's decease 
at so advanced an age was a very gradual process. Dim- 
ness of sight, so far as to preclude the faculty of reading, 
had been added to her other infirmities, so that, shut out 
from the external world, the attitude of her soul expressed 
itself in a constant desire to depart, and her attendants on 
entering her chamber usually found her on her knees. 
January 29, 1813, saw the close of her long pilgrimage ; 
and her surviving children, Oliver and Susannah, selected 
as an appropriate motto for her funeral sermon the dying 
song of the Apostle Paul, " I have fought the good fight," 
etc., which sermon, entitled " The Triumph of Faith," was 
accordingly delivered by John Knight, the then minister 
of Ponders End Chapel. Her portrait, taken shortly 
before her death, is in the hands of her descendants, the 
Prescott family. Mrs. Cromwell, as also her daughter 
Susanna, who survived her some years, are believed to 

64 The House of Cromwell. 

have been both buried in Bunhill Fields. We have now 
to treat of her only surviving son, 


Oliver Cromwell, Esq., born in 1742, commenced life 
as a solicitor. He practised for many years as a solicitor 
in Essex Street, Strand, and was also clerk to St. Thomas's 
Hospital. But on inheriting the Cheshunt estate under 
the will of his cousins Elizabeth and Letitia, he adopted 
Brantingsay as his habitual residence.* On August 8, 
1771, Mr. Cromwell espoused Mary, daughter and co-heir 
of Morgan Morse, Esq., and had two sons and a daughter. 
The first child died in infancy. The birth of the second, 
named Oliver, is thus recorded in the Annual Register for 
1782 : " Birth,— The lady of Oliver Cromwell, Esq., of a 
son and heir, at his house in Nicholas Lane. This child 
is the only male heir of the Cromwell family in a lineal 
descent from the memorable Protector of that name." 
But little Oliver, alas ! like so many of his predecessors, 
once more disappointed the hopes of his friends. He lived 
but three years ; and now the only surviving child was a 
daughter, Elizabeth Oliveria, born in 1777, and married in 
1801 to Thomas Artemidorus Russell, Esq. 

Mr. Cromwell of Cheshunt wished his daughter to carry 
on his name, in accordance with the course usually pursued 
in such cases, by her husband's adopting the surname and 
arms of Cromwell, either in addition to, or in exchange 
for, those of Russell. Such a procedure is technically said 
to be " by royal permission." The issue of the affair is 
thus recorded by Mr. Burke, the herald : " Mr. Cromwell 
wishing to perpetuate the name of his great ancestor, 

* This estate is not to be confounded with Theobald's Park, which was never 
in the possession of the Cromwell family. Theobald's Park and the Manor of 
Cheshunt belonged to the Prescott family, while Cheshunt or Brantingsay Park 
and Manor at Theobald's belonged to the Cromwell party. The name was 
formerly spelt Brantingshaye. 

Henry, Fourth Sou of the Protector. 65 

applied, it is said, in the usual quarter for permission that 
his son-in-law should assume the surname of Cromwell ; 
when, to his astonishment, considering that such requests 
are usually granted on the payment of certain fees as a 
matter of course, the permission was refused. Such a 
course of proceeding is too contemptible for comment."* 
The credit of the refusal has been variously ascribed to the 
old King, to the Prince Regent, and to William IV. Sir 
Robert Heron, writing in 1821, makes mention of it thus : 
"Within the last two or three years died the last male 
direct descendant of Oliver Cromwell. He was well 
known to my father and to Sir Abraham Hume, who lived 
near him. They represented him as a worthy man of mild 
manners, much resembling in character his immediate 
ancestor, Henry, the Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland. Early 
in life his pecuniary circumstances were narrowed, but 
latterly he possessed a comfortable income. He was 
desirous of leaving his name to his son-in-law Mr. Russell, 
and applied for his Majesty's permission that Russell 
should assume it ; but the old King positively refused it, 
always saying, 'No, no — no more Cromwells ' " (Sir 
Robert Heron's Notes). Another version of the affair is, 
that Mr. Cromwell, becoming apprehensive that the change 
of name might, after all, prove a hindrance rather than 
otherwise to his grandchildren's advance in life, allowed 
the matter to remain in abeyance ; but that the scheme 
was revived by another member of the family in a 
memorial addressed to William IV., and that it was this 
King, and not George III., who uttered the energetic veto 
above recorded. 

Mr. Cromwell, to whom we are indebted for the 
" Memoirs of the Protector Oliver Cromwell and of his 
Two Sons, Richard and Henry," died on May 31, 1821, 
at the age of seventy-nine. His excellent wife, whose 
charitable deeds were long remembered in the neighbour- 

* " History of the Commoners," vol. i., p. 433. 

66 The House of Cromwell. 

hood, lived on to her eighty-seventh year. On Sundays 
she was in the habit of attending the chapel of the neigh- 
bouring college (founded by Lady Huntingdon), in which 
she was joined by her husband and by her sister-in-law, 
Miss Susanna Cromwell. 

The family monument at Cheshunt Church records only 
the following names : 

Oliver Cromwell, Esq., 1821, aged seventy-nine. 

Mary Cromwell, his wife, 1831, eighty-seven. 

Lieutenant-General Armstrong, his son-in-law, sixty- 

Thomas Artemidorus Russell, Esq., 1858, eighty- 

Eliza Oliveria, his wife, 1849, seventy-two. 

Artemidorus Cromwell Russell, 1830, twenty-seven. 

Avarilla Aphra, his wife, 1827, twenty-one. 

John Russell, Esq., 1830, eighty-two. 

Eliza, wife of John Henry Cromwell Russell, 1876, 

Family of Russell, of Cheshunt Park. 

Elizabeth Oliveria Cromwell, only surviving child 
of Oliver Cromwell, of Cheshunt, was born in 1777, mar- 
ried in 1801 to Thomas Artemidorus Russell, of Thurston, 
co. Hereford, Esq. She died in 1849 at the age of 
seventy-two, and in her death the English nation had to 
contemplate the final extinction of the Protector's house- 
hold inheriting the name of Cromwell by blood. To the 
present writer, his personal intercourse with the venerable 
lady is the most interesting fact connected with the 
labours of this family history. To watch her passing 
from portrait to portrait through the Brantingsay gallery, 
and hear her with tremulous voice dwelling on the virtues 
of each successive representative of the house from the 
Protector's parents down to her own father, was to become 

He7i7y, Fourth Son of the Protector. 67 

for awhile the passive recipient of very pleasant sensations 
— sensations, it may be, too thronging for description, 
too complex for analysis. By her husband she left nine 
children : 

I. Elizabeth Oliveria, born 1802 ; married 1823 to 
Frederick Joseph, son of George Frederick Prescott, of 
Theobalds, Herts, Esq. By her husband, formerly of the 
War Office, and who died in 1888, aged ninety-one, she 
became the mother of ten children : 

I. Frederick George, born 1824 ; died in infancy. 

II. Emma Elizabeth, born 1826 ; married, 1853, to 
Herbert Calthorpe, son of Lieutenant-Gencral Wil- 
liam Gardner, R.A., and by him (who died 1857) had, 
surviving issue, Herbert Prescott, born 1854, and 
Emma Louisa, born 1S57. 

III. George Frederick, Vicar of St. Michael's, Pad 
dington, M.A. Cantab., born 1827 ; married, 1863 
to Sarah, daughter of John Horsley, Esq., Madras 
Civil Service, and had : Mary, 1864 ; Edward, 1866 
Ernest, 1867 ; Mildred, 1871. 

IV. Charles Andrew, banker and M.A. Cantab, 
born 1829 ; married, 1S64, to Emma Catharine 
daughter of William Harrison, Esq., of Westbourne 
Terrace, by whom he had four children : Charlotte 
Cromwell, 1865 ; Charles Cave Cromwell, 1S67, died 
in childhood; Oliveria Cromwell, 1S72 ; Kenneth 
Loder Cromwell, 1874. 

V. Edward Barker, Captain 33rd Regiment (Wel- 
lington's), wounded in the Crimea. Medal and clasps. 
Married, 1857, to Sophia Victoria, daughter of Wil- 
liam Cox, of Gloucester Crescent, Esq., and has a 
son, Edward Frederick William, born 185S. 

VI. Lucy Esther, born 1833. 

VII. Augusta Sophia, born 1835 ; married, 1873, 
to Robert Burn, Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. 

68 The House of Cromwell. 

VIII. Henry Warner, a banker, born 1837. 

IX. Edgar Grote, of the Stock Exchange, and B.A. 
Oxon., born 1839 ; married, 1865, to Jane Katharine, 
daughter of Edgar Barker, Esq., of Oxford Square, 
and had seven children : Henry Frederick, 1866 ; 
Edward Barker, 1867 ; Edgar Evelyn, 1869 ; Mar- 
garet Oliveria, died in infancy, 1871 ; Herbert, 1872 ; 
Nelly Margaret, 1875 ; Isabel Katharine, 1878. 

X. Oliveria Louisa, born 1842. 

II. Artemidorus Cromwell, born 1803; died 1830, 
having married Avarilla Aphra Armstrong, by whom (who 
died 1827) ne na -d one daughter, Avarilla Oliveria Crom- 
well, born 1826 ; married, 1849, to Rev. Paul Bush, of 
South Luffenham, now [1890] Rector of Duloe, near 
Liskeard ; died November 25, 1895. By her husband she 
had issue : 

I. Thomas Cromwell, B.A. Oxon, born 1851, 
Vicar of Camel Queen, Bath. 

II. Elizabeth Oliveria, 1852. 

III. James Graham, in India, 1854. 

IV. Paul Warner, Lieutenant in the Royal Navy, 
born 1855. 

V. Charles Cromwell, in India, born 1857. 

VI. Charlotte Mary Avarilla, 1858. 

VII. Beatrice Maud, i860. 

VIII. Herbert Cromwell, 1861. 

IX. Ethel Julia, 1863. 

X. Gertrude Harriet Cromwell, 1865. 

XI. Mabel Ottley, 1868. 

III. Mary Esther, born 1805 ; married, 1832, to 
General George Andrew Armstrong, of Hereford, In- 
spector-General of the Hereford Volunteers. She married 
secondly, in 1836, Thomas Huddlestone, Esq. 

IV. John Henry Cromwell, of Sittingbourne, born 
1806 ; married, 1832, to Eliza, only daughter of Maurice 

Henry, Fourth Son of the Protector. 69 

Lievesley, Esq., and had one daughter : Eliza Clementina 
Frances Cromwell, born 1835. 

V. Thomas Artemidorus Cromwell, born 1808 ; 
died in infancy. 

VI. Thomas Artemidorus, born 1810 ; married 1862 ; 
died 1863. 

VII. Letitia Cromwell, born 1812 ; married, 1847, 
to Frederick Whitfield, of 4, Vane Street, Bath, M.D., 
and had two daughters : Amy, 1848, and Elizabeth (?). 
Mrs. Whitfield died in 1863. 

VIII. Charles William Cromwell, born 1814; died 


IX. Emma Bridget, born 1816 ; married, 1834, to 
Captain Richard Warner, 5th Foot, a descendant of Sir 
Thomas Warner, who, as one of the early explorers of 
Antigua, obtained a grant of land there from James I., 
who also presented him with the celebrated ring which 
Queen Elizabeth had given to Essex. This gem, we are 
informed, belonged originally to Mary, Queen of Scots, 
and King James's gift of it to Sir Thomas Warner was 
designed as an especial mark of favour. Since that time 
it has descended from father to son in the elder branch of 
the Warner family. Captain Richard Warner died 1863. 
The issue of the above marriage was as follows : 

I. Ashton Cromwell, born 1835. He served through- 
out the Indian Mutiny campaign in 1857-58, received 
a medal with clasps for " Defence of Lucknow " and 
" Lucknow," and a brevet majority ; retired from the 
20th Hussars in 1868 ; appointed Chief Constable of 
Bedfordshire in 1871. Major Warner, married first 
— 1S68 — Anne Geraldine, only daughter of M. B. 
Jeffreys, Esq., and by her (who died 1871) had one 
son, Ashton Darell Cromwell, who died in infancy. 
He married secondly — 1872 — Florence Louisa, fourth 
daughter of the late W. Stapleton Piers, Esq., and 
grand-daughter of Sir John Bennett Piers, of Trister- 

yo The House of Cromwell. 

nagh Abbey, co. Westmeath, Bart., and has issue : 
Bridget Nora Cromwell, 1874 ; Lionel Ashton Piers, 
1875 ; Marjorie Ellin, 1877 ; Esther Hastings, 1878. 

II. Richard Edward, born 1836; married, 1864, to 
Mary Jametta Hale, daughter of Major Constantine 
Yeoman, of Sibron, and had issue : Constance Emma 
Cromwell, Leonard Ottley, Mary Challoner, Basil 
Hale, Richard Cromwell, Lawrence Dundas, Wynyard 
Alexander, Marmaduke. 

III. Wynyard Huddleston, named after his uncle, 
General Wynyard, of the Grenadier Guards, who 
distinguished himself in the Crimea. He married 
Jane, daughter of Mr. Bell, of the Civil Service, East 
India Company. 

We now pass to the families deriving from Anne Crom- 
well (p. 61). 

Family of Field. 

Anne, only surviving daughter of Thomas Cromwell, of 
Bridgwater Square, by his first marriage, married, in 1753, 
at Edmonton, John Field, an apothecary, at that time of 
Newgate Street, but afterwards of Stoke Newington. 
There is reason to think that this was a union prompted 
by cordiality of religious sentiment, the Fields being of 
a Puritan stock, and Mr. Field himself attached to Stoke 
Newington society. Mr. Field, whose medical practice 
was extensive, was the founder, in 1765, of the London 
Annuity Society, established for the benefit of the widows 
of its members. This institution, now located at 3, Ser- 
geants' Inn, possesses half-length portraits of himself 
and of his son Henry, who succeeded him professionally. 
His living presence, we are told, was a familiar and grate- 
ful object to all the dwellers in and about Stoke Newing- 
ton, who believed his good nature to be inexhaustible, the 
capacious coach in which he performed the daily journey 

Henry, Fourth Son of the Protector. 7 1 

into town being apparently at the service of the public, 
for while his personal friends occupied the interior, some 
poor neighbour was generally to be seen on the box. The 
religious coterie of that suburban district, clustering round 
the household of the ex-General Fleetwood, will be noticed 
more at large hereafter. Mr. Field's intercourse must 
have been with their succeeding generation. His own 
ancestry derived from Cockenhoe, in Herts, where he was 
born in 1719. His death occurred in 1796, the year 
before that of his wife. Their children now to be noticed 
are nine in number : 

I. Henry, an apothecary, born September 29, 1755, 
rose to high esteem among the brethren of his profession, 
as testified by the offices which from time to time he 
filled. In 1807 he was elected apothecary to Christ's 
Hospital. He was also lecturer and treasurer to the 
Society of Apothecaries, one of the Board of Health in 
1831 for prevention of cholera, the city of London pre- 
senting him with a silver centre for his table. He was 
also for many years treasurer of the London Annuity 
Society for the benefit of widows of apothecaries, in Chat- 
ham Place, Blackfriars, which his father had founded. 
Among his writings may be mentioned " Memoirs of the 
Botanick Garden " at Chelsea. He maintained his powers 
till his eighty-third year, when he died at Woodford, 
Essex, December 19, 1837, an d was buried at Cheshunt. 
His portrait was painted for the Apothecaries by R. 
Pickersgill, and for the Annuity Society by Samuel Lane, 
and an engraving from the latter was so skilfully executed 
by Charles Turner that the family regard it as a better 
likeness than the original painting. Mr. Field married, 
on September 2, 1784, Esther, daughter of E. Barron, of 
Woolacre House, near Deptford, Esq., and by her (who 
died January 16, 1834) kft s ^ x sons ar *d two daughters : 

I. Henry Cromwell, born 1785. Succeeded to his 
father's professional position in Newgate Street, and 

72 The House of Cromwell. 

became chairman of the Court of Examiners of the 
Apothecaries' Company. His personal tastes took 
an artistic turn, and led to his becoming an occasional 
exhibitor at the Royal Academy. Shortly before his 
death he was preparing, in co-operation with the 
chaplain of Charterhouse, a book in illustration of 
that establishment. It was whilst in the discharge 
of his duty as resident medical officer there that his 
death occurred instantaneously in 1840. He was 
buried in the vault of Charterhouse Chapel. He 
married his cousin Anne, daughter of Thomas 
Gwinnel, of whom hereafter. 

II. Barron, born October 23, 1786; died s.p. 
April 11, 1846, at his residence at Meadfoot House, 
Torquay. He entered the Inner Temple 1809, and 
was called to the Bar on June 23, 1814. He became 
Advocate - Fiscal at Ceylon, Chief Justice in New 
South Wales, and finally Chief Justice at Gibraltar. 
It was at Gibraltar that the late Earl of Beaconsfield, 
then a young man on his travels, met the Chief 
Justice in 1830. He characteristically describes the 
Judge-Advocate as " noisy, obtrusive, jargonic, a true 
lawyer, ever illustrating the obvious, explaining the 
evident, and expatiating on the commonplace." Like 
his brother, he sought and found a solatium in studies 
less rigid than the law. Dramatic literature became 
his favourite pursuit. He was an intimate friend of 
Charles Lamb, Leigh Hunt, and Crabb Robinson, 
and for a time held the post of theatrical critic for 
the Times. He edited some of the issues of the 
Shakspeare Society, and was meditating a complete 
collection of Heywood's works with a biography at 
the time of his own decease. His widow, Jane, 
daughter of Mr. Carncroft, whom he had married in 
1816, died at Wimbledon in 1878, aged eighty- 

Henry, Fourth Son of the Protector. jt> 

III. Francis John, born 1791; died suddenly, in 
1857, at his residence, 88, Chester Place, Regent's 
Park. He held in the India House the office of 
Accountant-General, and was the last of that title. 
He married, 1841, Anne, daughter of Edward Barron, 
of Northiam, in Sussex. Charles Lamb, in one of 
his letters to Bernard Barton, while humorously re- 
cording his neglect of some of the details of social 
life, says: "All the time I was at the East India 
House I never mended a pen. When I write to a 
great man at the Court end, he opens with surprise 
upon a naked note such as Whitechapel people inter- 
change, with no sweet degrees of envelope. I never 
enclosed one bit of paper in another, nor understood 
the rationale of it. Once only I sealed with borrowed 
wax, to set Sir Walter Scott a-wondering, signed 
with the Imperial quartered arms of England, which 
my friend Field bears in compliment to his descent 
in the female line from Oliver Cromwell. It must 
have set his antiquarian curiosity upon watering " 
(Talfourd's " Life and Letters of Lamb"). 

IV. Esther, born 1792, resided near her brother, 
Frederick Field, the Rector of Reepham, in Norfolk, 
and died 1871. 

V. Edmund, born 1799, a Russia merchant of the 
hrm of Brandt and Co., retired to Hastings, where 
he became active in works of benevolence and in 
pictorial studies. He died in 1880. 

VI. Frederick, born in London July 20, 1801. In 
1824 he was elected Fellow of Trinity College, 
Cambridge, in company with T. B. Macaulay. 
Among his private pupils was F. D. Maurice. He 
was Rector, first of Great Saxham, Suffolk, and after- 
wards, from 1842, of Reepham, Norfolk. He resigned 
this living in 1863, and removed to Norwich, where 
he continued to reside till his death, which occurred 

74 The House of Cromwell. 

on April ig, 1885. His name is inseparably con- 
nected with Chrysostom and Origen, and his edition 
of Origen's " Hexapla " is recognised as the most 
important contribution to Patristic theology which 
has appeared for a century. 

VII. Marriott, born 1803, emigrated to America, 
where he was drowned. His taste was for music, 
but he also produced three poems, entitled "Job," 
" Ecclesiastes," and the " Story of Esther." 

VIII. Maria Letitia, born 1805, has long con- 
stituted one of the Field colony at Hastings. 

II. Oliver, born 1761, left Worcester for America in 
1799, and died at New York in 1835. His wife was 
Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Gittings, of Shropshire. 
Their family when they left England were very young ; 
of these, Oliver died in childhood. Of the survivors, 
John, Joseph, and Thomas, two of them and the mother 
paid a visit to England many years ago, but are now 
[1879], together with their sisters, believed to have all 
married in America. 

III. John, born 1764, commenced business as a Russia 
merchant, but discovered before long a remarkable aptitude 
for astronomy and the construction of scientific apparatus. 
These qualities, combined as they were with a character 
for high integrity, becoming known to the Government, 
his services were secured for the Royal Mint, where he 
held the office of Umpire between the several departments 
on the precious metals passing between the officers and 
the Bank of England. Among his mechanical inventions, 
some of which were adopted in America and France, may 
be mentioned a counting -machine and an improved 
system of assay-beams and weights. He died, in 1843, 
at his residence, Bayswater Hill, in his seventy-ninth 
year. His portrait, reminding one of Pascal, is in the 
possession of his son Henry. He married Mary, only 

Henry, Fourth Sou of the Protector. 75 

child of Charles Pryer, of Tichfield, Hants, Esq., and by 
her, who died 1859, na cl eight children : 

I., II., and III. Henry, Charles, and Frederick, 
who all died young of typhus fever. 

IV. Henry William, born 1803. Was for fifty-one 
years an able servant of the Crown at the Mint, and 
about seven years ago retired to his estate of Munster 
Lodge, on the banks of the Thames, near Tedding- 
ton. He entered the Mint at the age of sixteen, at 
the time of Lord Maryborough's Mastership, and 
assisted at the great recoinage, then in progress. 
The chemical skill which he inherited from his father 
eventually found fuller scope when, in 1850, he suc- 
ceeded to the office of Queen's Assay -Master (an 
ancient appellation subsequently disused). This was 
also the period of Sir John Herschell's appointment 
to the Mastership, marking an economical crisis in 
the history of that establishment, which was long 
remembered as "the revolution of '51." In the labora- 
tory Mr. Field was ever Sir John's able auxiliary, 
more especially when it was resolved to establish and 
apply more incontrovertible tests to the quality of 
bullion devoted to coinage. The scientific details of 
Mr. Field's new system of working the assays cannot 
here be displayed ; it must suffice to say they re- 
ceived Herschell's emphatic approbation. A parting 
message which came from his old friend many years 
after will form a suitable voucher. " I am suffering," 
says Sir John, " under an attack of bronchitis which 
has lasted me all the winter, so excessively severe 
that I can hardly hold the pen, which must excuse 
the brevity of this, and being now in my eightieth 
year, I can hope for no relief. I shall retain, how- 
ever, to the last a pleasing recollection of aid and 
support I received from you during the period of my 
administration of the Mint. And I know you will 

j 6 The House of Cromwell. 

believe me ever, my dear sir, yours most truly, 
J. F. W. Herschell." — Mr. Field, in 1840, married 
Anna, daughter of T. Mills, of Coval Hall, Chelms- 
ford, and Vicar of Hellions-Bumpstead, Essex, and 
by her, who died in 1868, had: 

I. Mary Hester Katherine, born 1841 ; married, 
1864, to Arthur Evershed, of Ampthill, M.D., and 
has issue seven children. 

II. Katharine Anne Russell, born 1842 ; married, 
1866, to William Henry Snelling of the Admiralty, 
of Ashton Lodge, Selhurst, Esq., and has issue. 

III. Harriet Elizabeth Pryer, born 1843. 

IV. Frances Anna Ollyffe, born 1847. 

V. Henry Cromwell Beckwith, of Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge, Curate of St. Jude's, Liverpool ; 
born 1850. 

VI. Letitia Eliza, married, 1876, to Ralph 
Thomas, of Doughty Street, solicitor, and has 

VII. Minnie, died 1878. 

V. Emma Katharine, born 1809, lived with her 
widowed mother at Notting Hill, and after her 
mother's decease removed to Barnes. 

VI. Charles Frederick, born 1813 ; held office in 
the Admiralty ; married, in 1868, Flora Helen, daughter 
of Charles A. Elderton of the Bengal Medical Staff, 
and had issue : (1) Charles John Elderton, 1869 ; 
(2) Flora Georgiana, 1870 ; (3) Oliver Cromwell, 
1871 ; (4) Katharine Mary Ida, 1875. 

VII. Oliver Cromwell, born 1815, a Commander 
in the Royal Navy, having much in common with 
his renowned ancestor ; a man of energy, humanity, 
and prompt action, shown on various occasions in the 
rescuing of wrecked crews during his several voyages 
to and from India. His wife died in 1884. 

Henry, Fourth Son of the Protector. yy 

VIII. Samuel Pryer, M.A., of Trinity College, 
Cambridge, Vicar of Sawbridgeworth, born in 1816 ; 
died 1878 ; so devoted to the study of ecclesiastical 
architecture that he lavished much of his income in 
restoring the church fabrics successively under his 
care. By his wife, Jane, daughter of Admiral Sir 
W. H. Pierson, of Langton, Hants, he had four 
children: (1) Cyril, in the Royal Marines; (2) Bertha; 
(3) Oliver, in New Zealand ; (4) Maud, died 1885. 

IV. William, fourth son of John Field and Anne 
Cromwell, born 1767; died 1851 ; of Learn, near Warwick. 
In accordance with the Calvinistic theology of his parents, 
he was educated as a Protestant Dissenting minister, first 
at Daventry and afterwards at Homerton ; but adopting 
Unitarian principles, he was ordained by Dr. Priestley and 
Mr. Belsham to the pastorate of the ancient Presbyterian 
congregation of High Street Chapel in Warwick, and 
with this was combined for twenty-two years the over- 
sight of a similar community at Kenilworth. He early 
displayed that literary power, both political and polemical, 
which he was ever afterwards prompt to wield in the 
advocacy of popular rights, and which resulted in a vast 
variety of pamphlets belonging chiefly to the period of 
Lord Grey's first Reform Bill. Other works from his pen 
are the Life of his friend, Dr. Parr of Hatton, and an 
" Account of the Town and Castle of Warwick." His 
activity also resulted in the establishment of a public 
library, and of the Warwick Advertiser. His portrait, 
painted by Henry Wyatt, and exhibited in 1838, has been 
well engraved in large quarto by Charles Turner. The 
Diary of Henry Crabb Robinson gives us a glimpse of the 
domestic life of this family in 1839. ^ r - Robinson had 
been spending a fortnight with his friends, the Masqueriers, 
of Leamington, and adds: "This excursion has left several 
very agreeable recollections. Among them the most promi- 
nent was my better acquaintance with the Field family. I 

7$ The House of Cromwell. 

then knew Edwin Field chiefly as the junior partner of 
Edgar Taylor, who was at that time approaching the end 
of an honourable and useful life. Mr. and Mrs. Field 
senior were then living in an old-fashioned country-house 
between Leamington and Warwick. He had long been 
the minister at Warwick, and also kept a highly-respect- 
able school. He was known by a Life of Dr. Parr, whose 
intimate friendship he enjoyed. His wife was also a very 
superior woman ; I had already seen her in London. I 
heard Mr. Field preach on July 21 ; his sermon was 
sound and practical, opposed to metaphysical divinity. 
He treated it as an idle question (he might have said, 
a mischievous subtlety), whether works were to be con- 
sidered as a justifying cause of salvation, or the certain 
consequence of a genuine faith " (vol. hi., 178). The lady 
here mentioned was Mary, daughter (by his first wife, 
Elizabeth North) of William Wilkins, Baptist minister of 
Bourton-on-the-Water. She was married to Mr. Field in 
1803, and died in 1848, having had thirteen children, 
eleven of whom survived their parents in 1851, namely: 

I. Edwin Wilkins, born 1804, an eminent solicitor, 
practising first in Bedford Row, and afterwards in 
Lincoln's Inn Fields. His life will be given presently. 
He married, first, Mary Sharpe, niece of Samuel 
Rogers, the poet, and had one son named Rogers, after 
this great-uncle. Mr. Field married, secondly, Letitia, 
daughter of Robert Kinder of London, Esq., who died 
in 1890, aged eighty-eight. She became the mother 
of seven children, namely : (1) Basil, 1834, successor 
to his father ; (2) Allan, 1835, married Miss Phillips, 
and has five daughters ; (3) Walter, 1837, an eminent 
landscape and genre painter, married Miss Cookson, 
daughter of W. Strickland Cookson, solicitor, and 
has seven children ; (4) Mary, 1839; (5) Grace, 184 1 ; 
(6) Susan, 1843 ; (7) Emily, 1845. 

II. Arthur, born 1806, died unmarried about (1845?) 

Henry, Fourth Son of the Protector. 79 

III. John Hampden, born 1807; settled and married 
in America. 

IV. Emma, born 1809; died 1816. 

V. Ferdinand Emmans, born 1810 ; a merchant in 

VI. Laura, born 181 1 ; married \V. Langmead of 
Plymouth, and died 1879. 

VII. Algernon Sidney, born 1813 ; a solicitor at 
Leamington, and clerk of the peace for Warwickshire ; 
married Sarah Martin, of Birmingham, and has issue 
three sons and two daughters. The two daughters 
both married, the latter in 1886. 

VIII. Alfred, born 1814 ; merchant in New York, 
where he married the daughter of another emigrant, 
viz., Charlotte Errington, whose father, a native of 
Yarmouth in Suffolk, left England in consequence of 
failure in business. Miss Errington's mother, named 
Notcutt, was descended from an old Puritan family 
long known at Ipswich in Suffolk. Alfred Field had 
issue one son, named Henry Cromwell, and one 
daughter, named Rosa. 

IX. Caroline, born 1816 ; married Reginald A. 
Parker, solicitor, and has seven children. 

X. Alice, born 1817. 

XI. Lucy, born 1821 ; died 1822. 

XII. Horace, born 1823 ; architect; married Chris- 
tina, daughter of Edward White, of Glasgow, and had 
two children. 

XIII. Leonard, born 1824; barrister. 

V. Anne, eldest daughter of John Field and Anne 
Cromwell ; born 1756 ; died 1820, having married in 1787 
Thomas Gwinnel, of Worcester, merchant. Mr. Gwinnel, 
who died in 1818, aged sixty-eight, left fivechildren, namely : 

I. Thomas Cromwell, a solicitor at Worcester ; 
died 1835. 

8o The House of Cromwell. 

II. Anne Sophia ; married her cousin, Henry Crom- 
well Field. 

III. Amelia ; lived at Hastings with her cousin, 
Letitia Field. 

IV. Diana ; married Mr. Roberts, of Worcester. 

V. Eliza ; married Patrick Johnston, of the firm of 
Praed, Fane and Johnston, bankers in Fleet Street. 
Their children are : (i) Patrick, a solicitor (both he 
and his wife died July, 1884, and were buried at 
Thames Ditton) ; (2) Janet Eliza ; (3) Henry Crom- 
well, in Holy Orders (subsequently of 163, Ladbroke 
Grove Road, and chaplain of Kensal Green Cemetery ; 
he died 1892, aged fifty-seven) ; (4) Thomas, of 

VI. Letitia, second daughter of John Field and Anne 
Cromwell, became the second wife of Rev. William 
Wilkins, of Bourton-on-the-Water, and had four children, 

viz. : 

I. William, who died young. 

II. Letitia ; married William Kendall, of Bourton, 
solicitor, by whom she has six children : Herbert 
William, Amelia Letitia, Edmund, Agnes, Harriet, 

III. Henry Field, a solicitor at Chipping-Norton ; 
married Miss Spence, of that place. 

IV. Harriet, married George Tilsley, a solicitor at 

VII., VIII., IX. Elizabeth, Sophia, Mary, three 
unmarried daughters of John Field and Anne Cromwell. 
Elizabeth died at Stoke Newington, 1781, aged twenty-two ; 
buried at Cheshunt. Mary, who resided at Worcester, 
died in 1840. 

Life of Edwin Wilkins Field. 

If Edwin Field was not a statesman in the popular 
sense, he was the stimulating agent in bringing about 

Henry, Fourth Son of the Protector. 81 

many reforms for which professed statesmen have reaped 
the credit. Yet neither was he a law-reformer only ; he 
was a man of unbounded sympathies, and his Cromwellian 
energy was combined with versatile capacity. 

Born at Learn, near Warwick, on October 12, 1804, and 
educated at his father's school, he was articled, on March 19, 
1821, to Taylor and Roscoe, of King's Bench Walk, in 
the Temple. He was admitted attorney and solicitor in 
the Michaelmas term, 1825. He joined his fellow-clerk, 
William Sharpe, to form the firm of Sharpe and Field, in 
Broad Street, Cheapside, but in 1835 Taylor, who was 
then alone, took Sharpe and Field into partnership with 
him. The office of the firm was long in Bedford Row, 
but was subsequently removed to Lincoln's Inn Fields. 
" I remember as if it were yesterday," says he in after- 
life, " my good old father's wistful look as he left me 
there. That look has stood me in fast stead many a time 
since." His first action in life was to repay that father 
the expenses incurred in his outsetting. The father 
refused, but the pious dexterity of the son contrived to 
fulfil the intention. This generous impulse was the 
animus which pervaded all his subsequent schemes. His 
object was to make the practice of the law square with 
consciences as upright and scrupulous as his own. To 
become a law-reformer was therefore with him a moral 
necessity, and to see those reforms carried to a triumphant 
issue was but the fair reward of one who thought it more 
heroic to abolish abuses than to run away from them. 
His first essays in the Legal Observer had reference to the 
law respecting marriages abroad between English subjects 
within the prohibited degrees. This was in 1840 ; but his 
grand attack during the same year was directed against 
the Court of Chancery, and the Six-Clerks and Sworn- 
Clerks Office in particular. Lords Brougham and 
Cottenham had begun to clear the ground, but the crisis 
was not precipitated until Mr. Field led the public voice. 


82 The House of Cromwell, 

Details cannot be enlarged on here, but the judgment of 
contemporaries may establish the verdict. Spence, in his 
" Equity Jurisprudence," says : " To Mr. Field's exertions, 
enforced by Mr. Pemberton, the Court of Chancery is in 
great part indebted for the late improvements." John 
Wainewright, formerly one of the sworn clerks, and now 
[1879] taxing-master, says in a letter written since Mr. 
Field's death that his friend was " the first person who 
practically brought about this change." And Robert 
Bayley Follett, also a taxing-master, says : "I always 
considered the abolition of the Six-Clerks Office due to 
E. W. Field." 

The removal of one monster grievance ensures the fall 
of many parasitical institutions. In 1844 Field was in 
communication with the Board of Trade on the subject of 
a winding-up Act for joint-stock companies. The Act of 
1848 substantially embodied the proposals contained in a 
draft Bill laid before the legal adviser of the Board of 
Trade on April 27, 1846, by Field and his friend Rigge, 
who had formerly been in his office. His views on the 
question of legal remuneration were practically embodied 
in the Act of 1870. Mr. Field had abundance of work 
before him ; but success had now energized his arm and 
inspired his friends with confidence. After the year 1840 
there was scarcely a Royal Commission or Parliamentary 
Committee on Chancery reform or general legal questions 
before which he was not called upon to give evidence. 
Extracts from the list of his published writings may serve 
as an index to his subsequent services. Thus, in the 
Westminster Review, February, 1843, we have : " Recent 
and Future Law Reforms," "Judicial Procedure a Single 
and Inductive Science "; in the Law Review, August, 1848, 
" Comparative Anatomy of Judicial Procedure," reprinted 
in the New York Evening Post. Mr. Field also wrote 
papers, etc., " On the Right of the Public to form Limited- 
Liability Partnerships, and on the Theory, Practice, and 

Henry, Fourth Son of the Protector. 83 

Costs of Commercial Charters"; "On the Roots and 
Evils of the Law " ; " Economical Considerations on the 
Autocracy of the Bar, and on the System of Prescribed 
Tariffs for Legal Wages." A paper was read by him at 
Manchester in 1857, entitled "What should a Minister of 
Justice do ?" ; one before the Metropolitan and Provincial 
Law Association, held in London, 1859, on " Legal Educa- 
tion and the Comparative Anatomy of Legal, Medical, 
and other Professional Education"; he had also some 
correspondence with C. G. Loring, the eminent American 
advocate, on the present relations between Great Britain 
and the United States ; and " On the Property of Married 
Women," published in the Times. 

Brought up among the English Presbyterians, Mr. 
Field was not disposed to sit down quietly under the 
partial legislation which was still enforced against 
Unitarians under cover of the notorious Lady Hewley 
case, and accordingly, by the Dissenters' Chapels Bill of 
1844, he upset that legislation for ever. This is quickly 
told, but the struggle while it lasted was arduous, and to 
many appeared hopeless. Even his constant friend and 
ally, Crabb Robinson, despaired of attacking entrenched 
orthodoxy ; but a band of resolute men, who for many 
months sat on the question de die in diem, had at length 
a long conference with the Minister, Sir Robert Peel, Mr. 
Field acting as spokesman. Sir Robert, though a political 
opponent, promptly undertook to make it a Government 
measure ; while the elaborate historical argument with 
which Mr. Gladstone swayed the Commons on that 
occasion was mainly furnished by Mr. Field. 

It was Mr. Field's belief that few schemes would more 
tend to simplify and quicken legal operations than the 
concentration of all the courts of justice and offices of the 
law into one building. For thirty years before the passing 
of the Courts of Justice Building Act of 1865, he had 
urged the measure ; and when at last a Royal Commission 

84 The House of Cromwell. 

was issued to obtain and approve a plan upon which the 
new Courts should be built, it was natural that her Majesty 
should appoint " her trusty and well-beloved Edwin Wil- 
kins Field to be the secretary to the Commission." For 
his arduous duties in this capacity, extending over three 
years, embracing a thorough mastery of the details of the 
vast fabric, preparing instructions for the competing 
architects, and drawing up elaborate reports, Mr. Field 
refused all remuneration. But the firm of which he was 
the head were appointed by the Board of Works solicitors 
for acquiring the new site ; and under his vigorous super- 
intendence a very short time sufficed to clear the ground 
for an architectural pile which will not be complete with- 
out some artistic memorial of the enthusiastic secretary. 

He was an ardent lover of Nature, and of the pictorial 
renderings by which true poetry alone can apprehend her. 
Much of the interest which, as a member of the Council 
of University College, he took in that institution, assumed 
this form, as shown in his co-operating with Henry Crabb 
Robinson in the formation of the Flaxman Gallery, and 
the establishment of the Slade School of Art, in all which, 
as well as in the legislation which from time to time he 
put into motion for the furtherance of art and its pro- 
fessors, his advice and assistance were spontaneous. 
" No labour," says he, " that I can ever give on this 
subject will repay the obligations I am under to art and 
to artists for a great deal of the pleasure of my life. I 
reverence art. I look upon it as one of the divinest gifts 
of our nature. Develop a love of art in every way. It 
will give you new eyes wherewith to draw in and make 
part of yourself the very beauty of Nature, and new, un- 
dreamt-of capacities for enjoying it. It will assuredly 
improve and elevate your character." Accustomed as he 
was to be consulted in matters of taste, it awoke no 
suspicion when Mr. T. Cobb, one of his former clerks, 
asked him one day what painter he would recommend 

Henry, Fourth Son of the Protector. 85 

under the following circumstances : A number of clerks 
in a London office had subscribed to get the portrait of 
their master executed in the best style, and it was thought 
they could not have a better adviser than Mr. Field. 
After a little further explanation he replied : " Watson 
Gordon is your man." " But, sir," said Cobb, " Sir 
Watson paints only in Edinburgh, and we doubt whether 
his sitter would consent to travel so far." " Then," 
rejoined Mr. Field, " tell the young men to drag him 
there. He ought to be proud of such a request." In due 
time Mr. Field was himself requested to go to Edinburgh 
and sit to Sir Watson Gordon for a painting to be pre- 
sented to Mrs. Field. " Congratulate me," he wrote to 
Crabb Robinson. " A hundred of my old clerks have 
subscribed to have my portrait painted — men I have 
tyrannized over — bullied — taken the praise from, which 
they really had earned — who knew every bit of humbug 
in me — no sense of favours to come. Regard from such a 
body is worth having." The picture is now at the family 
residence at Squire's Mount, Hampstead, with the names 
of the hundred subscribers displayed on the frame. 
Another characteristic likeness is preserved in a picture 
painted by his son Walter — a river scene, in which Mr. 
Field, together with part of his family, is represented in 
the enjoyment of one of his favourite pursuits — that of 
boating on the Thames. It has been said of him that 
" not Izaac Walton loved his favourite river more than 
Mr. Field loved the Thames." Like the painter Turner, 
he descried in its varied aspects suggestive material for 
boundless poetry ; and in order fully to drink in its in- 
fluences, he took for holiday purposes a lease of the Mill 
House, Cleve, near Goring. Yet the Thames became the 
disastrous scene of his death. On July 30, 1871, the boat 
in which he was sailing with two of his clerks was upset 
by a gale of wind. One of the party, named Ellwood, as 
well as Mr. Field himself, was a swimmer ; the third who 

86 The House of Cromwell. 

could not swim, was the sole survivor. And all that this 
survivor could recollect about the affair was that he had 
at first gone down, but afterwards found himself sup- 
ported by his two friends, who held on to the boat, and 
were making for the shore ; that eventually Mr. Ellwood 
sank, and soon afterwards Mr. Field also. Five days 
later, at the Highgate Cemetery, Edwin Field was laid in 
a vault next to that in which sleeps his friend Henry 
Crabb Robinson. His age was sixty-seven. The above 
facts are derived from " A Memorial " drawn up by his 
friend Thomas Sadler, Ph.D., and published by Mac- 
millan in 1872, abounding with anecdotes and details of a 
highly interesting nature, but far too copious for adoption 
in this place. It may also be here stated that notices of 
the various members of the Field family will be found 
scattered up and down the biographies of Crabb Robinson, 
Serjeant Talfourd, and Charles Lamb. 




AMES, named after his maternal grandfather, Sir 
James Bourchier ; was baptized January 8, 1632, 
at St. John's Church in Huntingdon, where also 
he was buried on the following day. 



BAPTIZED at St. John's Church, Huntingdon, 
August 5, 1624, Bridget was married first to 
Henry Ireton in 1646, and secondly to Charles 
Fleetwood, probably in the early part of 1652. 
Her marriage with Ireton took place just before the com- 
pletion of the first Civil War, while Fairfax was investing 
the city of Oxford ; and at Holton St. Bartholomew, some 
six miles distant from the walls, and conjectured to have 
been the General's headquarters, the marriage is thus 
chronicled in the parish register : " 15 June, 1646. Henry 
Ireton, Commissary-General to Sir Thomas Fairfax, and 
Bridget, daughter to Oliver Cromwell, Lieutenant-General 
of the Horse to the said Sir Thomas Fairfax, were married 
by Mr. Dell in the Lady Whorvvood's house in Holton. 
Alban Eales, rector." Dell was Fairfax's chaplain. The 
ancient manor-house, which was surrounded by a moat, 
was taken down in 1804, and the present mansion built 
upon its site. 

Henry Ireton, descended from a good family, seated at 
Attenborough, co. Nottingham, born 161 1, was educated 
at Oxford (Trinity College) and the Middle Temple. He 
was brought up to the law, but when the civil contests 

88 The House of Cromwell. 

commenced, his Puritan and patriotic principles found 
more congenial play in the Parliament's army, where the 
inflexible character of his mind acted as a buttress and 
stimulant even to that of Cromwell. Strong sympathies 
early drew the men together, and during the principal 
passages of the war they acted in concert. After the 
King's death Ireton accompanied his father-in-law to 
Ireland, and being left by him there in the capacity of 
Lord-Deputy, he completed the subjugation of the natives 
with rare vigour and ability. Having crowned his career 
with the capture of Limerick in 1651, he was seized with 
a pestilential disease, and died there, in the presence 
of his brother-in-law, Henry Cromwell, sincerely lamented 
by the Republicans, who revered him as a soldier, a states- 
man, and a saint. He received a public funeral in West- 
minster Abbey, Oliver Cromwell walking as chief mourner, 
attended by several members of Parliament. The House 
passed a Bill for settling an estate of £2,000 per annum on 
the widow and children, a gift which had, in fact, been 
offered a few months previously to Ireton himself, but 
which he had nobly refused, urging that the Parliament 
had many just debts which he desired they would pay 
before they made any such presents. For himself, he had 
no need of their land, and would be far better pleased to 
see them doing the service of the nation than so liberal in 
disposing of the public treasure. " And truly," adds his 
friend Ludlow, " I believe he was in earnest, for as he was 
always careful to husband those things that belonged to 
the State to the best advantage, so was he most liberal in 
employing his own purse and person in the public service " 
(Ludlow's " Memoirs," i. 286). 

At the Restoration of Charles II., Ireton's body, like 
that of his father-in-law and of Bradshaw, was taken from 
its tomb in Westminster Abbey and hung on the Tyburn 
gallows. The sermon preached at his funeral in West- 
minster Abbey by Dr. John Owen, February 6, 1652, con- 

Bridget, Eldest Daughter of the Protector. 89 

tains a fitting eulogium of him, and with the recital of the 
dedication of that performance to Henry Cromwell his 
character may be dismissed. The text was from Daniel 
xii. 13 : " But go thou thy way till the end be, for thou 
shalt rest and stand in thy lot at the end of the days." 

(Slightly Abridged.) 

" To the Honourable and my very worthy friend, Colonel 
Henry Cromwell. 


" The ensuing sermon was preached upon as sad an 
occasion as on any particular account hath been given to 
this nation in this our generation. It is now published 
at the desire of very many who love the savour of that 
perfume which is diffused with the memory of the noble 
person particularly mentioned herein. It was in my 
thoughts to direct it immediately to her [the widow] who 
was most nearly concerned in him ; but, having observed 
how near she hath been to be swallowed up of sorrow, and 
with what slow progress He who took care to seal up 
instruction to her soul by all dispensations hath given her 
hitherto towards a conquest thereof, I was not willing to 
offer a new occasion to the multitude of her perplexed 
thoughts. In the meantime, sir, these lines are to you. 
Your near relation to that rare example of righteousness, 
faith, holiness, zeal, courage, self-denial, love to his 
country, wisdom and industry, the mutual tender affec- 
tion between you whilst he was living, your presence with 
him in his last trial and conflict, your design of looking into 
and following his steps and purpose in the work of God 
and his generation, as such an accomplished pattern as 
few ages have produced the like — [all these] did easily 
induce me hereunto. I have nothing to express concern- 
ing yourself, but only my desires that your heart may be 
fixed to the Lord God of your fathers, and that in the 

90 The House of Cromwell. 

midst of all the temptations and opposition wherewith 
your pilgrimage will be attended, you may be carried on 
and established in your inward subjection to, and outward 
contending for, the kingdom of the Dearly Beloved of our 
souls, not fainting nor waxing weary until you also receive 
your dismission to rest for your lot in the end of the days. 
" Sir, your most humble and affectionate servant, 

"John Owen." 

Upon Ireton's death, Cromwell fixed upon Charles 
Fleetwood to marry his widow. The Fleetwoods, deriving 
from an ancient stock in Lancashire, had recently made 
rapid progress in honours. Charles was the third son 
of Sir Miles Fleetwood, of Aldwinkle, Northamptonshire. 
In the Civil War the family became, like many others, 
divided, for while Sir William Fleetwood, of Aldwinkle, 
suffered for the King, his brother Charles was in the 
opposite ranks, becoming Oliver Cromwell's son-in-law 
and Commander-in-Chief of the Forces in England, and 
both were nominated lords in his Upper House — nay, it 
has always been a sort of conjectural creed with many 
that Oliver designed Charles Fleetwood as successor to 
himself in the Protectorate, but that the instrument or 
will to that effect was not discoverable when wanted. Is 
it not Lord Broghill who unhesitatingly declares that such 
was the case, and that the fair spoiler who discovered and 
burnt the document was one of the Protector's own 
daughters ? 

What sort of Protector Fleetwood would have made it 
were vain to surmise. Entertaining in theory many of 
the maxims of his father-in-law, he was totally wanting in 
moral ascendency and personal prowess. He witnessed 
the elevation of his pacific nephew, Richard Cromwell, 
with impatience, and it was the factious course which he 
thereupon thought fit to pursue, which drew from Henry 
(then in Ireland) the memorable and oft-quoted letter, 

Bridget, Eldest Daughter of the Protector. 9 1 

exposing the folly and wickedness of using the army in 
defence of any sectional form of faith. 

When at last the factions of the hour had exhausted 
themselves, and the return of Charles II. became inevit- 
able, Fleetwood's Puritan principles and theoretic objec- 
tions to the kingly office made him still hesitate to adopt 
those conciliatory measures by which other prominent 
agents mitigated the coming wrath. 

There was one respect in which he could look back on 
the late upturnings without any remorse. The part which 
he had himself borne in them was marked throughout by 
perfect disinterestedness. Expressing once to Henry his 
unwillingness to aid out of the public purse a distant 
relative whom he calls " poor Cromwell," he frankly adds : 
"You in part know my estate and condition. I cannot 
make an advantage of my public employments as many 
have [done], or others suppose I do. Neither am I 
solicitous about this business. I have sufficient cause 
from experience to trust the Lord with children whom I 
shall leave behind me. His blessing with a little is great 
riches " (Thurloe, vii. 595). 

Dr. Watts tells us, too, that his name was held in 
honour among the Churches. 

Not having been implicated in the trial and death of 
Charles I., the penalty which overtook him was limited to 
degradation and partial confiscation. He passed from 
the activities of a camp to the social obscurity of a meek 
Dissenter in the suburban region of Stoke Newington. 
That place thus became early conspicuous as the 
chosen asylum of some of the more wealthy Puritan 
families ; and the fines levied there on the Fleetwoods, 
Hartopps, and others of their non-conforming associates 
amounted in no long time to six or seven thousand pounds. 
Meanwhile, his Royalist father, Sir William, resumed his 
ancient position at Court in the capacity of cup-bearer to 
the restored monarch. 

92 The House of Cromwell. 

But it was not to Stoke Newington that Charles Fleet- 
wood first fled to escape the returning torrent of royalism. 
He was naturally attracted to Feltwell St. Mary, in 
Norfolk, where an estate had descended to his first wife 
or her heirs. This first wife was Frances, sole daughter 
and eventual heiress of Thomas Smith, of Whinston, in 
Norfolk, Esq., and Fleetwood's retirement to this place 
may be reasonably regarded as contemporary with the 
death of his second wife, Bridget Cromwell. Having 
reached this point, it will be best, before proceeding 
further with Fleetwood's own affairs, to conclude the 
personal history of that excellent lady. 

Bridget Cromwell belonged to the Puritan party par 
excellence, to which result the characters of both her 
husbands greatly contributed. The confederacy of Henry 
Ireton, Charles Fleetwood, Edmund Ludlow, John Hutch- 
inson, and their associates, most of them being Baptists, 
represented the root and branch section of the anti- 
monarchists. Ludlow ardently admired Bridget's first 
husband, but could never be reconciled to her father ; 
while Mrs. Colonel Hutchinson's memoir betrays the same 
envious spirit against the entire family of the Protector, 
always excepting her dear friend Bridget. " Oliver's wife 
and children," says she, " were setting up for principality, 
which suited no better with any of them than scarlet on 
the ape. Only to speak the truth of Oliver himself, he 
had much natural greatness, and well became the place he 
had usurped. His daughter Fleetwood was humbled, 
and not exalted with these things ; but the rest were 
insolent fools." 

There was no lack of cordiality between Bridget and 
her father, however much her own familiar friends might 
misunderstand him. She became, too, the mother of a 
daughter, the renowned Mrs. Bendysh, who, more than 
any other person in the succeeding generation, judged him 
aright and reflected his character. Fortunately there are 

Bridget, Eldest Daughter of the Protector. 93 

sufficient materials in Oliver's correspondence to illustrate 
his estimate of Bridget's piety and his care to foster it. 
The first letter to be noticed was sent to her a few months 
after her first marriage, and constitutes one of the choicest 
gems of the Cromwellian biography. The " sister Clay- 
pole " referred to was Elizabeth Cromwell, who had also 
been very recently married. 

" For my beloved daughter Bridget Ireton, at Cornbury 
the General's Quarters. 

" London, 25 October, 1646. 

" Dear Daughter. 

" I write not to thy husband, partly to avoid trouble, 
for one line of mine begets many of his, which I doubt 
makes him sit up too late ; partly because I am myself 
indisposed at this time, having some other considerations. 
Your friends at Ely are well. Your sister Claypole is, I 
trust, in mercy exercised with some perplexed thoughts. 
She sees her own vanity and carnal mind ; bewailing it. 
She seeks after, as I hope also, what will satisfy. And 
thus to be a seeker, is to be of the best sect next to a 
finder ; and such an one shall every faithful humble seeker 
be at the end. Happy seeker, happy finder ! Who ever 
tasted that the Lord is gracious, without some sense of 
self vanity and badness ? Who ever tasted that gracious- 
ness of His, and could go less in desire, — less than pressing 
after full enjoyment ? Dear heart, press on. Let not 
husband, let not any thing cool thy affections after Christ. 
I hope he [thy husband] will be an occasion to inflame 
them. That which is best worthy of love in thy husband 
is that of the image of Christ he bears. Look on that 
and love it best, and all the rest for that. I pray for thee 
and him. Do so for me. My service and dear affections 
to the General [Fairfax] and Generaless. I hear she is 
very kind to thee. It adds to all other obligations. 
" I am, thy dear Father, 

" Oliver Cromwell." 

94 The House of Cromwell. 

In the next extant letter she is addressed, not as the wife 
of Ireton, but as that of Fleetwood, on her second arrival 
in Ireland. It is not difficult to see that this second visit 
had something depressing about it. Her first experiences 
of Irish life had been in company with the gallant Ireton, 
but now her heart seems to have been yearning for the 
children whom we judge to have been left behind her in 
England. Whatever it was, her father evidently felt that 
there was need for solace and encouragement. But, first 
of all, he seeks to silence her groundless anxieties, as 
though she were the victim of penal discipline. "The 
voice of fear," says he, " is, If I had done this, or avoided 
that, how well it had been with me. (This I know hath 
been her vain reasoning.) Whereas, love argueth on this 
wise, What a Christ have I. — What a Father in and 
through Him. — What a name hath my Father, merciful, 
gracious, long suffering, abundant in goodness and truth, 
forgiving iniquity, transgression, and sin. What a nature 
hath my Father. He is love, free in it, unchangeable, 
infinite. What a Covenant between Him and Christ for 
all the seed, for every one ; wherein He undertakes all, 
and the poor soul nothing. And shall we seek for the 
root of our comforts within ourselves ? Acts of obedience 
are not perfect, and therefore yield not perfect grace. 
Faith, as an act, yields it not but only as it carries us into 
Him who is our perfect rest and peace, in whom we are 
accounted of and received by the Father even as Christ 
himself. This is our high calling. Rest we here, and here 
only." He concludes by assuring her that her two children, 
" the boy and Betty, are very well." The boy is Henry 
Ireton ; but Betty may be either Elizabeth or Bridget. 

A third letter from her father, dated two years later and 
directed to Fleetwood, is in a similar strain as concerning 
herself, and need not therefore be quoted. On returning 
to England with her husband and the infant children born 
to them in Dublin, she had to witness during the next three 

Bridget, Eldest Daughter of the Protector. 95 

years her father's death and the downfall of his family. 
Amid the national confusions which prepared the way for 
the Restoration, she did her utmost to sustain her husband 
in some sort of consistent action, but his scrupulous con- 
science proved a very intractable factor in that whirlpool 
and conflict of second-rate men. Edmund Ludlow has 
recorded a scene in which with tears she besought his 
counsel and aid. It has been said that she disapproved 
of her father's elevation to the supreme power ; and very 
possibly she may in former years have entertained theo- 
retical objections to such a measure, especially when she 
lived in companionship with Ireton. The place of her 
death is uncertain, but her burial is recorded at St. Anne's, 
Blackfriars, July 1, 1662. Few, if any, of her letters 
survive, except the following one which she sent back 
from England to her brother Henry, when he superseded 
her own husband, Fleetwood, in the government of Ireland. 

Mrs. Bridget Fleetwood to Henry Cromwell, Lord-Deputy 
in Ireland, date 1657 (?). 

" Dear Brother, 

" I am very unfit and unapt to write, and yet I 
would not altogether neglect to stir up that affection 
which ought to be betwixt so near relations, and is very 
apt to decay. I blame none but myself. I desire rather 
so to do than to lay it upon others, or to be a judge of 
others. I could wish there had not been so much 
occasion of the contrary, wherein my corrupt heart hath 
taken advantage. I desire to be humbled for it, and not 
to give way, whatever others' unkindness may be, to 
weaken that love and affection which ought to be and is 
the desire of my soul to defend and nourish in me towards 
yourself, though it may be not much cared for. Yet, 
however, I shall labour to be found in my duty, which is 
to be, 

" Your dear and affectionate sister, 

" Bridget Fleetwood." 

96 The House of Cromwell. 

Abstract of the Will of General Fleetwood, recorded in the 
Prerogative Court of Canterbury , J anuary 10, 1690. 

" I, Charles Fleetwood of Stoke Newington in the 
County of Middlesex, Esq. being through the mercy of 
the Lord in health and memory, do make &c. First, I 
commend my soul and spirit into the hands of my gracious 
God and father through our Lord Jesus Christ by the 
Holy Spirit enabling me to lay hold upon the imputed 
righteousness of Christ for my justification, and in virtue 
of that righteousness do I hope to stand at the great day 
of the Lord. My body to be buried in the same grave or 
as near as may be to my last dear wife. Debts, wages, 
&c. to be paid within one year of death. To my daughter 
the Lady Elizabeth Hartopp £100 as a last expression of 
my thankfulness for the constant dear love and duty she 
hath always manifested unto me. I give unto dear 
daughter Carter £100. To my cousin Mary Waterson 
£20 over and above the £"20 which my last dear wife 
owed her by bond which I now direct my executor to pay. 
To Anne Pace £10 for myself and £10 more which my 
last wife gave her [two devises left blank, follow]. I give 
to the poor distressed people of God £200 such as my 
executor with two of my trustees hereafter named (Sir 
John Hartopp to be one) shall think fit objects of charity. 
£10 to be paid to the poor of that society with whom I 
have had Christian communion in the Gospel, — as also 
£6 to my antient friend James Berry Esq. and £3 to Mr. 
Howard minister of the Gospel and to Mr. Thomas Taylor 
minister of the Gospel at Cambridge and Mr. Pelloe 
minister of the Gospel at Sudbury, and £2 to any others 
that I shall name in a paper behind me. I give and 
devise to Sir John Hartopp bart., Samuel Desborrow 
doctor of physic, Captain John Nicholas, and Nathaniel 
Gould merchant their heirs and assigns all my manor or 
lordship of Burrough alias Burrough-Castle, Co. Suffolk, 

Bridget, Eldest Daughter of the Protector. 97 

in trust to pay legacies &c. and afterwards to convey the 
same to my son and heir Smyth Fleetwood and his heirs 
for ever. To each of my said trustees £5 for mourning. 
And whereas there is a debt due to me from my son 
Bendysh, my will is that my executor shall not demand 
the said debt till God shall in His providence make a 
comfortable provision for his wife and children. My son 
Smyth Fleetwood to be sole executor — Signed 10 January 
1690 — in presence of Edward Terry, Mary Waterson, 
John Wealshdale. Proved by Smyth Fleetwood in 
P. C. C. 2 November 1692. Registered 'Fane' 201." — 
Notes and Queries, May 4, 1872. 

In accordance with the above will, General Fleetwood 
was buried in his wife's tomb in Bunhill Fields. 

Children of the Protector's daughter Bridget by Henry Ireton, 
her first husband. 

I. Henry, who married Katharine, daughter of the 
Right Hon. Henry Powle, Speaker of the House of 
Commons in 1689 and Master of the Rolls. He became 
Lieutenant-Colonel of Dragoons, and Gentleman of the 
Horse to William III., but died without issue. 

II. Elizabeth, born about 1647. A brief reference to 
her childhood occurs in a letter sent in 165 1 by Oliver St. 
John "to his kinsman Oliver Cromwell," then command- 
ing in Ireland: "Tell my cousin Ireton that his wife 
breeds Betty up in the Popish religion to worship images, 
and that [which] she now worships teacheth her to 
frown." What this playful sarcasm indicates we can 
only conjecture. In 1674 she was married to Thomas 
Polhill, of Otford, co. Kent, Esq. 

Family of Polhill. 

The issue of the marriage of Elizabeth Ireton and Mr. 
Polhill consisted of three sons : (1) David, of whom pre- 


98 The House of Cromwell. 

sently ; (2) Henry, who died in his father's life-time ; 
(3) Charles, a Smyrna merchant, born 1679 > died s.p. 
1755, having married Martha, daughter of Thomas Streat- 
feild, of Sevenoaks. 

David, of Cheapstead, in Kent, born in 1675 ; M.P. for 
the county, then for Bramber, and finally for Rochester, 
which city he represented till he reached the age of 
seventy-nine. This is the gentleman whom Daniel De 
Foe memorialized as the leader of the Kentish Petitioners 
of 1701, a body of five delegates who, in the reign of 
William III., presented a remonstrance to the Houses 
condemnatory of their subservience to the Court of 
France, the other names being Thomas Colepepper, 
William Colepepper, William Hamilton, and Justinian 
Champneys, Esquires. For this they were committed to 
the Gatehouse, and kept prisoners for a week ; but their 
return into Kent resembled the march of conquerors. 
Polhill was met at Blackheath by five hundred horsemen, 
and escorted to his house at Otford ; the other four were 
met at Rochester by nearly half the county, and from 
thence on to Maidstone, where flowers were strewn in 
their path, and all the church bells set a-ringing. A con- 
temporary print is preserved in the Polhill family contain- 
ing the portraits of the five patriots. 

Mr. Polhill was thrice married — first to Elizabeth 
Trevor ; secondly, to Gertrude, sister of Thomas Hollis, 
Duke of Newcastle ; and, thirdly, to Elizabeth, daughter 
of John Borrett, of Shoreham ; the last became the 
mother of four sons and one daughter. In these sons 
and daughters were united not only the blood of Oliver 
Cromwell and Henry Ireton, but also that of the patriot, 
John Hampden, for Elizabeth Borrett's mother was the 
daughter of Sir John Trevor, of Denbighshire, by Ruth, 
eldest daughter of John Hampden. The names of these 
children were Charles, Thomas, Henry, John, and Eliza- 
beth, all of whom died unmarried exceot 

Bridget, Eldest Daughter of the Protector. 99 

Charles, of Cheapstead, and afterwards of Otford ; 
married, first, Tryphena Penelope, daughter of Sir John 
Shelley, of Mitchel Grove, Sussex, bart., and by her 
had one daughter, Tryphena Penelope, who married 
George Stafford, and had two sons, Charles and Thomas 
George. Mr. Polhill by his second wife, Patience Has- 
well, had seven children : George, his successor ; Charles, 
who died unmarried ; David, died in infancy ; Patience, 
unmarried ; a second David, unmarried ; Thomas Alfred, 
lost in the South Seas from the Guardian (Captain Rion) ; 
Francis, Comptroller of the Customs at Monserrat, in the 
West Indies, died 1839. Mr. Polhill died in 1805, and 
was succeeded by his eldest son, 

George, who married Mary, daughter of Robert 
Porteus, and grand-niece of Dr. Beilby Porteus, Bishop of 
London, and died in 1839. Their children were : 
(1) Charles, who married Sarah Marshall, and had two 
daughters, Beatrice Mary, born 1867, married, 1888, to 
Alfred George Streatfield Beadnell, and has one son, 
Montgomery Polhill Beadnell, and Elizabeth Mary, born 
1868, married, 1890, to Robert Brownell Dobble, has issue 
one daughter, Sybil Mary ; (2) Mary Elizabeth Campbell, 
died 1884 ; (3) Frederick Campbell, of Sundridge, Seven- 
oaks, curate of Hever, which post he resigned in 1850 ; 
(4) George, died in 1892 ; (5) Henry Western Onslow, 
rector of Ashurst, Kent, married to Miss Frances Charlotte 
Streatfield. The seat of the Polhills contains a valuable 
collection of the portraits of their illustrious ancestry, 
including many full lengths. 

III. — Jane, second daughter of Bridget Cromwell and 
Henry Ireton ; born about 1648 ; married, 1668, Richard 
Lloyd, of St. James's, Duke's Place, Esq., widower, and 
had an only child, Jane, wife in 1710 of Nicholas (or 
Henry) Morse, Esq. Issue of this marriage were four 
sons : David, Henry, Nicholas, Daniel. There were also 
three daughters : Elizabeth, Jane, and Anne, of whom 


The House of Cromwell. 

the eldest married Mr. Oyle, a physician, and became the 
mother of Elizabeth, married to Samuel Codrington ; 
Jane, the second daughter, became Mrs. Burroughs ; and 
Anne, the youngest daughter, became Mrs. Roberts. 

After the death of Richard Lloyd, his widow (Jane 
aforesaid) married Mr. William Barnard. The descendants 
of this marriage are set out below : 

William Barnard, of Penning- 
ton and Longthorpe, colonel ; 
b. 1634; m. 1680; d. 1709; 
bur. at Pennington. 

; Jane, relict of Richard Lloyd, 
and dau. of Henry Ireton, by 
Bridget, eldest dau. of Oliver 

William Barnard, b. 1685 ;= 
d. 1775 ; bur. at Great El- 
lingham, Norfolk. 

William Barnard, b. at Rock- 
land, Norfolk, 1 709; d. Sept., 
1788; bur. at Old Meeting, 

; Mary, dau. and heir of Jas. Corsbie, of 
the family of Corsbie, of Corsbie Castle, 
Berwickshire ; b. at Ashwellthorpe, 
1714; d. 21 May, 1801 ; bur. at Old 
Meeting, Norwich. 

Thomas Barnard, b. 18 Dec.,=j=Ann, youngest dau. and co-heir of 

1757 ; mar. at Sudbury, May, 
1789; d. 1 April, 1833. 

Samuel and Deborah Stott, of St. 
Edmundsbury, Suffolk ; b. 10 Mar., 
1758 ; d. 11 Nov., 1811. 

Alfred Barnard, b. 14 Feb. ,=j=Frances Katherine, eldest dau. and co-heir of 

1793; mar. 10 Nov., 1817 ; 
d. 4 July, 1835 ; bur. at Octa- 
gon Chapel, Norwich. 

Francis Smith, of Norwich (descendant of 
Robert Pierrepont, 1st Earl of Kingston-upon- 
Hull), and Sarah (Marsh) ; b. 7 May, 1796 ; 
d. 20 Jan., 1869 ; bur. in the Rosary, Norwich. 

Alfred Francis Barnard, b. at Norwich, 1 
4 Jan., 1821 ; mar. in London, 5 Jan., 
1854; d. in London, 14 Sept., 1894; 
bur. at Highgate Cemetery. 

: Mary Hog, eldest dau. of Thos. Cal- 
vert Girtin and Rachel (Haward), and 
grand-dau. of Thomas Girtin, the 
water-colour painter ; b. 20 Jan., 

Francis Pierrepont Barnard, son and heir, of=Eliza Smith, eldest dau. and 
St. Mary's Abbey, Windermere ; M.A. Oxon ; co-heir of William Pollard, 
some time headmaster of Reading School, J. P., of St. Mary's Abbey, 
Berks; b. 27 Nov. 1854; mar. at Winder- Windermere, 
mere, 15 April, 1884. 

Touching the four sons of Mr. Morse aforesaid, nothing 
seems recoverable unless we make an exception in favour 
of the third named, and regard him as the Nicholas Morse 
who was Governor of Madras in the middle of the last 

Bridget, Eldest Daughter of the Protector. 101 

century, and whose daughter, Amelia, married Henry 
Vansittart, Governor of Bengal, and father of Nicholas, 
the first Lord Bexley. It may suffice to add that the 
claim which the Vansittart family have long asserted, 
touching their descent from the Protector through Henry 
Ireton and Nicholas Morse, has every right to be accepted 
as legitimate, the only difficulty in the way being that 
Mark Noble gives " Moore " instead of " Morse " as 
the name of Jane Lloyd's husband. That this is an 
error, occasioned by the resemblance of the two words in 
manuscript, hardly admits of a doubt. It is also to be 
noted that the lady who about the same time, viz., in 
1771, became the wife of the last Oliver Cromwell, Esq., 
was named Mary Morse, indicative at least of friendly 
relations existing between families so named. 

Amelia Morse, the wife of Governor Henry Vansittart 
aforesaid, died in 1818 at her house on Blackheath, aged 
eighty. Her husband had long been dead, having perished 
at a comparatively early age on his passage to India in the 
A urora frigate. 

Nicholas Vansittart, Baron Bexley, was the second 
son of Henry Vansittart, the Governor of Bengal. Lord 
Bexley was born in 1766, four years before his father's 
death at sea. In 17S4 he went to Christchurch, Oxford, 
and in 1791 was called to the Bar in Lincoln's Inn. He 
entered the House as member for Hastings, and in 1801 
was entrusted with a special mission to Copenhagen. The 
Danes, overawed by Napoleon, refused at that time to 
entertain an English ambassador, and on returning home, 
Mr. Vansittart became joint Secretary of the Treasury, 
which office he held till the Addington Ministry resigned 
in 1804. Under Lord Liverpool he became Chancellor of 
the Exchequer in 1812, and held the post for twenty-one 
years. In 1823 he obtained his peerage and a seat in the 
Cabinet, and took little share afterwards in public affairs, 
dying in 1851, at the age of eighty-five, at his residence of 

102 The House of Cromwell. 

Footscray, near Bexley, in Kent. He married in 1806 the 
Hon. Katharine Isabella Eden, second daughter of William, 
first Lord Auckland ; but by her, who died four years after- 
wards, he left no issue, whereupon the barony of Bexley be- 
came extinct, and a pension of £3,000 lapsed to the Crown. 

IV. — Bridget, third daughter of Bridget Cromwell and 
Henry Ireton ; born about the year 1650. The biography 
of this lady, as heretofore given, simply consists of three 
different sketches, supplied respectively by Samuel Say, a 
Dissenting minister, by Dr. J. Brooke, and by her relation, 
Mr. Hewling Luson. In the following version an attempt 
has been made to impart greater completeness to the account 
by blending these three narratives. Bridget, together with 
one or two others of the family, appears to have been left 
under the care of their grandmother, the Protectress, 
when their own mother went to Ireland with her second 
husband, Fleetwood, in 1652. Her grandfather's death 
occurred before she was ten years of age ; that of her 
mother followed four years later ; so that she must have 
had an unquiet time of it before she settled down with her 
sisters beneath the roof of their step-father, Fleetwood, 
in the nonconforming atmosphere of Stoke Newington. 
Here she passed four or five years of her life, till her 
marriage in 1669 with Thomas Bendysh, of Gray's Inn 
and of Southtown, Yarmouth, Esq., a distant relative of 
Sir Thomas Bendysh, who had served as Ambassador to 
Turkey both from Charles I. and from the Protector 
Oliver. Soon after her marriage she settled at South- 
town, near Yarmouth, where her husband owned farms 
and salt-mines. It would be highly interesting, were the 
materials extant, to trace the early married life of this 
excellent lady. 

Samuel Say, the earliest of Mrs. Bendysh's biographers, 
had many opportunities of knowing her intimately, for he 
had not only been pastor of a church in the neighbouring 
town of Ipswich, but he married a relative of Mr. Carter, 

Bridget, Eldest Daughter of the Protectoi'. 103 

of Yarmouth, the husband of Mary Fleetwood ; moreover, 
he had been a fellow-student with Dr. Watts. Here is his 
description of her personal appearance : 

"As Mrs. Bendysh in the features of her face exactly 
resembled the best picture of her grandfather Oliver which 
I have ever seen, and which is now at Rosehall, in the 
possession of Sir Robert Rich, so she seems also as exactly 
to resemble him in the cast of her mind — a person of great 
presence and majesty, heroic courage and indefatigable 
industry, and with something in her countenance and 
manner that at once attracts and commands respect the 
moment she appears in company." 

Dr. J. Brooke, of Norwich, another of her biographers, 
whose testimony is of a later date, remarks : "There was 
something in her person when she was dressed and in 
company that could not fail of attracting at once the 
notice and respect of any strangers that entered the room 
wherever she was, though the company were ever so 
numerous, and though many of them might be more 
splendid in their appearance. Splendid, indeed, she never 
was, her highest dress being a plain silk ; but it was 
usually of the richest sort, though, as far as I can remem- 
ber, of what is called a quakers colour ; and she wore 
besides a kind of black silk hood or scarf that I rarely, if 
ever, observed to be worn by ladies of her time ; and 
though hoops were in fashion long before her death, 
nothing, I suppose, could have induced her to wear one. 
I can so far recollect her countenance as to confirm what 
is observed by Mr. Say of her likeness to the best pictures 
of Oliver ; and she no less resembled him in the qualities 
of enterprise, resolution, courage, and enthusiasm." 

The narrative of Mr. Hewling Luson, the third of her 
biographers, who, like Dr. Brooke, knew her only in 
advanced life, presents us with a similar picture. Luson's 
mother was a younger sister of Hannah Hewling (Mrs. 
Henry Cromwell), and the sympathy which Mrs. Bendysh 

104 The House of Cromwell. 

felt for the fate of her brothers fully accounts for the 
frequency of her visits to the elder Mr. Luson's house. 
"I was young," says Hewling Luson — "not more than 
sixteen — when Mrs. Bendysh died, yet she came so often 
to my father's house that I remember her person, her 
dress, her manner, and her conversation, which were all 
strikingly peculiar, with great precision, and I have heard 
much more of her than I have seen. She was certainly, 
both without and within, in her person and in her spirit, 
exactly like her grandfather, the Protector. Her features, 
the turn of her face, and the expression of her counten- 
ance, all agree very exactly with the excellent pictures I 
have seen of the Protector in the Cromwell family ; and 
whoever looks upon the print prefixed to the octavo ' Life 
of Cromwell,' said to be published by the late Bishop 
Gibson about the year 1725, which exactly agrees with 
these pictures, will have a clear idea of Mrs. Bendysh's 
person, if their imaginations can add a female dress, a 
few years in age, and a very little softening of the features. 
I refer to that print because the fine engraving of Crom- 
well in the Houbraken Collection bears very little resem- 
blance to the pictures in the Cromwell family, and no 
resemblance at all to Mrs. Bendysh. . . . She had strong 
and masculine sense, a free and spirited elocution, much 
knowledge of the world, great dignity in her manner, and 
a most engaging address. The place of her residence was 
called the Salt Pans [near Yarmouth]. In this place, 
which is quite open to the road, I have often seen her in 
the morning, stumping about with an old straw hat on 
her head, her hair about her ears, without stays, and 
when it was cold an old blanket about her shoulders and 
a staff in her hands — in a word, exactly accoutred to 
mount the stage as a witch in ' Macbeth.' Yet if at such a 
time she were accosted by any person of rank or breeding, 
the dignity of her manner and politeness of style, which 
nothing could efface, would instantly break through the 

Bridget, Eldest Daughter of the Protector. 105 

veil of debasement which concealed her native grandeur, 
and a stranger to her customs might become astonished 
to find himself addressed by a princess while he was look- 
ing at a mumper. Mrs. Bendysh resembled the Protector 
in nothing more than in that restless, unabated activity of 
spirit, which, by the coincidence of a thousand favourable 
circumstances, conducted him to the summit of power 
and of fame, but entangled her, generally unfavoured by 
success, in a thousand embarrassments and disgraces. 
Yet she never fainted, nor was wear)'. One prospect lost, 
another still she gained, and the enthusiasm of her faith 
kept pace with, or, to speak more truly, far outran the 
activity of her mind. . . . She had one constant, never- 
failing resource against the vexation of disappointments, 
for as she determined, at all events, to serve the Lord 
with gladness, her way was to rejoice at everything as it 
arrived. If she succeeded, she was thankful for that ; 
and if she suffered adversity, which was generally her lot, 
she was vastly more thankful for that, and she so managed 
that her spiritual joys always encreased with her outward 
sufferings. . . . Mrs. Bendysh's religion was in the 
highest strain of Calvinistic enthusiasm, and Dr. Owen 
in his writings was her spiritual guide. She no more 
doubted the validity of her election to the kingdom of 
heaven than Squire Wilkes doubts the validity of his for 
the county of Middlesex. But her enthusiasm never 
carried her to greater lengths of extravagance than in 
the justification of her grandfather, of whose memory 
she was passionately fond. It, however, unfortunately 
happened that her fancy led her to defend him exactly in 
that part of his character which was least defensible. 
She valued him, no doubt, very highly as a General and 
politician, but she had got it fixed in her head that this 
kind of fame was vain and worthless when compared with 
the greater glory of his saintship. . . . Now, it could 
not but happen that for five hundred who might be pre- 

106 The House of Cromwell. 

vailed with to receive Oliver as a great General, not five 
could be found who would admit him to be a great saint, 
and this constant kicking against Oliver's saintship 
wrought the good lady sore travail." 

" This extraordinary woman," says Dr. Brooke, "wanted 
only to have acted in a superior sphere to be ranked by 
historians among the most admirable heroines. . . . She 
lived through what the Dissenters but too justly called 
the troublous times, when the penal laws against con- 
venticles were strained to their utmost rigour. The 
preaching of this sect was then held in the closest con- 
cealment, and the preachers went in momentary danger 
of being dragged out by spies and informers to heavy 
fines and severe imprisonment. With these spies and in- 
formers she maintained a perpetual war. This kind of 
bustle was in all respects in the true taste of her spirit. 
I have heard many stories of her dealings with these un- 
gracious people. Sometimes she circumvented and out- 
witted them, and sometimes she bullied them, and the 
event generally was that she got the poor parson out of 
their clutches. Upon these occasions and upon all others 
when they could express their attachment to her, Mrs. 
Bendysh was sure of the common people. She was, as 
she deserved to be, very dear to them. When she had 
money, she gave it freely to such as wanted ; and when 
she had none, which was pretty often the case, they 
were sure of receiving civility and commiseration. She 
practised an exalted humanity. If in the meanest sick- 
room she found the sufferer insufficiently attended, she 
turned attendant herself, and would sit hours in the 
poorest chamber to administer support or consolation to 
the afflicted. In this noble employment she passed much 
of her time." She was in the secret of the Revolution of 
1688, and would go into shops in different parts of the 
town under pretence of cheapening silks or other goods, 
and on coming out to her coach take occasion to drop 

Bridget, Eldest Daughter of the Protector. 107 

bundles of papers to prepare the minds of the people for 
that happy event, for she might safely be trusted with 
any secret, were it ever so important. After the accession 
of William and Mary, she was presented to the Queen by 
Archbishop Tillotson with a view to the settlement of a pen- 
sion, to enable her to support in some creditable measure 
the dignity which she had tasted in early days ; but the 
death of both prelate and Queen defeated that design. 

Mrs. Bendysh's husband had died on April 27, 1707, 
and was buried in St. Nicholas Church, Yarmouth, where 
she erected a monument to his memory. She survived 
him twenty-two years, dying in 1729 at the age of eighty. 
She was buried at Yarmouth, having had two sons and 
one daughter, viz. : 

1. Thomas, who died in the West Indies. His first 
wife was the mother of his only son, Ireton, a young man 
of great promise, whose early death was much lamented. 
His second wife was Katharine Smith, of Colskirk, near 
Fakenham, a lady of property ; but extravagant habits 
darkened their remaining history. The fate of this family 
was no doubt one of the sorrows of old Mrs. Bendysh. 

2. Bridget, lived and died at the paternal seat of 
Southtown. She died at Yarmouth, unmarried, in 1736, 
aged sixty-four. 

3. Henry, of Bedford Row, London, where he died in 
1740 ; married Martha Shute, sister of the first Viscount 
Harrington, and had (1) Henry, of Chingford, and of the 
Salt-pans at Southtown, died unmarried in 1753, when 
the name of Bendysh became extinct in this branch of the 
family ; (2) Mary, married to William Berners, of whom 
presently; (3) Elizabeth, married, 1756^0 John Hagar, of 
Waresley Park, son of Admiral Hagar. 

Family of Berners. 

Mary, grand-daughter of Bridget Bendysh, and William 
Berners her husband both died in 1783. Their surviving 

108 The House of Cromwell. 

children were : (i) Charles, of whom presently ; (2) Henry, 
rector of Hambledon, near Henley-on-Thames, had one 
child (Emma) by his wife, Elizabeth Weston. 

Charles, born 1740 ; married Katharine, daughter of 
John Laroche, of Egham, M.P. for Bodmin, and had 
issue : 

(1) Charles, his heir, who, dying unmarried in 1831, 
was succeeded by his brother ; (2) Henry Denny ; 
(3) William, a London banker, married Rachel Jarrett, 
of Freemantle, in Hampshire, and had William, a 
captain in the horse artillery, Henry, married to 
Miss Saunders, and Arthur ; (4) Martha, married to 
Herbert Newton Jarrett, of Jamaica, Esq., and 
died 1831. 

Mr. Charles Berners, died 1S15, and was succeeded, 
first by his son Charles, secondly by his second son, 

Rev. Henry Denny Berners, LL.B., Archdeacon of 
Suffolk. By his wife Dinah, daughter of John Jarret, 
Esq., he had issue : (1) John, born 1800, died s.p. ; 
(2) Hugh, born 1801, Captain R.N., married, 1832, Julia, 
daughter of John Ashton, of the Grange, Cheshire, died 
at Wolverstone, in Suffolk, in 1891, aged eighty-nine ; he 
had a son and three daughters ; (3) Ralph, born 1803, 
rector of Harkstead and Erwarton, in Suffolk, married, 
1831, Eliza, daughter of Sir Cornelius Cuyler, of Welwyn, 
bart., and had three sons and two daughters ; (4) Alice, 
died unmarried, 1820. 

Children of Bridget Cromwell by her second husband, 
Charles Fleetwood. 

By Bridget Cromwell, Fleetwood was the father of 

I. Cromwell Fleetwood, born about 1653 ; married 

in 1679 to Elizabeth Nevill, of Little Berkhampstead, 

Hertfordshire ; administration of his goods was granted 

September 20, 1688. He seems to have died without issue. 

Bridget, Eldest Daughter of the Protector. 109 

II. Anne Nancy Fleetwood, buried in Westminster 
Abbey before 1659, and exhumed at the Restoration. 

III. Mary, who married Nathaniel Carter, of Yarmouth, 
February 21, 1678; died without issue; and several other 
children, most of whom died young, and none of whom 
left issue. 

Of the remaining children may be : (1) Charles, buried 
at Stoke Newington in 1676 ; (2) Bridget, buried at Stoke 
Newington in 16S1 ; (3) Ellen, buried at Stoke Newington 
in 1731. The authority for the above consists in various 
allusions to children or approaching births occurring in 
letters passing between the Protector, Thurloe, and Fleet- 
wood, compared with entries in the Stoke Newington 
registers. Fleetwood's will throws no light upon the 
subject ; and another difficulty arises from the fact that 
the Misses Cromwell, of Hampstead, whose knowledge of 
the family may be supposed to have been complete, took 
no notice in their pedigrees of any issue of Fleetwood's 
marriage with Bridget Cromwell. 



BORN at Huntingdon on July 2, 1629, Elizabeth 
married in 1646 John Claypoole, eldest son and 
heir of John Claypoole, of Northborough, or 
Norborough, near Market Deeping. The father 
had fallen under the displeasure of the Court for contu- 
macy in respect of ship-money, a circumstance sufficient to 
account for that personal intimacy with Oliver Cromwell 
which issued in the marriage aforesaid, and in Cromwell's 
creating John Claypoole, senior, a baronet, July 16, 1657. 
Under the Protectorate, the younger Claypoole became 
Master of the Horse, with other positions of emolument, 
besides obtaining a seat in Oliver's Upper House. At the 
Restoration, having taken no hostile action against the 
King's party, he was permitted, not without molestation, 
to retire into private life. His death occurred on June 26, 
1688, at which time he was of the Middle Temple, 

Elizabeth Cromwell was her father's favourite daughter, 
and, judging by the portraits taken at different periods of 
her life, must have been very attractive in person. The 
narrator of Sir James Harrington's recovery of his manu- 
script of " Oceana," which had been seized by the Pro- 
tector's orders, states that Sir James determined to make 

Elizabeth, the Protector s Second Daughter. 1 1 1 

his application through the Lady Claypoole, " because she 
acted the part of a princess very naturally, obliging all 
persons with her civility, and frequently interceding for 
the miserable." This is the lady who has so often been 
made to figure in pictures by artists of the royalist school, 
who represent her, during her last illness, as upbraiding 
her father for the part he had taken against the King, 
representations which may safely be dismissed. 

The Protector's parental anxiety has been already 
witnessed in the letter written to her elder sister, Bridget, 
in 1646. Five years later, when she was living with her 
husband at Norborough House,* and had apparently just 
recovered from the perils of childbirth, Oliver, writing from 
Edinburgh to her mother, says : " Mind poor Betty of the 
Lord's great mercy. Oh, I desire her not only to seek the 
Lord in her necessity, but in deed and in truth to turn to 
the Lord, and to keep close to Him, and to take heed of a 
departing heart and of being cozened with worldly vanities 
and worldly company, which I doubt she is too subject to. 
I earnestly and frequently pray for her and for him. Truly 
they are very dear to me — very dear, and I am in fear lest 
Satan should deceive them, knowing how weak our hearts 
are, and how subtle the adversary is, and what way the 
deceitfulness of our hearts and the vain world make for his 
temptations. The Lord give them truth of heart to Him. 
Let them seek Him in truth, and they shall find Him. 
My love to the dear little ones. I pray for grace for 
them. I thank them for their letters ; let me have them 

Four years subsequently another domestic episode en- 
gaged the parents' sympathy. The following scraps of 
intelligence, pointing apparently to the birth at Whitehall 
of her fourth and last child, will sufficiently tell the tale. 

* There was long a tradition at Norborough House that Oliver was fond of 
spending his Christmas there. The Protectress seems to have had a similar 
attachment to the spot ; it was there that she spent the evening of her days. 

1 1 2 The House of Cromwell. 

" My lady Elizabeth continues ill, but we hope mending. 
Her Highness [the Protectress] is recovered. It was grief 
[which brought her down], but now his Highness and she 
rest well. ... I never saw two parents so affected e'er 
now as my Lord Protector and her Highness." Fleet- 
wood writes: "The illness of my sister Claypoole is so 
very great that both their Highnesses are under a great 
trial. You know the dearness they have unto her ; and 
though we know not how the Lord will deal with her, yet 
her recovery is much doubted. This afternoon hath given 
very great cause of fear " ; but he adds in a postscript : 
" Since the writing hereof my sister Claypoole is fallen 
into travail, and so her condition is very hopeful." 

She did, in fact, survive the trial, but never seems to 
have recovered robust health. During the next year she 
joined her two unmarried sisters, Mary and Frances, at 
Hampton Court, and appears to have resided there for 
the remaining two years of her life. The following letter, 
dated a few weeks before her death, and presumably the 
last she ever wrote, is addressed to her sister-in-law, 
Henry Cromwell's wife. It contains a reference to the 
latest plots against her father's life : 

Lady Elizabeth Claypoole to Lady Elizabeth Cromwell. 
June 12, 1658. 

" Dear Sister, 

" I must beg your pardon that I do not write to 
you so oft as I would do ; but in earnest I have been so 
extreem sickly of late that it has made me unfit for any- 
thing ; though there is nothing that can please me more 
than wherein I may express my true love and respect to 
you, which I am sure none has more reason than myself, 
both for your former favours and the sense you have of 
any thing which arises to me of happiness. I will assure 
you, nothing of that can be to me wherein I have not a 
power to express how really I love and honour you. Truly 

Elizabeth, the Protector s Second Daughter. 113 

the Lord has been very gracious to us, in doing for us 
above what we could expect ; and now has shewed Him- 
self more extraordinary in delivering my father out of the 
hands of his enemies ; which we have all reason to be 
sensible of, in a very particular manner; for certainly not 
only his family would have been ruined, but in all proba- 
bility the whole nation would have been involved in blood. 
The Lord grant it may never be forgotten by us, but that 
it may cause us to depend upon Him from whom we have 
received all good, and that it may cause us to see the 
mutableness of these things, and to use them accordingly : 
I am sure we have need to beg that spirit from God. 
Harry is very well : I hope you will see him this summer. 
Truly there is nothing I desire more than to enjoy you 
with us ; and I wish that you may [lie-in] here. I beg 
my true affection to your little ones. 
" Dear Sister, I am, 

" Your most affectionate sister and servant, 

" Elizabeth Claypoole." 

Every testimony which we possess of a direct or 
personal kind shows her to have been loyal to the cause 
of her father. Attempts have been made to prove her 
sympathy with Dr. Hewitt and other episcopalian plotters, 
and an infamous letter to that effect has even been fabri- 
cated in her name ; but her own words negative the 

She died on August 6, just four weeks before her father. 
After lying in state in the Painted Chamber, she was 
carried in pompous procession on the night of August 10, 
1658, to a new vault in Henry VII.'s chapel, her aunt 
Robina (Mrs. Wilkins) walking as chief mourner. 

Horace Walpole says : " Lord Pelham has a small 
three-quarters of Mrs. Claypoole, on which is written 
M. Ritus fee. It is an emblematic piece, the allegorv of 
which is very obscure, but highly finished." M. Ritus 


1 1 4 The House of Cromwell. 

stands for Michael Wright, a Scots painter. Lord Pelham 
probably acquired this relic through his wife, Anne Frank- 
land, the great-grand-daughter of Frances Cromwell. 

The children of Elizabeth Cromwell and John Claypoole 
were three sons and one daughter : 

I. Cromwell, born about 1647, to whom his father 
resigned his manor of Norborough with appendages. He 
died a bachelor in 1678, and was buried in the chancel of 
Norborough Church, according to his express direction, 
as near to the body of his grandmother, the Protectress, 
as convenience would admit. The family relics at his 
disposal he left to his cousins, having no surviving brother 
or sister directly descended, but only a half-sister. His 
will may be read in extenso in Mark Noble's "Memoirs of 
the Protectoral House of Cromwell." 

II. Henry, went, as is supposed, into the army, and 
pre-deceased his brother. 

III. Oliver, died young, June, 1658, during the last 
illness of his mother, a circumstance which precipitated 
her own dissolution. 

IV. Martha, died young and unmarried, January, 1664; 
buried in Norborough Church 1664. 

It will thus be seen that with the death of Mr. Cromwell 
Claypoole in 1678 this branch of the Protector's family 
dies out. True it is that ever and anon persons of the 
name of Claypoole or Claypole are found cropping up to 
claim descent through that channel. But descent from 
John Claypoole is not enough, since he married a second 
time. Claypooles inheriting the blood of Cromwell through 
the Lady Elizabeth are no longer in existence. 


fc*' 5 ^ 




~ : -<h> 





S?S ^* 






r. '-: SB 

•-'-' -^^"^ 




BORN at Ely, Mary was christened at Huntingdon 
on February 9, 1637. It is believed that when 
only seventeen years of age she had to encounter 
the matrimonial proposals of Sir Anthony Ashley 
Cooper, afterwards Earl of Shaftesbury. Edmund Ludlow 
is our principal authority for the statement, which occurs 
among the suppressed passages in his " Memoirs," a 
work from which everything reflecting injuriously on the 
character or career of Shaftesbury was cut out previous 
to publication. " Sir Anthony Ashley Cooper, who was 
first for the King, then for the Parliament, then in Crom- 
well's first assembly for the Reformation, and afterwards 
for Cromwell against the Reformation ; now being denied 
Cromwell's daughter, Mary, in marriage, he appears against 
Cromwell's design in the last assembly, and is therefore 
dismissed the Council, Cromwell being resolved to act 
there as the chief juggler himself." Oldmixon and 
Anthony a Wood sustain this testimony, though neither 
of them gives the name of Mary. Cromwell must have 
thought favourably of him when he summoned him to 
join his first Convention ; since then he had probably read 
him down. But whatever was the cause of alienation, the 
matrimonial suit appears to have miscarried suddenly and 

1 1 6 The House of Cromwell. 

entirely. Perhaps the young lady herself entertained 
personal objections to one who had already had two 
wives, and was nearly twice her own age. Mr. Christie, 
the modern editor of the Shaftesbury papers, throws doubt 
on the whole transaction. 

The next suitor was Sir Edward Mansfield, of Wales, of 
whom next to nothing is recorded. Fleetwood, in a letter 
to Henry Cromwell, preserved in the Lansdowne MSS. 821, 
" hopes he may be worthy of so deserving a lady "; which 
perhaps means he hopes Sir Edward will not get her. The 
claims of the Welsh knight, whoever he was, quickly paled 
before the advances of a more dashing aspirant in the person 
of Thomas Bellasyse, Viscount Fauconberg, who was just 
then returning from foreign travel. 

Lord Fauconberg, who was about twenty-nine years of 
age, was also, like Mary Cromwell's first lover, a widower, 
but he was the representative of an illustrious family 
holding large estates in Durham, Yorkshire, and Lancashire, 
to which, as also to the title, he had recently succeeded 
upon the death of his grandfather Thomas, the first 
Viscount Fauconberg. Sir Richard Bellasyse, the Knight 
of Durham, had served on the committee acting in the 
Parliament's behalf for that county ; but, with almost this 
sole exception, the entire family had been avowed Royalists 
during the war, and Oliver no doubt felt that union with 
the new lord would tend to conciliate an important section 
of aristocratic malcontents. Seconded, therefore, by the 
Protectoral policy, the young man's ambition found little 
or no obstacle in his path. He commenced his suit when 
passing through Paris from Italy, in the spring of 1657, by 
enlisting the services of Sir William Lockhart, the English 
ambassador in the Court of Louis XIV., in whom he found 
an ally who was not only the husband of one of Oliver's 
nieces, but a statesman whose diplomatic career reflected 
more credit on the Protestant Protector's name than any 
other of his Continental representatives. And so well did 

Mary, the Protector s Third Daughter. 1 1 7 

the ambassador plead the suitor's cause with Mr. Secretary 
Thurloe, vindicating him from the charge of supposed 
Romanist proclivities, and enlarging on his personal en- 
dowments, and on his attachment to the actual form of 
government, that the young lord's arrival in England and 
presentation at Court was speedily followed by his nuptials, 
which took place at Hampton Court with great pomp and 
magnificence on November 19, 1657. The public ceremony 
was performed according to the simple ritual then in use 
among the Puritans ; but before the day was over, by 
general consent, the marriage contract was repeated in the 
Anglican form. Andrew Marvell thereupon composed 
a pastoral eclogue, and the news-writers did their best to 
follow in fancy's train and snatch a ray from Parnassus. 
Her brother Henry, whose duties kept him in Ireland, 
seems to have been the only absent member of the family. 
Lord and Lady Fauconberg immediately after the mar- 
riage interchanged letters with him and his wife, full of 
cordial salutations, which may be read in Thurloe. Of 
this marriage there was no surviving issue. The following 
letter, written by the husband only three months after- 
wards, will explain itself: 

Lord Fauconberg to Henry Cromwell, Lord Deputy of 

" Whitehall, 

"February 26, 1658. 

"My Lord, 

" This place is at present so distracted with the 
death of my brother Rich. — especially my dame, whose 
present condition makes it more dangerous to her than the 
rest — that I must humbly beg your lordship's pardon if in 
short I only tell you that Major-General Packer, four 
Captains, and the Captain Lieutenant, after an obstinate 
persisting, even to his Highness's face, in their dislike of 
his government, were this week cashiered. 

" My lord, I am just now called to my poor wife's 

n8 The House of Cromwell. 

succour ; therefore I must humbly entreat of your lordship 
leave to subscribe myself, sooner than I intended, My 

" Your lordship's most faithful, humble servant, 

" Fauconberg." 

Henry Cromwell, in reply, says : 

" I hope your lordship's being called to succour my dear 
sister, your lady, tends but to repair our family of the late 
loss it hath sustained ; and I hope that the sad appre- 
hensions occasioned by this late stroke will not frustrate 
our hopes therein." 

The first form in which the Protector proceeded to 
utilize the new connection was by sending his son-in-law 
on a mission of congratulation to the French Court on the 
successes of Louis's arms against the Spaniards in co- 
operation with " the Six Thousand " sent from England. 
During his tour in the northern counties of England, on 
his return from France, the Earl was accompanied by his 
youthful bride. All contemporaries agree in attributing a 
large share of beauty to Lady Fauconberg, a testimony 
which is fully borne out by the extant portraits of her. 
The return south of the Earl and Countess is thus 
chronicled by a weekly newspaper (Mercurius Politicus) : 
" Hampton Court, 30 July. This evening here arrived the 
most noble lord the Lord Fauconberg, with his most 
illustrious lady, the Lady Mary ; being safe returned out 
of the North, where, in all places of their journey, and 
particularly at York, the people of those parts made so 
large expression of their duty, in the honours done to the 
person and virtues of this most religious lady, and of their 
extraordinary affection towards this meritorious lord, as 
abundantly manifested what a high esteem his noble 
qualities have purchased him in his own as well as in other 

Only a few weeks later Fauconberg thus announces the 
death of the first Protector to his brother-in-law Henry : 

Mary, the Protectors Third Daughter. 119 

Lord Fauconberg to Henry Cromwell. 

" Whitehall, 

"September 7, 1658. 

" Dear my Lord, 

"This bearer Mr. Underwood brings your lord- 
ship the sad news of our general loss in your incom- 
parable father's death, by which these poor nations are 
deprived of the greatest personage and instrument of 
happiness that not only our own, but indeed any age else, 
ever produced. The preceding night and not before, in 
presence of four or five of the Council, he declared my lord 
Richard his successor. The next morning he grew speech- 
less, and departed betwixt three and four in the evening. 
A hard dispensation it was, but so has it seemed good to 
the all-wise God. And what remains to poor creatures 
but to lay our hands upon our mouth to the declaration of 
His pleasure ? Some three hours after his decease (a time 
spent only in framing the draft, not in any doubtful dis- 
pute) was your lordship's brother, his now Highness, 
declared Protector of these nations with full consent of 
council, soldier and city. The next day he was proclaimed 
in the usual places. All the time his late Highness was 
drawing on to his end, the consternation and astonishment 
of people is unexpressible. Their hearts seemed as sunk 
within them. And if thus abroad in the family, your lord- 
ship may imagine how it was with her Highness and other 
near relations. My poor wife, I know not what in the 
Earth to do with her. When seemingly quieted, she 
bursts out again into passion that tears her very heart in 
pieces ; nor can I blame her, considering what she has 
lost. It fares little better with others. God, I trust, will 
sanctify this bitter cup to us all. His mercy is extra- 
ordinary as to the quiet face of things amongst us ; which 
I hope the Lord will continue. 

" I am, Your lordship's most affectionately faithful 
and very humble servant, 

" Fauconberg." 

120 The House of Cromwell. 

Lord Fauconberg facilitated the restoration of royalty 
as soon as he saw it was inevitable. To the King himself 
the recovery of such an agency was especially welcome ; 
for the link which attached Fauconberg to the Crom- 
wellian destinies carried with it an added force. With 
this course of action, the influence of Henry Cromwell, 
though less demonstrative, must needs be associated. In 
this they stood apart from Lockhart, whose personal 
alliance with some of the Republican party made him slow 
to believe in the possibility of such a universal revolt. 

The Restoration being accomplished, Fauconberg was 
at once installed into the offices of Lieutenant of the 
Bishopric of Durham, Lord-Lieutenant and Custos 
Rotulorum of the North Riding of Yorkshire, and 
Ambassador-Extraordinary to Venice, Tuscany, and 
Savoy.* He enjoyed the favour of the three succeeding 
monarchs, diverse as were their principles, and, dying in 
1700, was buried at Cockswold, in Yorkshire, where a 
lengthy epitaph, recited in Le Neve's " Monumenta 
Anglicana," records his virtues and his prosperous career. 
In the construction of this epitaph it had been Lady 
Mary's original intention to exhibit more definitely his 
alliance with the Protectorate, to which end, says Lord 
Dartmouth, " she desired Sir Harry Sheers to write an 
inscription for the monument, and would have it inserted 
that in such a year Fauconberg married his Highness the 
then Lord Protector of England's daughter, which Sir 
Harry told her he feared might give offence. She 
answered, that nobody could dispute matters of fact, and 
therefore insisted on its being done." The wording 

* Three years after the Restoration, we get a glimpse of this lady and her 
husband, at the play. " Here," says Samuel Pepys, " I saw my Lord Faucon- 
berg and his lady, my Lady Mary Cromwell, who looks as well as I have 
known her, and well clad. But when the house began to fill, she put on her 
vizard, and so kept it on all the play, which of late is become a great fashion 
among the ladies, which hides their whole face." — Pepy's " Diary," June 12, 

Mary, the Protectors Third Daughter. 121 

eventually adopted shows that she yielded somewhat to 
her friend's objection, though, of course, it duly sets forth 
whose daughter she was. Her own death occurred in 1713, 
at the age of seventy-six, shortly after that of her brother 
Richard, and she was buried at Chiswick on March 24. 
Sutton Court, the house in which she lived and died at 
Chiswick, no longer exists. It stood very near the west 
end of the parish church. Neither is there any monument 
to her in the church. J. Mackay, speaking of this spot in 
his " Journey through England," says : " I saw here a 
great and curious piece of antiquity — the eldest daughter 
of Oliver Cromwell, who was then fresh and gay " ; date 
not given. Grainger, having stated that in the decline of 
life she was pale and sickly, adds : " Since this note was 
printed I had the honour to be informed by the Earl of 
Ilchester, who remembers her well, and to whom she was 
godmother, that she must have been far gone in the 
decline of life when she was pale and sickly, as she was 
not naturally of such a complexion." The testimonies as 
to her personal merit are uniformly eulogistic. Bishop 
Burnet styles her a wise and worthy woman, and one who 
was more likely to have maintained the post of Protector 
than either of her brothers. A footnote in " Hughes's 
Letters " describes her as " a lady of great beauty, and of a 
very high spirit, who distinguished herself till her death 
by the quickness of her wit and the solidity of her judg- 
ment." Mr. Hewling Luson, in the same volume, writes 
as follows : " She was said to have been a lady of a very 
great understanding. This was the ' noble relation ' 
referred to in Mr. Say's character [of Mrs. Bendysh], who 
left Mrs. Bendysh a handsome legacy, as she did also to 
the other descendants of her father Oliver to whom such 
an aid might be useful. She died wealthy, and never had 
a child." She betrayed, some thought, in her last will 
an undue partiality for her own personal relatives, for she 
left everything in her power away from her husband's 

122 The House of Cromwell. 

kindred, including Fauconberg House in Soho Square, the 
town residence of the family. Some interesting relics, 
however, descended to the last heir of the Fauconbergs, 
among which was the sword worn by Oliver at the battle 
of Naseby. There are extant two or three letters of Lady 
Mary's to her brother Henry, two of which may be read in 
Carlisle's " Letters and Speeches." The first, addressed 
in 1655, and warning him against the influence of some 
intriguing lady, who had made a lodgment in his Irish 
household ; the second giving a long account of their 
sister Frances's marriage negotiations. A third, here 
following, relates to the last illness of their mother, the 
Protectress. When that sorely-stricken lady found an 
asylum at Norborough House, Lady Mary was her frequent 
visitor, and this brief letter seems to point to the latest of 
those interviews : 

Lady Mary Fauconberg to Henry Cromwell, of Spinney 
Abbey (1665 ?). 

" Dear Brother, 

" I have sent this bearer on purpose to see you and 
my sister, fearing I shall not see you before I go from 
hence. My poor mother is so affecting a spectacle as I 
scarce know how to write, she continuing much the same 
as she was when you were here. The Lord knows best 
what is best for us to suffer, and therefore I desire we may 
willingly submit to His will ; but the condition she is in is 
very sad ; the Lord help her and us to bear it. I am 
now able to say no more, my heart being so oppressed, but 
that I am, 

" Your dear wife's and your affectionate sister, 

" M. Fauconberg." 



BORN at Ely in 1638, Frances was married in 
December, 1657, to the Hon. Robert Rich, eldest 
son of Lord Rich, and grandson of Robert, Earl 
of Warwick, the admiral of the fleet, and the 
veteran peer who carried Oliver's sword of State at the 
proclamation of his Protectorate. But this was by no 
means her first love affair. In the first place there seems 
no sufficient reason for discrediting the story of a pro- 
jected alliance with the exiled King Charles, in which 
Lord Broghill acted as the medium of negotiation. It 
wears, at least, an air of greater probability than the 
reports [preserved in Thurloe's papers] which in 1654 were 
circulated in France to the effect that the Duke d'Enghein, 
only son of the Prince of Conde, was her favoured suitor. 
The Duke of Buckingham is the third name on the list, 
but his chances must have been slender in the extreme. 
Her fourth gallant was the Rev. Jeremiah White, or 
"Jerry White," as he was commonly called, one of her 
father's chaplains, and a Fellow of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge. He is described as possessing a handsome person 
and an engaging address, though his extant portrait, 
photographed by the Arundel Society, can hardly be said 
to warrant the encomium. Another attribute with which 

i 24 The House of Cromwell. 

he is credited — that of a ready wit — rests possibly on better 
authority. Oliver put it to the test on one occasion in a 
somewhat crucial form. Having been given reason to 
suspect that his aspiring chaplain had carried his amatory 
professions too far, Cromwell managed to entrap the 
couple just at a moment when Jerry was on his knees, 
caressing the Lady Frances's hand. " What is the mean- 
ing of that posture before my daughter ?' demanded he. 
Here Jerry's wit came to his aid. " May it please your 
Highness, I have long unsuccessfully courted the young 
gentlewoman yonder, my Lady's waiting-maid, and I was 
now therefore humbly praying her Ladyship to say a word 
in my behalf." Turning to the waiting-maid, Oliver went 
on : " Well, hussey, and why should you refuse Mr. 
White's offers? You must know that he is my friend, 
and I expect that you will treat him as such." Here the 
ready wit of the maiden proved smarter even than Jerry's. 
" If Mr. White," says she, " intends me that honour, I 
shall not oppose him." " Sayest thou so, lass ?" rejoined 
Cromwell. " Call Goodwyn ; this business shall be finished 
at once." Mr. Chaplain Goodwyn arrived ; the parties 
were married on the spot, and Cromwell, by way of 
solatium, made them a present of £500.* A union 
effected after this fashion was not likely to be productive 
of much mutual regard, nor was the result felicitous, 
though they contrived to live together as man and wife for 
half a century longer. " I knew them both," says Old- 
mixon, the historian, " and heard the story told when 
Mrs. White was present, who did not contradict it, and 
owned there was something in it." But Jerry, though taken 
down in this abrupt style, always maintained a marvellous 
influence in the Cromwell family. Years after the Restora- 
tion, when the Protectress was living at Norborough, he 
was entrusted with the entire management of her pecuniary 

This scene was painted by Augustus Egg in 1842.— See the Exhibition 
Catalogue for that year, No. 548. 

Frances, the Protectors Fourth Daughter. 125 

affairs. At that time he was occupying the position of 
chaplain in the family of Sir John Russell, of Chippenham, 
the Lady Frances's second husband, previous to which he 
had enjoyed the confidence of her father-in-law, Sir 
Francis Russell, as evidenced by a long and curious letter 
(in the possession of Mr. Field, of Teddington) which the 
knight sent him in 1663, touching his bodily ailments, and 
the benefits which he had derived from the chaplain's 
curative measures. Master White's talent seems to have 
been multifarious. He wrote an essay on universal restora- 
tion, and he gathered a list of many hundreds of the 
sufferers for Nonconformity. 

Jerry White being checkmated, the Dutton affair next 
becomes prominent. Cromwell, it is assumed, had at 
some time entered into a verbal engagement with John 
Dutton, a wealthy freeholder, of Sherborne, in Gloucester- 
shire, to bestow his daughter Frances in marriage on 
William Dutton, the nephew or grandson (nepos) of that 
gentleman ; and in his will (dated 1655) Mr. Dutton 
expresses an " earnest desire that it might take effect." 
How Cromwell and his daughter looked upon this mode 
of courtship is not recorded. All we know is that, at the 
age of nineteen, the young lady practically waived it by 
falling in love with the Hon. Robert Rich aforesaid. 

This young man, losing his mother at an early age, was 
at her dying request placed under the care of Dr. Gauden, 
by whose recommendation he first went to college, and 
with whom he then made a foreign tour. On returning 
home, being deeply in love with Frances Cromwell, he 
sought her hand at once, though at the time he was in a 
very sickly state of health. The marriage came off in 
December, 1657 ; it can hardly be supposed with the 
Protector's hearty concurrence. His disorder appears 
to have been of a scrofulous nature, carrying him off in the 
ensuing February, only two months after the wedding. 
His grandfather, the old Earl of Warwick, when he heard 

126 The House of Cromwell. 

of it, said that, if they would keep the body above ground 
a little while, they might carry his own along with it ; 
and, indeed, he survived only two months longer. To 
complete the tragedy, Mr. Rich's father, who succeeded to 
the Earldom, followed his father and his son in the course 
of the next year. 

The collapse of this matrimonial connection was deeply 
felt by all parties concerned ; for the mutual friendship of 
the two houses was of long standing, dating back to asso- 
ciations connected with Felsted, where the family of Rich 
was seated, and ratified by political sympathies during the 
recent war. Henry undertook to send a message of 
condolence to Christian, Countess of Devonshire, the 
grandmother of the deceased, and Oliver performed 
the same office to the Earl of Warwick. The Earl's 
letter in reply, which contained a noble tribute to the 
character of the Protector, may be seen entire in Dr. 
William Harris's "Life of Oliver." It concludes : " Others' 
goodness is their own. Yours is a whole country's — yea, 
three kingdoms', for which you justly possess interest and 
renown with wise and good men. Virtue is a thousand 
escutcheons. Go on, my lord — go on happily to love 
religion, to exemplify it. May your lordship long continue 
an instrument of use, a pattern of virtue, and a precedent 
of glory." 

Rich's funeral was conducted with great pomp on 
March 5, 1658, the corpse being carried to Felsted for 
interment in the family vault, and the funeral sermon 
delivered by Dr. Gauden. Of all the extant specimens 
of that dreary species of literature, the funeral sermon, 
this of Gauden's is one of the most nauseous. 

On May 7, 1663, the young widow, the Lady Frances, 
was married at Hursleyto Sir John Russell, third baronet, 
of Chippenham, co. Cambridge, and by him became the 
ancestress of numerous and wide -spreading groups of 
Cromwellian descendants. In the interval between her 

Frances, the Protector s Fourth Daughter. 127 

first and second marriage she may have been residing at 
Hursley with Dorothy, the wife of the ex - Protector, 
Richard. She survived her second husband fifty-one 
years, spending a considerable portion of her later life 
with her sister, Lady Fauconberg. Finally she outlived 
all those of her own generation, and died in 1721 at the 
age of eighty-four. 

The Family of Russell 

First became conspicuous in the person of Thomas 
Russell, of the Isle of Wight, in Henry VI. 's time. The 
baronet of the Civil War period, viz., Sir Francis, was an 
ardent supporter of the Parliament's cause, a man of high 
morality and humanity, and a personal friend of Oliver. 
Of his fourteen children, besides his eldest son John, who 
married Frances Cromwell, Elizabeth married Henry 
Cromwell, the Protector's fourth son, and Sarah married 
Sir John Reynolds, of whom larger notice will have to be 
taken. The issue of the Lady Frances Cromwell by Sir 
John Russell consisted of five children, viz : 

I. Sir William, the fourth Baronet, of whom pre- 

II. Rich, baptized at Chippenham, Cambs., Feb- 
ruary 14, 1667, was the fourth child and second son. He 
married, first, at Fordham, Cambs., April 5, 1693, his 
cousin Mabel. She died January 5, 1731, and was buried 
at Hillingdon, Middlesex, leaving issue one only child, a 
daughter Mary, who married, 1731, at Hillingdon (as his 
second wife), the Rev. Richard Mills, Vicar of Hillingdon, 
by whom she left issue (inter alios), Rev. Thomas Mills, 
also Vicar of Hillingdon, who was baptized (see Hilling- 
don registers) June, 1738. These two vicars held the 
living between them eighty-six years, although it was not 
a family living. Rich married, secondly, at St. George's, 
Hanover Square, October 28, 1732, Catherine Barton, 
spinster, who survived him and proved his will. Rich 

1 28 The House of Cromwell. 

was a General in the army, and, according to the inscrip- 
tion still legible on his tombstone at Hillingdon, served 
his King and country forty-seven years. He died at Bath 
(see Gentleman's Magazine) June 16, 1735, but was buried 
in his family tomb at Hillingdon. His will was proved in 
London February 6, 1735 (25 Denby, i. 46). His only 
living descendants trace their descent from him through 
his daughter, Mrs. Richard Mills. She is referred to as a 
legatee in the wills of her father, of her grandmother, 
Dame Frances Russell, the daughter of the Protector, 
and of her cousin, Miss Elizabeth Cromwell. The Rev. 
Thomas Mills left issue (inter alios) Frederick Russell 
Mills, Esq., formerly Librarian of the Home Office and 
private secretary to Lord Sidmouth while Home Secretary. 
Mr. F. R. Mills died August 8, 1861, aged seventy-nine, 
leaving numerous issue still surviving, including the heir- 
at-law of Rich Russell. The Rev. Thos. Mills' youngest 
son was Richard Mills, Esq., one of the Taxing Masters 
of the Court of Chancery, who died at his residence, the 
Moat, Eltham, Kent, April 21, 1880, aged ninety-four, 
leaving numerous issue. The Mills family trace their 
descent from Betham, in the parish of Penkridge, Stafford- 
shire, where they were established in and prior to the 
year 1490 (see Visitation of London, 1633, title Mills). 

III. Christian, a daughter so named in memory of 
Christian, Countess of Devonshire aforesaid. She died in 
childhood in 1669. 

IV. Elizabeth, born 1664, became the wife of Sir 
Thomas Frankland, of whom presently. 

V. John, third and posthumous son ; Governor of Fort 
William, in Bengal; died at Bath 1735, having married, 
first, Rebecca, sister of Sir Charles Eyre, of Kew, by 
whom he had one son and three daughters. He married, 
secondly, Joanna, sole daughter and heiress of Mr. Thurl- 
bone, of the Chequers, Bucks, sergeant at law. The 
children of the first marriage were : 

Frances, the Protectors Fourth Daughter. 129 

1. Frances, born 1700; died 1775; bedchamber- 
woman to the Princess Amelia. Married John, son 
of Colonel Rivett of the Guards, but leaving no 
issue, his estate of the Chequers passed to his sister 
Mary, who, as will be seen presently, married Charles 

2. Charles, born 1701, died 1754, was a Colonel 
in the army ; fought at Dettingen and Fontenoy ; 
married, 1737, Mary Joanna Cutts, daughter of 
Colonel Rivett aforesaid, who became the heiress of 
Chequers, and by whom he had, besides Mary [bed- 
chamber-woman to the Princess Amelia after her 
aunt Fanny (?)] one son, John, eventually the eighth 

3. Mary, married a Mr. Holmes. No issue. 

4. Elizabeth, born 1704; married Samuel Green- 
hill, of Swincombe, Oxford, and had issue, John 
Russell Greenhill, LL.D., of Cottesford House, 
Oxford, who took the Russell estates under the will 
of the ninth baronet. He married Elizabeth, only 
child of M. Noble, of Sunderland, Esq., and had a 
son, Robert, created a Baronet by Lord Grey in 
1831, at whose death, s.p., in 1836, the property passed 
by his will to Sir Robert Frankland, who thereupon 
assumed the surname of Russell in addition to and 
after that of Frankland. 

Sir John Russell, the third Baronet, husband of the 
Lady Frances Cromwell, was succeeded by his son, 

Sir William Russell, the fourth Baronet ; born about 
1660, whose lavish expenditure in furtherance of the 
Revolution of 1688 is supposed to have been the occasion 
of his selling the Chippenham Manor to the Earl of 
Orford. He died in 1725, leaving two sons. 

Sir William Russell, the fifth Baronet, dying un- 
married in 1738 at Passage, near Waterford, was suc- 
ceeded by his brother, 


130 The House of Cromwell. 

Sir Francis Russell, the sixth Baronet ; Governor 
of Fort William, in Bengal ; married, 1725, Ann Gee, and 
left one son, 

Sir William Russell, the seventh Baronet ; Lieu- 
tenant in the Guards ; died a bachelor in 1757, when 
the title descended to his second cousin, mentioned 
above, viz. : 

Sir John Russell, the eighth Baronet ; barrister at 
law, of Lincoln's Inn. He died prematurely, 1783, at the 
age of forty-two, at the seat of Sir Henry Oxenden, in 
Kent, from inflammation of the bowels occasioned by 
eating melons, and was much lamented as a kind and 
generous man. His wife was Katharine, daughter of 
General the Hon. Henry Carey, brother to Lord Falkland, 
by whom he had two sons, the elder of whom, 

Sir John Russell, the ninth Baronet, born 1779, 
died unmarried, and was succeeded by his brother, 

Sir George Russell, the tenth Baronet, who dying 
unmarried in 1804, the title expired, and the estates 
devolved under his brother's will upon their aunt Mary 
(mentioned under the third baronetcy). This lady died 
unmarried, and was succeeded in her possessions by her 
cousin, Dr. John Russell Greenhill, of Cottesford House 

Family of Frankland. 

Elizabeth, second daughter of the Lady Frances 
Cromwell and Sir John Russell, of Chippenham, married 
Sir Thomas Frankland, of Thirkleby, Yorks, Bart., eldest 
son and heir of Sir William Frankland by Arabella 
Bellasyse, sister to Viscount Fauconberg (the husband of 
Mary Cromwell). Consequently Fauconberg was uncle 
both to the bride and to the bridegroom, and so much 
interest did he feel in this alliance that he settled divers 
estates on Frankland, to which was added by bequest the 
house at Chiswick. Sir Thomas Frankland, who repre- 

Frances, the Protectors Fourth Dazighter. 131 

sented Thirsk in Parliament, and was Postmaster-General, 
is thus notified in 1713 : " He is chief of a very good 
family in Yorkshire, with a very good estate. His being 
my Lord Fauconberg's nephew, and marrying a grand- 
daughter of Oliver Cromwell, first recommended him to 
King William, who at the Revolution made him Com- 
missioner of the Excise, and some years after Governor 
of the Post- Office. By abundance of application he 
understands that office better than any man in England, 
and is adapted for greater matters when the Government 
shall think fit to employ him. The Queen, by reason of 
his great capacity and honesty, hath continued him in 
the office of Postmaster. He is a gentleman of a very 
sweet, easy, affable disposition — a handsome man, of 
middle stature, towards forty years old." By his lady, 
Elizabeth Russell, who died 1733, he had seven sons and 
three daughters : 

I. Thomas, the third Baronet, of whom presently. 

II. William, F.R.S., page to Queen Mary II. His 
children died young. 

III. John, died at Hamburgh. 

IV. Henry, of Mattersea, Notts ; acquired property in 
India, and died there 1728. By his wife Mary, daughter 
of Alexander Cross, he had issue : 

1. Charles Henry, fourth Baronet, of whom here- 

2. Thomas, fifth Baronet, of whom hereafter. 

3. 4, 5, 6. William, Richard, Robert, Harriet, died 
young or unmarried. 

7. Frederick, a Major in the Blues ; died at Lisbon 
1752, having married Melissa, daughter of Rev. Mr. 
Laying, by whom he had a daughter married to 
Peniston Powney, Esq. She died 1774, leaving a 
daughter, Melissa. 

V. Richard, D.C.L., of Jesus College, Camb., died 

132 The House of Cromwell. 

VI. Frederick Meinhardt, barrister at law; M.P. 
for Thirsk ; died 1768, having married, first, Anne, relict 
of Adam Cardonnel, whose children died young, except 
Anne, wife of Thomas, Lord Pelham, of whom hereafter. 
He married, secondly, Anne Lumley, daughter of Richard, 
first Earl of Scarborough, the " Lady Anne Frankland " 
who, together with her sisters, Lady Barbara Leigh and 
Lady Henrietta Lumley, were, by their mutual friend, the 
Countess of Huntingdon, brought under the influence of 
George Whitefield's preaching. But so highly did Mr. 
Frankland resent the affair that he compelled his wife to 
quit his house, and returned her fortune. She survived 
the heart-breaking ordeal only eight months. 

VII. Robert, a trader at Calcutta, slain in the Persian 

VIII. Elizabeth, married to Roger Talbot, of Wood- 
end, Yorks, of whom hereafter. 

IX. Frances (or Mary), married to Thomas Worsley, 
of whom hereafter. 

X. Arabella, died unmarried. 

Sir Thomas Frankland died in 1726, and was suc- 
ceeded by his eldest son, 

Sir Thomas Frankland, the third Baronet ; M.P. for 
Thirsk in five Parliaments, and a lord of the Admiralty. 
By his wife Diana, daughter of Francis Topham, of Agel- 
thorpe, he had (inter alios) a daughter, Diana, who became 
wife of George Henry Lee, Earl of Lichfield. Sir Thomas 
married, secondly, Anne, daughter of a Huguenot refugee 
named Rene Baudouin. After Sir Thomas's early death 
in 1747, the widow married Adam Cardonnel, at whose 
death Frederick Meinhardt Frankland, a younger brother 
of Sir Thomas, became guardian and trustee for her 
children. He did more than this : he became her third 
husband. She had thus married two brothers, but Adam 
Cardonnel coming between, she is always described in 
the Peerages as Cardonnel's relict, and by this means 

Frances, the Protectors Fourth Daughter. 133 

her marriage with Sir Thomas conveniently drops out of 
sight. At Sir Thomas's death, in 1747, the title passed to 
his nephew, 

Sir Charles Henry Frankland, the fourth Baronet ; 
born in Bengal in 1716, at the time of his father's re- 
sidence there as Governor of the East India Company's 
factory. Although by that father's death he inherited a 
considerable fortune, yet the lucrative post of Collector in 
the port of Boston, in New England, which he obtained 
through the Duke of Newcastle, had sufficient attractions 
to induce him to make that colony the place of his 
residence for the greater part of his after-life. He went 
over there in 1741, at the age of twenty-five, soon after 
which, while on a visit of inspection to the neighbouring 
seaport of Marblehead, where the home Government had 
resolved to erect a fortification, he met the young woman 
whose fascinations were destined to give that colouring to 
his history, of which more than one writer of American 
romance has availed himself. This young woman was 
the celebrated Agnes Surriage, then sixteen years of age, 
of obscure birth, being the daughter of a fisherman, but 
gifted with the heritage of dazzling beauty. Her mother, 
it is true, had a nominal claim to one-seventh part of a 
vast tract of land in Maine, which fell to her on the death 
of her father, Richard Pierce, of New Harbour, one of the 
sharers in what was long known and litigated as " the 
Brown right" (the title to which seventh part Sir C. H. 
Frankland subsequently purchased of the widow Surriage 
for £50), and it must have been this circumstance which 
led Mark Noble and the other genealogists to give the 
name of Agnes Brown instead of Agnes Surriage as 
Frankland's wife. But whatever the prospects in Maine 
might be worth, the daughter had received no education, 
and she was accordingly placed for the present under the 
tutelage and protection of Edward Holyoake, the Puritan 
minister of the place. 

134 The House of Cromwell. 

Frankland, whose tastes were those of a general dilettante, 
but found their best expression in architecture and horti- 
culture, purchased an estate in the suburban village of 
Hopkinton, and erected a vast and classic mansion, which 
for some years became the scene of lawless revelry, 
greatly to the scandal of the old-fashioned Puritans of 

Charles Henry Frankland, by the death of his uncle, 
Sir Thomas, was called home to carry on a suit at law, 
in which the will of this uncle, bequeathing the entire 
estate at Thirkleby to his lady, was contested. The 
Gentleman's Magazine thus reports the facts: "June 4, 
1754. A cause between Sir Henry Frankland, plaintiff, 
and the lady of the late Sir Thomas, defendant, was 
tried in the Court of King's Bench by a special jury. 
The subject of litigation was a will of Sir Thomas, sus- 
pected to be made when he was not of sound mind ; and 
it appeared that he had made three — one in 1741, another 
in 1744, and a third in 1746. In the first only a slender 
provision was made for his lady, by the second the family 
estate in Yorkshire, of £2,000 per annum, was given her 
for her life, and by the third the whole estate real and 
personal was left to be disposed of at her discretion 
without any provision for the heir at law. The jury, after 
having withdrawn for about an hour and a half, set aside 
the last and confirmed the second. In a hearing before 
the Lord Chancellor some time afterwards in relation to 
the costs, it was decreed that the lady should pay them 
all, both at common law and in Chancery." 

On this occasion he was accompanied to England by 
Agnes Surriage ; and on the conclusion of the law affair, 
they made the tour of Europe together, and took up a 
temporary abode in Lisbon, furnishing a house there, and 
joining in the dissipations of that doomed city. This 
brings us to what Frankland's biographer justly terms the 
catastrophe and turning point of his life. Hitherto he had 

Frances, the Protectors Fourth Daughter. 135 

led the life of a voluptuary and a sceptic. Henceforward 
his career was that of one stunned into modesty and 

The first of November, 1755, will ever be a memorable 
date in the annals of Europe, and especially of Lisbon. 
In that city, which then contained nearly a quarter of a 
million of inhabitants, a brilliant morning sun was shin- 
ing on the papal festivities of All Saints' Day. At eleven 
o'clock high mass at thirty churches was quenched in 
universal collapse. The earthquake was sensibly felt all 
over western Europe, northern Africa, and even in the 
West Indies ; but the catastrophe wrought its climax in 
Lisbon, where the convulsed bed of the Tagus lifted for 
some minutes all its shipping high and dry, to be over- 
whelmed immediately after by a refluent rush of waters, 
which fairly turned the harbour-quay bottom upwards and 
then swallowed it out of sight. Of the thousands of fugi- 
tives who had sought safety at that spot not a corpse ever 
rose to the surface. The loss of human life in the city 
was estimated at nearly 30,000, and the loss of property 
at £95,000,000. Sir Henry Frankland, attired in Court 
dress and in company with a lady, was on his way to 
one of the church spectacles, in a carriage and pair, when 
his vehicle was crushed by falling ruins and the horses 
killed. While thus entombed, his companion, in her 
frantic despair, seized his arm with her teeth and tore 
away a portion of the flesh. What became of her is not 
stated. As for Frankland himself, the dark horrors of 
the hour brought the delinquencies of his past life into 
startling review, and wrung from him vows of total re- 
formation of life, and ample retribution to all whom he 
had ever injured, if deliverance were now vouchsafed to 
him — vows which there is good reason to believe he never 
forgot. Meanwhile his devoted Agnes was traversing the 
ruined streets in search of him ; and recognising at last 
the plaintive voice which issued from his living tomb, she 

136 The House of Cromwell. 

accomplished his deliverance in no long time by lavish 
rewards distributed to her assistants. His wounds being 
dressed, he was conveyed to Belem, a suburb of Lisbon, 
where his first action on recovery was to formalize his 
marriage with his deliverer, by the hands of a Romish 
priest. As his own house in Lisbon was wrecked, it was 
resolved at once to embark for England ; and on board 
ship the union was again ratified by the services of an 
Anglican clergyman. On landing, the now sobered and 
chastened couple proceeded to the family seat, where 
Agnes was affectionately welcomed by her mother-in- 

Although Sir Henry two years later was formally ap- 
pointed to the office of Consul-General at Lisbon, the 
attractions of Hopkinton again and again induced him 
and his lady to be backwards and forwards across the 
Atlantic, till his health breaking down prematurely com- 
pelled him to retire to Bath, where he died in 1768, aged 
fifty-one years. He was buried in the church of the 
neighbouring village of Weston, where the following 
epitaph may be seen against the wall of the nave. 

"To the memory of Sir Charles-Henry Frankland of 
Thirkleby, Co. York, bart., Consul-General for many years 
at Lisbon, from whence he came in hopes of recovery from 
a bad state of health to Bath, where after a tedious and 
painful illness, sustained with the patience and resignation 
becoming a Christian, he died January 11, 1768, in the 
fifty-second year of his life, without issue ; and at his 
own desire he lies buried in this church. This monu- 
ment is erected by his affectionate widow, Agnes Lady 

On the death of her husband, Lady Frankland, in 
company with Henry Cromwell, returned to the Hopkin- 
ton estate, and there she cherished her relatives and 
maintained a magnificent style of housekeeping till the 
breaking out of the war of Independence in 1775. As 

Frances, the Protectors Fourth Daughter. 137 

the rich widow of a prominent officer of the Crown, her 
solitary position was felt to be no longer tenable, and 
accordingly she and Henry took refuge in Boston, then 
occupied by British troops. From the windows of her 
house in Garden Court Street she witnessed, with many 
others, the storming of Bunker's Hill, and afterwards 
busied herself in succouring the wounded men as they 
were brought in from the bloody field. The last of her 
many voyages was then carried into effect, the succeeding 
seven years of her life being spent in old England among 
the members of the Frankland family, till her removal to 
Chichester on becoming the wife of John Drew, a banker 
of that city, the same place where Henry Cromwell also 
appears to have settled. She died in the course of the 
next year, 1783, at the age of fifty-seven, and was buried 
at Chichester. 

Captain Henry Cromwell, an illegitimate son of Sir 
C. H. Frankland, whose name has occasionally cropped 
up in the above narrative, was born in 1741, the first year 
of his father's residence in New England. At the age of 
fifteen he commenced his naval career by joining his 
Majesty's ship Success, Captain Rouse, then lying in Casco 
Bay, yet found or made frequent occasions for visiting and 
travelling about with his father ; Lady Frankland on her 
part ever cherishing a fond regard for him, though she 
was not his mother. He was also held in high esteem in 
the Navy, where, holding the rank of Captain, he was 
present with Admiral Kempenfeldt in the gallant action off 
the French coast, November 14, 1781. In the promotion 
list for 1801 Henry Cromwell, Esq., becomes Rear Admiral 
of the Blue, and in 1805 he is Rear Admiral of the Red. 
A monument to his memory, and to one of his daughters, 
may be seen in Chichester Cathedral. 

Sir Thomas Frankland, who on the death, in 1768, of 
his brother, Sir Charles Henry Frankland, succeeded as 
fifth baronet, was already known as a naval officer of 

The House of Cromwell. 

distinction. He was now holding the rank of Admiral of 
the Red, and he eventually attained to the White. He 
was only twenty-two when he obtained the command of 
the Rose frigate, appointed to carry out to the Bahamas 
Mr. Tinker, the new Governor of those islands. Remain- 
ing on that station as a check to the Spanish marauders 
termed " guarda-costas," he had the good fortune to fall 
in with one of them soon after it had made three prizes 
— this was in June, 1742. The guarda-costa, supported 
by two of her prizes, fought the English frigate for nearly 
three hours, till, the prizes thinking it more prudent to 
stand off, the two principal combatants had a running 
fight all to themselves. In the course of another hour the 
Spanish colours were hauled down, in opposition to their 
captain's orders ; and Frankland, having shifted his 
prisoners with all possible speed, went in pursuit of the 
three flying prizes. In the end, they were all gathered 
and carried to Carolina, when it became apparent why 
the Spanish captain had maintained so obstinate a fight. 
He turned out to be the notorious Fandino, who some 
years previously had cut off the ear of Captain Jenkins. 
Frankland, sharing in the general indignation which that 
action had aroused throughout England, and regarding his 
prisoner as one who merited nothing short of a pirate's 
doom, refused to release him on parole or to exchange 
him, and accordingly shipped him off to be judged in 

He continued some years longer on the same station, 
guarding the newly-formed settlements of Georgia and 
Carolina ; and in 1743 he married Sarah Rhett, daughter 
of the Chief Justice and Governor of South Carolina, by 
whom he had five sons and eight daughters. Miss Rhett 
was a highly gifted woman, and it was the opinion of the 
late Sir Thomas Frankland Lewis that from her were 
derived those powers of understanding which distinguished 
the next generation of Franklands. Immediately after his 

Frances, the Protectors Fourth Daughter. 139 

marriage, Captain Frankland sailed into Boston harbour 
to pay a visit to his brother, Sir Charles Henry Frank- 

In the following year, while cruising off the north side 
of Cuba, Captain Frankland found himself one dark 
December morning under the shadow of a large Spanish 
ship — the Conception — crowded with soldiers for Havana. 
He kept to windward till daybreak, and at seven began an 
engagement which lasted five hours, with a fresh gale and 
a heavy sea. Three or four times did he put himself 
alongside the enemy before she would strike, and when 
the combat ceased at half-past twelve, it was found that 
she had nearly a hundred men killed outright. The Rose, 
on the other hand, which went into action with only 
177 men and boys, had five killed besides the wounded. 
The prize was carried to South Carolina, and found to 
contain 310,000 pieces of eight and 5,000 oz. of gold in 
passengers' money. 

On the termination of the war in 1748, our sea-rover 
came home and took his place in Parliament for the 
family borough of Thirsk, and died at Bath in 1784, in his 
sixty-seventh year. 

Admiral Frankland always nursed with pardonable 
pride the fact of his descent from the Protector Oliver ; 
and he seems to have entertained the further belief that he 
resembled him in person. The Admiral's surviving 
children were as follows : 

I. Thomas, the sixth baronet, of whom presently. 

II. William, who died, unmarried, in 1816. He was a 
barrister at law, attending the northern circuit, became 
Attorney-General of the Isle of Man, Lieutenant-Colonel 
of the North York Militia, M.P. for Thirsk, and a lord of 
the Admiralty under Lord Grenville's administration in 
1806. He is often named in the memoirs of Romilly and 
Macintosh ; and it was thought by the late Sir Thomas 
Frankland Lewis that of all Oliver's descendants with 

140 The House of Cromwell. 

whom he had come in contact, William Frankland was 
the ablest and best informed, always excepting the late 
Earl of Clarendon. But for some original traits of fancy, 
which certain of his friends deemed eccentric, it was 
generally felt that he might have been one of the leading 
thinkers of his day. During the short peace he accom- 
panied his friend, Sir James Macintosh, to Paris, when an 
introduction to the First Consul was arranged, Bonaparte 
being desirous of offering his personal compliments to Sir 
James as the author of the " Vindicise Gallicae." But 
some mistake in names occurring, Bonaparte advanced 
towards the wrong man, and began pouring into Mr. 
Frankland's ear those praises for philanthropy and 
philosophical acumen which were intended for his friend. 
What completed Mr. Frankland's embarrassment was that 
his defective French rendered him unable to correct the 
error. When it came to Macintosh's turn to hold colloquy 
with the great man, the conversation dropped down to the 
conventional topics current at courts, unless we except 
the question, which Napoleon is said to have asked 
Macintosh and Erskine, whether either of them had ever 
been Lord Mayor of London. 

III. Roger, Canon-residentiary of Wells, Rector of 
Yarlington, and Vicar of Dulvington, both in Somerset ; 
died in 1826. Like his brother William, he was a man of 
considerable ability. By his wife Katharine, daughter of 
John, seventh Lord Colville of Culross, and sister to Vice- 
Admiral Lord Colville, he had twelve children. 

1. Frederick William, the eighth baronet, of whom 

2. Rear-Admiral Edward Augustus, born 1794 ; 
entered the sea service as midshipman on board 
the Repulse. For some time he was secretary to 
his cousin, Commander Bowles, on the South 
American station. Died unmarried at Florence, in 

Frances, the Protector s Fourth Daiighter. 141 

3. Emma, married W. Chaplin, Esq., of the 
Madras civil service ; died at Ramsgate, 1825. 

4. Admiral Charles Colville, began as midshipman 
in the Aquilon, commanded by his cousin, Captain 
William Bowles, who made him lieutenant into the 
Andromache. After attaining the rank of Commander, 
he became an extensive traveller in Europe and 
Asia Minor, the narratives of which, illustrated by 
sketches, were published in 1827 and 1832. He died, 
unmarried, at Bath, in 1876, aged seventy-nine. 

5. Matilda, died at Bath in 1819, having in the 
previous year married Lieutenant-Colonel W. Robison, 
24th Foot. 

6. George, Lieutenant 65th Foot ; died in Van 
Dieman's Land, 1838. In 1822 he had married Anne, 
daughter of Thomas Mason, Esq., and had issue : 
(1) Sophia Katharine, twice married ; (2) Georgina 
Ann, married J. T. Francis, Esq. ; (3) Augustus 
Charles, killed in 1857 at tne battle of Kooshab. 
His wife was Clara, daughter of H. Williams, Esq. 

7. Katharine Henrietta, married to Mr. Carey, still 
living in 1878. 

8. Octavia, married to Mr. Montgomery ; died 
1868, aged sixty-two. 

9. Louisa, died in childhood, 1814. 

10. Arthur, bore the title of Colonial Aide-de-camp 
at the Mauritius. He was a Captain in the army, and 
died unmarried, 1S43. 

11. Sophia, died unmarried at Nice in 1837. 

12. Albert Henry, died in infancy. 

IV. Mary, eldest daughter of Admiral Sir Thomas 
Frankland ; married, in 1778, Sir Boyle Roche, Bart., of 
Fermoy, in Ireland, grandson of Dominick Roche, a 
partisan of James II. 

V. Sarah, second daughter of Admiral Frankland ; 
died young. 

142 The House of Cromwell. 

VI. Harriet, third daughter ; died unmarried. 

VII. Anne, fourth daughter; became, in 1778, second 
wife to John Lewis, of Harpton Court, Radnor ; and, 
surviving him, married secondly, 181 1, Rev. Robert Hare, 
of Hurstmonceaux, in Sussex, and died 1842. 

Family of Lewis. 

By her first marriage, the children of Anne Frankland 
were one son — Thomas Frankland — and two daughters — 
Anne and Louisa, who both died unmarried. Mr. Lewis 
died in 1797, and was succeeded by his son, 

The Right Hon. Sir Thomas Frankland Lewis ; 
born 1780, educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxon. ; 
Privy Councillor and M.P. He had filled a variety of 
offices before he consented, under Lord Grey's administra- 
tion, to be placed on the Poor Law Commission, the 
chairmanship of which he fulfilled with great efficiency 
from 1834 to 1839. The Rev. Sidney Smith, writing to 
Sir William Horton in 1835, says : " Frankland Lewis is 
filling his station of King of the Paupers extremely well. 
They have already worked wonders ; but of all occupations 
it must be the most disagreeable." And again to the 
same person : " Our friend Frankland Lewis is gaining 
great and deserved reputation by his administration of the 
Poor Laws, one of the best and boldest measures which 
ever emanated from any Government." Sir Thomas died 
in January, 1855, after only two days' illness, having taken 
a chill whilst shooting in very severe weather. The 
patent of his baronetcy is dated June 27, 1846. He 
married first, in 1805, Harriet, fourth daughter of Sir 
George Cornewall, of Moccas Court, Hereford, by whom 
he had two sons — George Cornewall and Gilbert Frank- 
land ; he married secondly, in 1839, the daughter of the late 
John Ashton, Esq., a captain in the Horse Guards Blue. 

Sir George Cornewall Lewis, second baronet ; born 
1806 ; educated at Eton and at Christchurch, Oxon., 

Fra7ices, the Protector s Fourth Datighter. 143 

where he gained a first-class in classics and a second in 
mathematics. From the obscurity of his Middle Temple 
chambers he emerged in 1835 into the professional distinc- 
tion of a Government Commissioner, though he did not 
enter Parliament till the General Election of 1847, and 
Lord John Russell being then in power, Mr. Cornewall 
Lewis found himself forthwith installed in the office of 
Secretary to the Board of Control. That Whig Govern- 
ment fell in 185 1, and Mr. Lewis lost his seat, till the 
death of his father gave him the family honour of repre- 
senting the Radnor boroughs. His return to Parliament 
was signalized by his appointment to the Chancellorship 
of the Exchequer, and that, too, at a very critical period 
(during the Crimean war with Russia), when Mr. Glad- 
stone's retirement from the Palmerston Ministry created 
a void which no one seemed capable of filling. 

His death took place in 1863 at his country-seat of 
Harpton Court, whither he had retired during the 
Parliamentary vacation to obtain a brief rest from official 

Sir George was succeeded by his only brother, 

Sir Gilbert Frankland Lewis, the third baronet, 
M.A., prebendary of Worcester, rural dean, rector of 
Mornington on the Wye, Hereford ; born 1808 ; married 
1843, Jane, eldest daughter of Sir Edmund Antrobus, 
bart., and had issue : (1) Edward Frankland, died 1848 ; 
(2) Herbert Edmund Frankland, born 1846 ; (3) Lindsay 
Frankland, died young ; (4) Mary Anna ; (5) Eleanor. 

VIII. Dinah, fifth daughter of Admiral Frankland; 
born 1757 ; became in 1779 the wife of William Bowles, 
of Heale House, near Stonehenge, in Wiltshire, by whom 
she had ten children. 

Family of Bowles. 

Mr. Bowles being a member of Earl Shelburne's Wilts 
Reform Association, his name is constantly found in con- 

144 The House of Cromwell. 

junction with those of Lord Radnor, Lord Abingdon, 
Charles James Fox, Awdry Wyndham, and others of 
that country party who, in the county meetings held in 
Devizes from time to time, denounced the extravagance 
of the public expenditure, the American war, and the 
ever - augmenting pension - list. Yet, in spite of his 
Whiggism, Mr. Bowles included Dr. Samuel Johnson 
among his personal friends, and a visit which was paid to 
Heale House by the Doctor in 1783 constitutes an episode 
in his family history, linking it with still older historical 

Mr. Bowles died in 1839. His children were : 
I. Sir William Bowles, K.C.B., and admiral of the 
fleet ; was born at Heale House in 1780. He entered the 
navy at the age of sixteen, and was present in the expedi- 
tion to Copenhagen, and afterwards in that against the 
Spanish ports. In 1812, while commanding the Aquilon, 
Captain Bowles, assisted by Captain David Latimer St. 
Clair, of the Sheldrake, had to execute the disastrous office 
of destroying seven large English merchant-ships, laden 
with hemp, which had run ashore in a fog near Stralsund. 
As 1,500 French soldiers were posted on a neighbouring cliff, 
from which they could sweep the decks of the merchant- 
men, it was manifestly impracticable to bring them off. 
Their destruction therefore was accomplished by approach- 
ing each ship in succession on the offside, scuttling her on 
that side, and then setting her on fire. In 1820 Captain 
Bowles controlled the South American station, and twice 
received complimentary addresses from the British mer- 
chants of Buenos Ayres, the latter memorial being accom- 
panied with a present of plate. In 1822 he was appointed 
Controller -General of the coastguard of England and 
Ireland, which office he held till advanced to the rank of 
Rear Admiral in 1841. He became Admiral of the Fleet 
in 1869. In 1820 he had married the Hon. Frances 
Temple, sister of the late Lord Palmerston. His death 

Descendants of the Protector s Fourth Daughter. 145 

occurred on July 2, 1869, at his residence, 21, Hill Street, 
Berkeley Square, in the ninetieth year of his age, just 
when he had reached his highest grade. 

II. Sir George; born 1787; a General in the army, 
and G.C.B. ; served in Germany, the Peninsula, Flanders, 
and France ; Military Secretary to the Duke of Richmond 
in Canada and Jamaica ; Commander of Lower Canada 
during the rebellion of 1838 ; Master of the Queen's house- 
hold in 1845 ; M.P. for Launceston, 1844 ; Lieutenant of 
the Tower of London, 1851 ; Colonel of the First West 
India Regiment, 1855 ; died unmarried, 1876. 

III. Thomas Henry, barrister-at-law ; died unmarried 
at the Cape of Good Hope in 1868. 

IV. Anne ; married in 1805 to Dr. Fowler, of Salisbury, 
and died 1878, aged ninety-six, when this branch of the 
Bowles family became extinct, and the great wealth that 
she inherited from her brothers went to the Salisbury 

V., VI., VII., VIIL, IX., X. Lucy, Charlotte, Harriet, 
Katharine, Amelia, and Augusta, died young or un- 

Family of Whinyates. 

Katharine, sixth daughter of Admiral Sir Thomas 
Frankland ; married in 1777 Major Thomas Whinyates, 
of Abbotsleigh, Devon, of the second Dragoon Guards, 
and afterwards of the East India service, and had six sons 
and nine daughters. 

I. Thomas, a most intrepid sea-captain ; born in 1778 ; 
entered the navy at the age of fifteen ; was present at the 
storming of Fort Royal, Martinique, March, 1794 ; in 
Bridport's action off Port L'Orient with the Brest fleet, 
June 23, 1795 ; in Warren's action in Donegal Bay, 
October 12, 1798, with the French squadron for the 
invasion of Ireland, on which occasion he fought in the 
Robust, 74, which captured the La Hoche, of 80 guns. 


146 The House of Cromwell. 

He commanded the Frolic at the capture of Guadaloupe, 
Martinique, and St. Martin's, 1809-1810. He became 
Rear Admiral in 1846. The five clasps of Admiral 
Whinyate's war-medal record his valour at (1) Guada- 
loupe ; (2) Martinique ; (3) in Warren's action ; (4) in 
Bridport's ; (5) for boat service at the storming of Fort 
Royal, Martinique. He died unmarried in 1857, aged 

II. Russell Manners Mertolu, so named in memory 
of his birth, in 1780, at Mertolu, a Portuguese town in the 
Alentejo, at a time when his parents were prisoners of 
war. He died at Brighton in 1788. 

III. Sir Edward Charles Whinyates, K.C.B. and 
K.H. This distinguished soldier, born in 1782, was 
educated at Dr. Newcome's school, Hackney, and at the 
Royal Military Academy, Woolwich. He entered the 
army in 1798 as Second Lieutenant in the Artillery, and 
was with Sir Ralph Abercrombie at the landing of the 
Helder, and under the Duke of York in the campaign of 
North Holland. In 1807 he was at the siege and capture 
of Copenhagen under Lord Cathcart. From 1810 to 1813 
he fought in the Peninsula, sharing in many an arduous 
action, and being generally found in the advance or rear 
guards, for which services he received the Peninsula 
medal, with two clasps for Busaco and Albuera. At 
Waterloo, where he was severely wounded in the left arm, 
he commanded the second Rocket Troop, R.H.A., and 
during the three following years remained with the 
army of occupation in France. A brevet majority and 
a medal were the rewards of his conduct at Waterloo. 
General Whinyates married in 1827 Elizabeth, only 
daughter of Samuel Crompton, of Woodend, Yorks, Esq., 
which lady died in childbirth in the following year. His 
own decease took pla,ce in 1865 at his residence, Dorset 
Villa, Cheltenham. 

IV. George Burrington Whinyates, Captain in the 

Descendants of the Protector s Fourth Daughter. 147 

royal navy ; born in 1783, and educated at Dr. Newcome's 
school ; commenced service at the age of fourteen ; and 
in 1806 was at the fight of San Domingo, when Admiral 
Duckworth took or destroyed four sail of the line. In the 
Hon. Robert Stopford's ship, the Spencer, 74, Mr. Whin- 
yates was serving as Lieutenant, ignorant of the fact that 
he had already been promoted to a Captaincy. The 
Spencer captured the Alexandre, 80. The last ship he 
commanded was the Bergere sloop of war of 18 guns. 
He died of consumption, unmarried, at the age of twenty- 

V. Major-General Frederick William Whinyates 
of the Royal Engineers ; married at Harpton Court in 
1830 Sarah Marianne Whalley, and had eight children. 

1. Harriet, died in infancy, 1830. 

2. Emily Marianne, died at the age of four. 

3. Frederick Thomas, Lieutenant-Colonel Royal 
Horse Artillery; married, 1872, Constance, fifth 
daughter of Matthew Bell, of Bourne Park, Canter- 
bury, Esq. 

4. Edward Henry, of Trinity College, Oxon, curate 
at East Hampstead, Berks. 

5. Francis Arthur, Major, commanding the C. 
Battery, A. Brigade, Royal Horse Artillery. 

6. Albert William Orme, Captain Royal Artillery ; 
married, 1868, Margaret Williams, only daughter of 
Major-General William Dunn, R.A. ; died 1878, aged 

7. Amy Octavia. 

8. Charles Elidon, Captain in 52nd Light Infantry. 
Died at Mentone in 1872, aged twenty-six. 

VI. General Francis Frankland Whinyates, of the 
Madras Artillery; married, 1826, Elizabeth Campbell, of 
Ormisdale, co. Argyle. Died at Bath, 1887, aged ninety 

148 The House of Cromwell. 

VII. Sarah Anne Catherina, died in i860, having 
married, first, in 1803, Lieutenant James Robertson, of 
the Bengal Engineers; and secondly, in 181 1, Captain 
Robert Younghusband, of her Majesty's 53rd Regiment. 
Her children by the first marriage were : James Alexander, 
who died in 1828 ; and Sarah Mary Emily, married, 1833, 
to Major Chalmer of the 7th Dragoon Guards, and had 
nine children. Mrs. Chalmer died in 1850 ; her husband 
in 1868. The issue was : 

1. Anna. 

2. Emily Eliza; married, 1870, to Captain P. Cox, 
and has a son. 

3. Catharine Frances, died 1896. 

4. Charlotte Amy Rachel ; married, 1875, to Mr. 
Percy P. Lysaght. 

5. Georgina Isabella, infant. 

6. Gilbert Stirling, Captain in the Blues ; married, 
1873, to the Hon. Norah Westenra ; has a son, Henry 

7. Reginald, Captain 60th Rifles. 

8. George, Captain 92nd Highlanders. 

9. Francis, Lieutenant R.N., retired. 

VIII. Amy, died unmarried, 1875, aged ninety. 

IX. Rachel, died unmarried, 1858. 

X. Ellen Margaret, died in infancy, 1788. 

XI. Isabella Jane, died unmarried, 1868. 

XII. Mercy, died in infancy in 1790. 

XIII. Caroline Charlotte, died in infancy in 1796. 

XIV. Octavia, married William Christmas, of Whit- 
field, co. Waterford, who died 1867. 

XV. Letitia, died unmarried in 1862. 

This brings down to present times the history of the 
fighting race of the Whinyates, who, since their union with 
Admiral Frankland's daughter Katharine, have furnished 
fourteen conspicuous names to the two Services. 

Descendants of the Protector s Fourth Daughter. 149 

Family of Nicholas. 

Charlotte, seventh daughter of Admiral Sir Thomas 
Frankland ; married, in 1778, Robert, elder son of Dr. 
Edward Richmond Nicholas, of Roundway Park, Devizes, 
described in an obituary notice in the Salisbury Journal 
of 1770 as " an eminent physician of Devizes," where 
the family had long flourished. Nicholas memorials 
are found in the parishes of St. John and St. Mary, 
Devizes, Southbroom St. James, Devizes, Bishops 
Cannings, All Cannings, Winterbourn Earls, and Man- 
ningford Bruce. His wife Charlotte having died in 1800, 
he married secondly, in 1805, Anne (died 1873), daughter 
of John Shepherd Clark, Esq., and by her had, with many 
other children, Major Griffin Nicholas* of the 62nd, or 
Wiltshire regiment, the present head of the family and 
claimant of the barony of De la Roche aforesaid ; born in 
1813, and now, 1879, resident at Hounslow. He died in 
1826 at Clifton, whence his body was brought to Ashton- 
Keynes. The children by his two marriages were eighteen 
in number, all the sons dying childless ; those descending 
from Miss Frankland being as follows : 

I. Edward, Charge d'affaires at Hamburgh, latterly 
Governor of Heligoland, and a Dutch merchant ; born 
1779 ; died 1828. 

II. Robert, a daring naval officer, who lost his life at 
sea, August 3, 1810, just as he was made post-captain into 
the Garland. The catastrophe occurred on board the Lark, 
which foundered off San Domingo in one of the white 
squalls peculiar to that station. f 

* Author of " Genealogical Memoranda Relating to the Family of Nicholas." 

t On a silver soup tureen, surmounted by the family crest, an owl with 
wings extended, on a cap of maintenance, was engraved the following testi- 
monial : 

"To Captain Robert Nicholas, of H.M.S. Lark, late Lieutenant-Governor 
of the island of Curacoa. 

" This piece of plate is presented by the merchants concerned in trade with 
that island, as a mark of respect to his person, and a token of gratitude for 

150 The House of Cromwell. 

III. William, born at Ashton - Keynes in Wiltshire, 
December 12, 1785, received his grammatical education at 
Mr. Newcome's school at Hackney, was a Woolwich cadet 
in 1799, a Lieutenant of Engineers in 1801, and first saw 
active duty at the defences of the western heights of 
Dover. In the spring of 1806 he joined the expedition 
to Sicily, dating from which time till his early death, he 
took part in eleven engagements, viz., at St. Euphemia, 
Maida, Rosetta first and second, Bagnora, Alexandria, 
Scylla first and second, Alcanitz, Barossa, and Badajos. 
It was at the ill-contrived assault on Rosetta that he had 
his first experience of the style of warfare practised by 
the Turk, whose cavalry during the retreat of the English 
descended on the helplessly wounded, and deliberately cut 
off their heads. During the street fighting at Rosetta, 
when General Meade was wounded in the eye, Captains 
Nicholas and James bore him in their arms out of that 
scene of carnage, and placed him on the camel which 
carried him to Alexandria. Though unwounded in fight, 
Mr. Nicholas about this time sustained great injury from 
a bathing accident at Alexandria, by plunging into water 
which was so shallow that his breast struck against a 
sunken rock. Sir Thomas Graham habitually spoke of 
his conduct at Barossa as beyond all praise. But let the 
young soldier here tell his own story, as recorded in his 
letters home : " It was the most glorious day England 
ever saw. I wish the eyes of the world had been upon 
us. I have not had time to indulge in melancholy re- 
flections since I received your letter ; but as I galloped 
through the fire, I thought of the pleasure of meeting my 
mother and brothers, and never saw death with more in- 
difference. The men fell too fast to be counted. In 

those important benefits which resulted to them from his zeal and activity in 
the protection of their trade, and the wise policy of those measures to which 
the beneficial intercourse with the neighbouring Spanish colonies is to be 
attributed. London, February 14, 1809." 

Descendants of the Protector s Fourth Daughter. 1 5 1 

short, never was there greater slaughter or a more dis- 
tinguished battle and victory. It exceeds Maida and 
Alcanitz. I assure you they were nothing in comparison. 
Captain Birch and myself were publickly thanked on the 
field of battle for the assistance we rendered General 
Graham, in these words : ' There are no two officers in 
the army to whom I am more indebted than to you two ' 
— stretching out his hands to us — ' you have shewn your- 
selves as fine fellows in the field as at your redoubts.' I 
hope he will not forget me in his public letter. In every 
action I have been in before I have not been perfectly 
satisfied with myself, always thinking that I might have 
done more. At Barossa I inwardly feel and am satisfied 
that I did honour to our name. . . . But alas, as in all 
our victories, honour will be the only reward that falls to 
us. We have retired again into La Isla, disgusted with 
our allies, and have left them to pursue their objects as 
they can. Our men and the soldiers' wives abuse the 
Spanish officers and men as they pass them in the streets, 
so that it is probable some disturbance will happen. The 
Portuguese infantry, who fought admirably, publicly abuse 
them in the streets." 

At the siege of Badajos, he volunteered to direct the 
action of the storming column which ascended the great 
breach ; and it was in accordance with his habits of 
thoroughness that in the dead of the night preceding the 
night of the attack, he determined on making a personal 
reconnoitre of the position. For this purpose he stripped, 
and, disregarding the perils of sentinels or of cold water, 
forded the inundation of the Ravellas in order to deter 
mine the safest passage across, an action of which due 
note was taken by Sir Thomas Graham. 

The next night witnessed the assault. After twice 
assaying to reach the summit of the breach, Nicholas fell, 
wounded by a musket-ball grazing his knee, a bayonet- 
thrust in the right leg, his left arm broken, and his wrist 

152 The House of Cromwell. 

bleeding from a third shot. Thus shattered, he rolled 
among the debris ; but on hearing the soldiers demand 
who should lead them on to the third attack, he rallied his 
energies sufficiently to order two of his men to hold him 
up in their arms, and carry his wounded body to the front. 
Again were they at the top of the breach, when one of his 
bearers fell dead, and himself received a fourth shot, which 
broke two ribs and passed out near the spine. This shock 
precipitated him the whole length of the slope down to the 
bottom of the breach. By his side were falling his friends, 
Colonel McLeod, Captain James, and Major-General 
Colville. The last-mentioned officer swooned from the 
agony of a wound in the thigh, but he afterwards re- 
covered ; and when writing home to his brother-in-law, 
Canon Frankland (an uncle to William Nicholas), he says : 
"The last sound which I heard was the voice of that 
valuable young man and excellent officer, Captain 
Nicholas, emphatically exhorting his men in the ditch." 

After his wounds had been dressed, he wrote home in 
the following terms : 

" My dear Father, 

" The breaches were stormed last night, and 
Badajos taken. I had the honour of showing and leading 
the troops of the advance to the great breach. I am 
wounded in the following manner : — one musket ball 
through the left arm, breaking it about the middle below 
the elbow, — another through my left side, breaking I 
believe one or two ribs, — two very slight wounds, one on 
the knee-pan, and one in the calf of my left leg, — ditto, 
wrist of the left arm. Adieu, my dear father, 

" Your most affectionate son, 

"William Nicholas." 

" Camp before Badajoz, 
"April 7, 1812." 

He calmly expired in the afternoon of April 14, 1812, 
being the eighth day after his wounds. 

Descendants of the Protector s Fourth Daughter, 1 53 

Sir Richard Fletcher, the commanding engineer, erected, 
before quitting the captured city, an altar-tomb over the 
grave of his comrade, and announced the fact to the elder 
Mr. Nicholas, who had now, in the brief space of two 
years, lost three sons in the service. 

IV. Thomas, born 1790, a naval Lieutenant of H.M.S. 
Satellite. He was supposed to have been blown up with 
his boat's crew, while setting fire to the French frigate 
Elise off Tatatho, on the coast of France, December 19, 
1810. At any rate, neither the boat nor her freight were 
ever again seen. 

V. Charles, born 1794 ; died 1822. At first a Wool- 
wich cadet ; but on the death of his brother William 
it was decided to send him to Oxford. He eventually 
became a barrister of Lincoln's Inn, but shortly after died 
of consumption at Madeira, his remains being brought to 
England for interment in the family vault at Ashton- 

VI. Charlotte, born 1784; died unmarried. 

VII. Sophia, born 1787 ; died unmarried in 1866. 

VIII. Frances; died unmarried in i860, aged seventy- 
two, and was buried in Kensal Green cemetery. 

IX. Harriet ; married, in 1816, Captain (afterwards 
Admiral) Henry Theodosius Browne Collier, brother to 
Admiral Sir Francis Collier; and died in 1850, the mother 
of seven children. 

1. George Baring Browne, Captain R.N. ; married 
Justina Maria Stepney, youngest daughter of Joseph 
Gulston, of Derwydd, Carmarthen. 

2. Clarence Augustus, Lieutenant-Colonel Bombay 
Staff Corps ; retired on full pay with rank of Colonel. 
He married Anne, daughter of Peter Rolt, Esq., 

3. Herbert Cromwell, Captain 21st Hussars ; 
married Blanche Frances, only child of Major-General 

154 The House of Cromwell. 

4. Gertrude Barbara Rich ; married Charles Ten- 
nant, of Cadoxton Lodge, Glamorgan, Esq. 

5. Harriette Augusta Royer ; married Sir Alexan- 
der Campbell, Bart., of Barcaldine. 

6. Adeline Letitia ; married Robert Gordon, 
Adjutant-General of the Madras Army. 

7. Clementina Frances ; married Frederick Erskine 
Johnston, Captain R.N., son of the late Right Hon. 
Sir Alexander Johnston, of Carnsalloch, co. Dumfries. 

X. Ellenor, born 1796 ; married Mr. Sutton, and died, 

s.p., in 1862. 
XL Maria, died unmarried in 1821. 

Family of Gosset. 

Grace, eighth daughter of Admiral Sir Thomas 
Frankland, fifth Baronet ; married, in 1793, Matthew 
Gosset, Esq., Vicomte of Jersey, and died in 1801. The 
Gosset family, of noble Norman descent, adopted the 
Protestant faith, and in consequence forfeited rank, it is 
thought, about 1555 ; and later on the estates near St. Lo 
and St. Sauveur, fleeing to Jersey at the Revocation of the 
Edict of Nantes. Matthew Gosset's children by Grace 
Frankland were as follows : 

I. William Matthew, Lieutenant-Colonel Royal En- 
gineers; served during the last war with America (1812- 
1814), and was engaged in the capture of Oswego ; married 
Louisa Walter, in 1830, and died in 1856. No children. 

II. Admiral Henry Gosset, served, like his brother, 
in the last war with the States, and assisted at the capture 
of Genoa; escorted Napoleon I. to St. Helena. Born in 
1798 ; died unmarried 1877. 

III. Captain Charles Gosset, R.N. ; served in the 
Mediterranean and Adriatic during the war with France ; 
died unmarried, 1868. 

IV. Grace Elizabeth ; married in 1819 to John Cal- 
laghan, of Cork, Esq., and had three children — two sons, 

Descendants of the Protector s Fourth Daughter. 1 5 5 

who died, and a daughter, who married, in 1876, C. R. 
Palmer, of Carrig, Queen's Co., Esq. 

V. Arthur, of Eltham House, Kent, and some time of 
West Park, Mortlake ; Major (retired) Royal Horse 
Artillery ; a Magistrate and Deputy-Lieutenant for Kent. 
In 1834 ne niarried Augusta, daughter of Thomas Morgan, 
Esq., had twelve children, and died 1886. 

1. Augusta Louisa. 

2. Emma. 

3. Arthur Wellesley, late Captain 2nd Queen's 
Royals ; served throughout the China War of i860, 
and in the advance on Pekin ; medal and two clasps ; 
married, 1881, Harriet Lavinia, daughter of Rev. R. 
Holden Webb, and has one daughter. 

4. Matthew William Edward, C.B., Brigadier- 
General, Madras ; served with 54th Regiment during 
the Indian Mutiny, against the Chittagong mutineers 
in 1857, and in Lord Clyde's campaign, in Oude, 
1858-1869. Medal. Adjutant 54th Regiment, 1863- 
1867 ; Instructor Royal Military College, 1873-1877 ; 
Brigade- Major, Aldershot, 1877-1878 ; Aide-de-camp 
to General Officer Commanding the Forces, Cape of 
Good Hope ; and Assistant-Quartermaster-General, 
2nd Division, during operations against the Gaikas in 
the Buffalo Mountains, and the Perie and In'taba 
Ka'ndoda Bush, 1878-1879. Employed in Quarter- 
master-General's Department, and as Commandant at 
Durban, in first and second advance into Zululand. 
Battle of Ulundi; mentioned in despatches. Medal with 
clasp. Brevet of Lieutenant-Colonel, 1879 » m Trans- 
vaal Campaign, 1880-18S1 ; Lieutenant-Colonel of the 
Dorset Regiment, 1884-1890; in operations of the 
Irrawaddy column in Burmah, 1891-1892. Medal with 
clasp; Assistant - Adjutant - General, Egypt, 1891 ; 
Brigadier-General, Madras, 1891-1896. 

5. Mary Harriet. 

156 The House of Cromwell. 

6. Philip Henry ; died 1893 ; unmarried. 

7. Laura Henrietta. 

8. Octavia Georgina Emily. 

9. Gertrude Maria ; married, 1873, F. B. Shad- 
well, Esq., and has two sons. 

10. Grace Amelia. 

11. Adelaide Louisa Julia. 

12. Edward Frankland, Major East Yorkshire 
Regiment, ; married, 1893, Mary Mabel Vidal, and 
has one son. 

This completes the genealogies of the younger children 
of Admiral Frankland. The baronetcy has now to be 
carried on in the person of his eldest son and heir, 

Sir Thomas Frankland, sixth Baronet ; born 1750 ; 
died 1831, having, in 1775, married his cousin, Dorothy, 
daughter of William Smelt, and niece of Leo Smelt, Esq., 
sub-Governor to the Prince of Wales [George IV.], and 
by her, who died 1820, had six children, the youngest of 
whom was his successor. 

Sir Robert Frankland, the seventh Baronet, who, 
having inherited the Chequers estate by the will of Sir 
Robert Greenhill Russell in 1836 assumed by sign manual 
the surname of Russell in addition to and after that of 
Frankland. He was born 1784, and in 1815 married the 
Hon. Louisa Anne, third daughter of Lord George Murray, 
Bishop of St. David's. He sat in several Parliaments, but 
took no prominent part, nor held office. His five daughters 
were : 

I. Augusta Louisa; married, 1842, to Thomas De 
Grey, fifth Baron Walsingham, and died 1844, leaving 
a son, Thomas, who in 1870 succeeded his father as 
sixth Baron, and married, 1877, Augusta Selina Eliza- 
beth, widow of Ernest Fitzroy Neville, Lord Burg- 

II. Caroline Agnes; died, unmarried, 1846. 

III. Emily Anne; married Sir William Payne 

Descendants of the Protectors Fourth Daughter. 1 5 7 

Gallwey, of Thirkleby Park, Bart., M.P. for Thirsk ; 
and was the mother of: (1) Ralph William, in the 
army, who married Edith Alice, daughter of Thomas 
M. Usborne, of Blackrock, co. Cork; (2) Edwin; 

(3) Lionel ; (4) Wyndham Harry ; (5) Leonora Anne ; 
(6) Bertha Louisa ; (7) Isabel Julia, died 1873. 

IV. Julia Roberta; married, 1845, Ralph Neville 
Grenville, eldest son of George Neville, and grandson 
of the second Baron Braybrooke, and had issue 
(1) Robert, 1846; (2) George, 1850; (3) Hugh, 1851 ; 

(4) Louisa ; (5) Agnes Magdalen ; (6) Beatrice ; (7) 

V. Rosalind Alicia ; became, in 1854, the second 
wife of Lieutenant-Colonel Francis L'Estrange Astley, 
third son of Sir Jacob Henry Astley, and is now 
(1896) Mrs. Frankland Russell Astley, of Chequers 
Court, Bucks. Their issue was : Bertram Frank- 
land, 1857 ; Hubert Delaval, i860 ; and Reginald 
Basil, 1862. 

Sir Robert died in 1849, and was succeeded by his 

Sir Frederick William Frankland Russell, the 
eighth Baronet, lately residing at Cheltenham. He 
was the eldest son of Roger Frankland, the Canon of 
Wells. Born in 1793, he received his military education 
at Marlow and Woolwich, joined the Duke of Welling- 
ton in Portugal in 1812, was present at Pampeluna, 
Pyrenees, Nivelle, Nive, Bidassoa, Bayonne, Toulouse, 
and Waterloo, also at the storming of Cambray, held 
office in the Ordnance Department at Gibraltar, served 
in the East and West Indies, and sold out in 1825. For 
fifteen years he was a magistrate and Deputy- Lieutenant 
of Sussex, in which county his estate of Montham lay. 
In the evening of his days he drew up, at the request of 
his children, a relation of his military life, more particu- 
larly of the part which he had borne in the Peninsular 

158 The House of Cromwell. 

War, and, under the title of " Reminiscences of a 
Veteran," it was printed for private circulation in 1872, 
adorned with a portrait of the old soldier. It makes no 
pretensions to systematic history, but abounds with per- 
sonal incidents. His health, it appears, was far from 
good when he left England as a youth, yet he had no dis- 
position to retreat before that or any other obstacle. It 
was therefore rather humbling to his pride when one day, 
while the army was ploughing its way by the torrent of 
Bidassoa, driving the French before them, a message came 
from the Adjutant directing the young officer to go to the 
rear, and, taking command of the sick men there gathered, 
to march them to the nearest hospital station. The order 
was peremptory, and had to be put in immediate execu- 
tion ; so the march began ; but after the first quarter of a 
mile its ignominy could be endured no longer, and the 
word was given to "Halt." "Well, my lads," he went 
on, " I never expected to have such a duty as this to per- 
form. I ought at this moment to be leading the Grenadiers 
into action, instead of which I am sent to the rear with a 
pack of skulking fellows, who are shamming sickness 
because they are tired of fighting. You may hear the 
guns firing now, and the French are in full retreat. Come 
now, just change your minds. You may be unwell, but 
there is not one of you so ill as myself. I declare it drives 
me mad to think of it." After a short pause, one of their 
number stepped forward : " Mr. Frankland, we are all 
knocked up, but we have nevertheless determined to go 
back with you." So the word was given " Right about 
face," the fighting battalion was soon overtaken, and 
every invalid rejoined his company. 

Sir Frederick married, in 1821, Katharine Margaret, 
only daughter of Isaac Scarth, of Stakesby, Yorks, Esq., 
by whom, who died 1871, he had : 

I. Frederick Roger, Midshipman in the Winchester ; 
died at Sierra Leone, 1845. 

Descendants of the Protectors Fourth Daughter. 1 59 

II. Thomas, of the 48th Madras Native Infantry; 
killed in 1857 at the storming of a tower in the 
Secunder Bagh, at Lucknow. 

III. Harry Albert, Midshipman in the Alarm; 
died of fever at Vera Cruz, 1847. 

IV. William Adolphus, Lieutenant -Colonel, and 
late of the Royal Engineers, of whom presently. 

V. Colville, Captain 103rd Fusiliers ; married, in 
1870, Mary Jay, daughter of William Dawson, of 
New York, and has two sons and three daughters. 

VI. Frederica,died in infancy at Poonah, East India. 

VII. Eliza Henrietta Augusta; married at Frank- 
fort-on-the-Maine, 1861, to Major F. S. Vacher, of 
the 22n/d Regiment. 

VIII. Maria Margaret Isabella, died i860. 

Sir Frederick William Frankland died 1878, aged 
eighty-five, and was succeeded by his eldest surviving 
son, Sir William Adolphus Frankland, the ninth 
Baronet, who was born in 1837, anc ^ passed first out of 
the Royal Military Academy into the Royal Engineers 
in 1855. He succeeded his father, the old Peninsula and 
Waterloo officer, in 1878. He married Lucy Ducarel, 
daughter of Francis Adams, Esq., of Clifton and Cots- 
wold Grange, Gloucester. The baronetcy was created 
by Charles II. at the Restoration. The second Baronet 
married Frances Russell, grand-daughter of Oliver Crom- 
well, and the Franklands, being descendants of the 
Protector, a large number of pictures and relics of the 
Cromwell family descended with the baronetcy. Sir 
William Frankland was thus the possessor of the well- 
known portraits* of Cromwell by Sir Peter Lely, Walker, 
and Cooper, and of the mask taken of the Protector after 

* Amongst these portraits are Oliver as a child, three years old ; Oliver in 
armour, with a page tying his sash ; Oliver on horseback ; Oliver's mother ; 
his two sons, Richard and Henry ; his four daughters ; his chaplain, Jeremy 
White ; his secretary, Thurloe ; and Cornet Joyce, who took Charles prisoner 
from Holmby House to Newmarket. 

160 The House of Cromwell. 

death. At the 1880 General Election, Sir William Frank- 
land, coming forward as a Conservative, lost his seat for 
Thirsk, a borough which had been represented by a long 
line of his ancestors, with few intermissions, for several 
hundred years. He died in December, 1883, after a long 
illness, at Sunbury-on-Thames. He is succeeded by his 
eldest son, now Sir Frederick Frankland. 

In Henry Stooks Smith's " Parliaments of England," 
the representatives of Thirsk, being members of the allied 
families of Greenhill, Greenhill-Russell, Frankland, and 
Crompton, are invariably marked as Whigs from 1806 
downwards. Previous to that date their politics are not 
specified in Mr. Smith's work. 

Earldoms of Chichester and Darnley, and Viscounty of 

Anne Frankland, only daughter and heiress of 
Frederick Meinhardt Frankland, Esq., married, May 11, 
1754, Thomas Pelham, Esq., who succeeded his cousin as 
second Baron Pelham, of Stanmer, in Sussex, and in 1801 
was created Earl of Chichester, dying four years after- 
wards. The Pelhams, of Sussex, were an eminent Whig 
family. There were four of the name in the Long Par- 
liament. Peregrine Pelham, M.P. for Hull, was a regicide, 
but whether or not related to the Sussex family is un- 
known. Sir Thomas Pelham, the member for Sussex, 
and the direct ancestor of the present Earl of Chichester, 
served on the committee acting in the Parliament's behalf 
for that county (Lords' Journals, vii. 208). Thomas 
Pelham's children by Anne Frankland were : 

I. Thomas, second Earl. 

II. Henrietta Anne, married to George William 
Leslie, tenth Earl of Rothes, of whom presently. 

III. Henry, born 1759 ; died 1797, having married 
Katharine, daughter of Thomas Cobb, Esq. Issue, 
two daughters : (1) Katharine Elizabeth Anne, and (2) 

Pedants of the Protectors Fourth Daughter. i6r 

Fanny, married to Captain James fla^lt^u^ 

IV. Frances, born 1760; married to George, fourth 
Viscount Midleton of Ireland ; and died 1783, ieavm" 
a daughter, Frances Anne, who became the wife of 
Inigo Freeman Thomas, of Ratten in Sussex, Esq 
and died s.p. in 1858. l '' 

V- Lucy, Countess to John, first Earl of Sheffield ■ 
died s.p. 1797. ' 

VI. Emily, born 1764. 

VII. George, D.D. ; Bishop successively of Bristol 

Sir Richard Rycroft, and died s.p. 1827 
Thomas, second Earl of Chichester, born April 8 
h was ^ e ° f Ug s h ° Ut t the r i0d ° f the F-nch Revolution 

As Lord P ,h ry u° r Ireland UndGr L ° rd Cam den. 

As Lord Pelham in the House of Commons, he dis- 

mgmshed himself by maintaining, in alliance with Mr 
(afterwards Earl) Grey, the right of the House to be 
made acquainted with the merits of every case of foreign 
negotiation, as the only means of escaping constant war 
like complications. He was one of those who urged the 
prosecution of Warren Hastings. He married, in 1801 
Henrietta Juliana, daughter of Francis Godolphin, fifth 
Duke of Leeds, and left issue : 

I. Mary, born 1803 ; died i860. 

II. Henry Thomas, third Earl. 

T U u' ^ m u f a r Rose > mar "ed to Major-General Sir 
Joshua Jebb, of the Royal Engineers, and died 1884 

IV. Frederick Thomas (died 1861), Rear-Admiral, 
R.N ; married 1841, to Ellen Kate, daughter of 

fohn M r h f ' f^" ^ had: (I) Frede -k 
John (2) Frederick Sidney, Lieutenant, R N ■ 

3 Constance Alary Kate; (4) Emily Blanche',' 

(5) Beatrice Emily Julia; (6) Kathleen Mary Maud 

V. John Thomas, D.D, Bishop of Norwich- 


1 62 The House of Cromwell. 

married Henrietta, daughter of Thomas William 
Tatton, Esq., of Wythenshaw, and had issue : (i) 
Henry Francis, of Exeter College, Oxon. ; married, 
1873, Laura Priscilla, daughter of Sir Edward Buxton, 
Bart. ; (2) John Barrington, in Holy Orders ; married 
Caroline, daughter of Rev. William Buller; (3) 
Sidney, B.A. ; (4) Herbert ; (5) Fanny. 

VI. Henrietta Juliana, born 1813. 

VII. Katharine Georgiana, born July 21, 1814 ; 
married, October 26, 1837, the Hon. and Rev. 
Lowther John Barrington, son of George, fifth 
Viscount Barrington ; and died 1885, leaving a family. 

VIII. Lucy Anne, second wife to Sir David 
Dundas, of Beechwood, Bart. 

The Earl died in 1826, and was succeeded by his son, 
Henry Thomas Pelham, third Earl of Chichester, 
born August, 1804 ; married, 1828, Mary Brudenell, 
daughter of Robert, sixth Earl of Cardigan, who died in 
1867. By her he had issue : 

I. Walter John (Lord Pelham), married, 1861, 
Eliza Mary, only daughter of the Hon. Sir John 
Duncan Bligh. 

II. Francis Godolphin, M.A., Vicar of St. Mary's, 
Beverley, Yorks, subsequently Canon of Bangor and 
Rector of Lambeth ; married Alice Carr, daughter of 
Lord Wolverton, and has Jocelyn Brudenell, Ruth 
Mary, Henry George Godolphin, Anthony Ashley 
Ivo, Herbert. 

III. Thomas Henry William, barrister-at-law ; 
married Louisa, daughter of William Bruce, Esq., 
cousin to Lord Balfour of Burleigh, and has issue 
Mary Louisa. 

IV. Arthur Lowther, married Evelyn, daughter of 
Reginald Cust, Esq. 

V. Harriet Mary, married, 1850, to John Stuart 
Bligh, Earl of Darnley, in the peerage of Ireland, and 

Descendants of the Protectors Fourth Daughter. J 63 

Baron Clifton in that of England; descended from 
John Bligh, one of Cromwell's agents for the settle- 
ment of forfeited estates in Ireland. Issue: Edward 
Henry Stuart, Kathleen Susan Emma, and other 

VI. Susan Emma, married, 1853, to Abel Smith, 
of Woodhall Park, Herts. 

VII. Isabella Charlotte, married, 1855, to Samuel 
W'hitbread, M. P. for Bedford. Issue: Maud; married 
Mr. Charles Whitbread. 

The Earl died in 1886, and was succeeded by his son, 
Walter John Pelham, fourth Earl of Chichester, who was 
born in 1838. 

Earldom of Rothes. 

Henrietta Anne Pelham, eldest daughter of Thomas, 
first Earl of Chichester ; married, 1789, George William, 
tenth Earl of Rothes, of the kingdom of Fife, and had, 
with Amelia and Mary, who died unmarried, 

Henrietta Anne, Countess, who in 1806 married 
George Gwyther on his assumption of the surname and 
arms of Leslie, and had issue : 

I. George William Evelyn, eleventh Earl. 

II. Thomas Jenkins, in the army. 

III. Henrietta Anne, wife of Charles Knight Mur- 
ray, barrister-at-law. 

IV. Mary Elizabeth, married Martin E. Haworth, 
of the 60th Rifles ; died 1893. 

V. Anna Maria, married Henry Hugh Courtenay, 
Rector of Mamhead, son of the eleventh Earl of 
Devon, and had : Henry Reginald and Hugh Leslie. 

VI. Katherine Caroline, married John Parker, 
Captain, 66th Foot. 

The Countess died in 1819, and was succeeded by 
her son, 

George Wtlliam Evelyn, eleventh Earl of Rothes ; 

164 The House of Cromwell. 

born 1809 ; married Louisa, third daughter of Henry- 
Anderson Morshead, of Widey Court, Devon, and left 
at his death, in 1841, a daughter, Henrietta Anderson 
Morshead, who eventually became Countess, and an only 
son, namely, 

George William Evelyn, twelfth Earl, who died 
unmarried in 1859, when the family honours devolved 
upon his sister, 

Henrietta Anderson Morshead Leslie, Countess of 
Rothes, and Baroness Leslie and Ballenbreich in the 
peerage of Scotland ; married, 1861, to the Hon. George 
Waldegrave Leslie, third son of William, eighth Earl of 

Family of Gee. 

Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Sir Thomas Frankland, 
the second Baronet ; married Roger Talbot, of Woodend, 
in Yorkshire, whose only daughter, Arabella, or Eliza- 
beth (?), became the second wife of Colonel William Gee, 
who fell at Fontenoy in 1743. They had one son, viz. : 

Roger Gee, Esq., of Bishop Burton, who by his wife, 
Caroline, eighth daughter and co-heir of Sir Warton 
Penyman Warton, had two daughters : (1) Sarah Eliza- 
beth, married to Henry Boldero Barnard, of Cave Castle ; 
and (2) Caroline, married to George Hotham, of the 
Guards. Mr. Gee died in 1778, and was buried in Bath 
Abbey. His daughters, who were his co-heirs, sold the 
Woodend estate to the Crompton family. 

Family of Barnard. 

Sarah Elizabeth Gee, married Mr. Barnard afore- 
said in 1788, and had surviving issue as follows : 

I. Henry Gee, born 1789 ; a Captain in the Scots 

II. Charles Lewyns, born 1790 ; entered the army in 
his fifteenth year as Ensign in his uncle General Hotham's 

Descendants of the Protectors Fourth Daughter. 165 

regiment, and finally became a Captain of the Scots 
Greys, in the troop previously commanded by his elder 
brother. After distinguishing himself in no less than 
twelve engagements under the Duke of Wellington, he 
fell at Waterloo in 18 15. 

III. Edward William, held the family living of South 
Cave, and died at Chester in 1827, leaving by his wife, 
Philadelphia Frances Esther, daughter of Archdeacon 
Wrangham, three children, namely : (1) Edward Charles 
Gee, born 1822 ; (2) Rosamund ; (3) Caroline. 

IV. Sarah Eleanor, married, in 1832, to Joseph, only 
surviving son of Samuel Delpratt, of Jamaica, and had 
issue one daughter, Eleanor Josephine. 

Mr. Boldero Barnard died in 1815 — his widow in 1832 
— and was succeeded by his eldest son, Henry Gee 

Family of Hotham and Baronetcy of Lubbock. 

Caroline, the second daughter of Roger Gee aforesaid, 
became in 1792 the first wife of Lieutenant - Colonel 
George Hotham, eldest son of General George Hotham 
and brother to Admiral Lord Hotham. She died in 181 1. 

The children of Colonel Hotham and Miss Gee were as 
follows : 

I. William, Rear Admiral, R.N., born 1794 ; went to 
sea at the age of ten in the Raissonable, 64, commanded by 
his uncle, Vice-Admiral Sir William Hotham ; dis- 
tinguished himself at Antwerp, Cadiz, Matagorda, the 
capture of La Pcrsanne, French store-ship ; destroying 
batteries at Omago, on the coast of Istria ; storming the 
fort of Farisina ; capturing the batteries of Rovigno ; com- 
manding a flotilla on the Po, in co-operation with the 
Austrian army ; sailing in the squadron which escorted 
Louis XVIII. to his restored dominions in 1814, etc. 

II. George, a Captain of Engineers; born 1796; died 
i860. He married Caroline, daughter of Richard Watt, 

1 66 The H<mse of Cromwell. 

of Bishop Burton, Esq., and had two children : Richard, 
an officer in the army, and Harriet. By his second wife, 
Amelia, daughter of Francis Ramsden Hawkesworth, he 
had Arthur, Francis, Alice, and Laura. 

III. Charles, Prebendary of York ; married Lucy Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Rev. Christopher Sykes. 

IV. John, in the Artillery, E.I.C. His first wife 
was Maria, daughter of Henry Thompson, of Burton, 
Esq. By his second, Mary, daughter of Rev. D. R. 
Roundell, he had : Charles, John, Caroline, Fanny, and 

V. Sarah, married in 1823 to Stephen Creyke, Arch- 
deacon of York, and had issue : Walter Pennington, 
Alexander Stephen, Alfred Richard, Caroline Julia, Diana 
Jane, Gertrude Hotham. 

VI. Charlotte, married to Robert Denison, Esq. 

VII. Gertrude, married to Rev. Christopher Neville, 
and had issue a daughter, Charlotte, 1831, and a son, 
George, 1833. 

VIII. Diana Caroline, married in 1841 to Henry 
Alexander Brown, of Kingston Grove, Oxford. 

IX. Harriet, married in 1833 to Sir John William 
Lubbock, of Lamas, co. Norfolk, Bart., and had issue : 

1. John, who succeeded to the baronetcy, M.P. 
for Maidstone, F.R.S., D.C.L., Vice-Chancellor of 
London University, Hon. Secretary of the London 
bankers; married Ellen Frances, daughter of Rev. 
Peter Hordern. Her children are: John Birkbeck, 
1858; Norman, 1861 ; Rolfe Arthur, 1865; Amy 
Harriet ; Constance Mary ; Gertrude ; Florence, who 
died 1868. 

2. Henry James, 1838. 

3. Neville, 1839. 

4. Beaumont William, 1840. 

5. Montague, 1842. 

6. Frederick, 1844. 

Descendants of the Protector s Fourth Daughter. 167 

7. Alfred, 1845. 

8. Edgar, 1847. 

9. Mary Harriet, married, 1857, * Robert Birk- 
beck, Esq. 

10. Diana Hotham, married, 1856, to William P. 
Rodney, cousin of Lord Rodney. 

n. Henrietta Harriet. 

Family of Worsley. 

Frances, second surviving daughter of Thomas Frank- 
land, the second Baronet; married, in 1710, Thomas 
Worsley, of Hovingham in Yorkshire, Esq. Worsley, 
or Workesley, is a name derived from Sir Elias, Lord of 
Worsley, near Manchester, at the time of the Conquest, 
who accompanied Robert, Duke of Normandy, to the 
Holy Land, and was buried at Rhodes. 

By Frances Frankland, Mr. Worsley had two sons and 
four daughters, as follows : 

I. Thomas, his successor. 

11. James, a clergyman; married Dorothy Penny- 
man, and left four children : James, Ralph, Richard, 
and Dorothy. A grandchild of Mr. James Worsley 
was James Whyte Pennyman, of Ormesby Hall, 
Yorkshire, and possibly other names might be success- 
fully sought in that direction. 

III. Mary, wife to Marmaduke Constable, of Was- 
sand, of whom hereafter. 

IV. Elizabeth, survived her husband, William 
Slaenforth, Esq. 

V. Katharine, unmarried. 

VI. Frances, married to Sir Thomas Robinson, 
Lord Grantham, of whom hereafter (page 171). 

Mr. Thomas Worsley was succeeded by his eldest son, 

Thomas, M.P., Surveyor-General of the Board of 

Works under George III., from whom he received many 

marks of favour. He rebuilt the family mansion, and 

enriched it with a library and a gallery of paintings. By 

i68 The House of Cromwell. 

his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Rev. J. Lister, he had, 
besides two daughters, two sons, viz. : 
Edward, his successor. 

George, Rector of Stonegrave and Scawton, York- 
shire ; married Anne, daughter of Sir Thomas Cayley, 
of Brompton, Bart., and had fifteen children : (i) and 
(2) George and Edward, died young ; (3) William, 
succeeded his uncle ; (4) Marcus, married Miss Harriet 
Hamer, and had issue ; (5) Thomas, Rector of Scaw- 
ton ; (6) Frederick Cayley ; (7) Septimus Launcelot, 
M.A. of Cambridge ; (8) Henry Francis, married 
Catharine, daughter of B. Blackden, Esq., and had 
issue; (9) Charles Valentine, barrister-at-law ; (10) 
Arthur, of the 51st Regiment of Native Infantry in 
India; (11) Digby Edmund; (12) Isabella, married 
J. C. Blackden, Esq., and had several children ; 
(13) Philadelphia, married William J. Coltman, M.A., 
Oxon. ; (14) Anne ; (15) Frances, married G. H. 
Webber, Prebendary of Ripon. 
Edward Worsley was the next heir, but, dying un- 
married in 1830, was succeeded by his nephew, 

William Worsley, M.A., St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge ; many years in the Hussar Yeomanry Corps of his 
relation, Lord de Grey, and a magistrate and Deputy- 
Lieutenant in the North Riding. In 1827 he married 
Sarah Philadelphia, daughter of Sir George Cayley, of 
Brompton, Yorkshire, Bart., and had issue : 

I. Thomas Robinson. 

II. William Cayley. 

III. Sophia Harriet. 

IV. Arthington. 

V. Katherine Louisa. 

VI. Anna Barbara. 

Family of Constable of Wassand. 
Mary, eldest daughter of Frances Frankland and 
Thomas Worsley (see page 167), married Marmaduke 

Descendants of the Protector's Fourth Daughter. 169 

Constable, of Wassand, near Hull, Esq. The " Wass- 
and Constable " race have always held high position in the 
northern counties. From Robert de Lacy Constable of 
Chester, in 1206, down to Robert Constable of 1701, 
twenty-eight members of the family have been High 
Sheriffs of York. During the Civil War of Charles I.'s 
time, the house of Constable, like many others, was a 
divided one. Sir William, the Flamborough Baronet, and 
the representative of the elder branch, sat for Knares- 
borough in the Long Parliament, and, having married a 
daughter of the house of Fairfax, became associated with 
them in war. His personal hostility to the King's 
measures, especially in the matter of ship-money, had 
already resulted in imprisonment, and declared itself more 
fully when he joined in signing the warrant for Charles's 
execution. Judging by the large sums passing through 
his hands, he must have been much in the Parliament's 
confidence. In 1643 he was actually proposed for the 
command-in-chief, under Fairfax. In 1648 he was one of 
the Council of State. As a regicide, he was excepted out 
of the Bill of Pardon, and, having died during the Pro- 
tectorate, his estates fell under confiscation. On the other 
hand, there are several of the Constables discernible 
among the Royalists — to wit, Sir Philip of Everingham, 
Sidney, William, Matthew, and John, besides " Ralph 
Constable," whose composition-fine was £yo 13s. 4d. Of 
the " Marmaduke Constable of Wassand " of that period, 
nothing distinctive (beyond his marriage) is recorded. 
The children of Mary Frankland by Mr. Constable were 
as follows : 

I. Marmaduke, his heir. 

II. Thomas, a clergyman ; married Sarah, daughter of 
Charles Goulton, Esq., and had : 

1. Charles, heir to his uncle Marmaduke. 

2. Marmaduke, married, 1807, Octavia, daughter 
of General Hale ; no issue. 

tjo The House of Cromwell. 

3. Rachel Marian, married, 1808, James Salmond, 
Esq. Their son Edward died s.p. 1821. 

4. Frances Elizabeth, married, 1814, William 
Bentinck, Prebendary of Westminster, eldest son of 
Lord Edward Charles Cavendish Bentinck. 

5. Sarah, died young. 

III. Mary, married to Jonathan Acklom, of Wiseton, 
Notts, Esq., by whom she had one son and four daughters, 
viz. : Richard, Ann Elizabeth, Mary, Lucy — who mar- 
ried her cousin Charles Constable, see below — and Rosa- 
mund. The eldest daughter, Anne Elizabeth, was the 
wife of Christopher Neville, of Thorney, and the mother of 
two sons — Christopher and George — the elder of whom 
married Gertrude, daughter of Lieutenant-Colonel Hotham, 
of York, and had a daughter — Charlotte, 1831 — and a son 
—George, 1833. 

IV. Rosamund, died unmarried in 1801. 

Mr. Constable, dying in 1762, aged fifty-eight, was suc- 
ceeded by his elder son. 

Marmaduke, who died unmarried in 1812, was suc- 
ceeded by his nephew, 

Charles, M.A., and a clergyman, also in the Commis- 
sion of the Peace for the three Ridings of Yorkshire. On 
succeeding to the family estates, he built a new house in 
place of the mansion which had stood since 1530. He 
married his cousin Lucy, daughter of Jonathan Acklom, 
and had an only child — Mary — who in 1818 married 
George, eldest son of Sir William Strickland, of Boynton, 

Family of Strickland. 

Mr. George Strickland married Mary Constable 
aforesaid, and in 1834 succeeded his father as seventh 
Baronet. They had issue as follows : 

I. Charles William, eighth Baronet. 

II. Frederick, born 1820; died 1849. 

Descendants of the Protector s Fourth Daughter. 1 7 1 

III. Henry Strickland Constable, of Wassand, who 
took by royal license the additional surname of Con- 
stable ; married Cornelia Charlotte Anne, daughter of 
Lieutenant-Colonel Henry and Lady Sophia Dumaresq 
(see " Lanesborough " in the Peerage), and had issue : 

1. Frederick Charles, i860. 

2. Marmaduke. 

3. Ethel. 

4. Mary Sophia. 

5. Rosamund. 

6. Lucy Winifred. 

IV. Lucy Henrietta, the wife of J. P. Marriott, after- 
wards Goulton Constable of Cotesbach. They both died 
in 1871. 

Sir George Strickland died in 1S74, and was succeeded 
by his eldest son, 

Sir Charles William Strickland, eighth Baronet, 
barrister-at-law ; born 1819 ; married first Georgina Selina 
Septimia, daughter of Sir William Milner, of Nun-Apple- 
ton, Bart., and by her, who died 1864, has a son — Walter 
William. He married secondly Ann Elizabeth, daughter 
of Rev. Christopher Neville, of Thorney, Notts, and has 
issue : 

I. Frederick, 1868. 

II. Eustace Edward, 1870. 

III. Henry, 1S73. 

IV. Esther Anne. 

Family of Robinson and titles of Grantham, De Grey, 
Cowpcr, Godcrich, and Ripon. 

Frances, fourth daughter of Thomas Worsley (see 
page 167), married, about 1736, her cousin, Sir Thomas 
Robinson, who after her decease became the first Baron 
Grantham in the county of Lincoln. He was second son 
to Sir Tancred Robinson, Rear-Admiral of the White, and 
twice Lord Mayor of York. He commenced his political 

172 The House of Cromwell. 

career as Secretary to Sir Horace Walpole, when Am- 
bassador in France, and attained his peerage in 1761. 
His wife had died in 1750. Their children were : 

I. Thomas, his successor. 

II. Frederick, married Katharine Gertrude Harris, 
sister to the first Earl of Malmesbury. 

III. Theresa, married John Parker, first Lord 
Boringdon, of whom hereafter. 

Lord Grantham died in 1770, and was succeeded by 
his elder son, 

Thomas, second Baron Grantham ; married, in 1780, 

Mary Jemima, second daughter and co-heiress of Philip 

Yorke, second Earl Hardwicke, by Jemima, Marchioness 

De Grey, and sister and heir - presumptive of Amabel, 

Countess De Grey, by whom he left two sons, namely : 

Thomas Philip, Earl De Grey (page 173). 

Frederick John, Viscount Goderich and Earl Ripon, 

who, with his lady, Sarah Louisa Albinia Hobart, only 

daughter of Robert, fourth Earl of Bucks, inherited the 

property of that nobleman. His children, besides a son 

who died in infancy, were : George Frederick Samuel, 

his successor, and Eleanor Henrietta Victoria, who 

died young. Frederick John, born in London in 1782, 

was educated at Harrow and Cambridge, where he 

obtained Sir William Browne's medal for the best 

Latin ode, and took his degree in the following year. 

He began public life as secretary to his Tory relation, 

Lord Hardwicke, then Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, 

till the death of Pitt made way for the coalition of 

" All the Talents." On the appointment of the next 

Ministry, that of the Duke of Portland, in 1807, Mr. 

Robinson, as Member for Ripon (which he continued 

to represent for twenty years), voted as a Tory, 

and forthwith we find him Under-Secretary for the 

Colonies in Mr. Perceval's Administration, from which 

date he passed from one post of duty to another, 

Descendants of the Protectors Fourth Daughter. 1 73 

always to a higher, giving evidence of versatile 
capacity and plodding industry, till his utmost powers 
were taxed as Chancellor of the Exchequer. 

The part he played in the Corn-Law Bill led to 
the attack on his house by a London mob in March, 
1815. Almost his last public act was to move in 
the House of Lords the second reading of Sir Robert 
Peel's Bill of 1846, obliterating that measure, and 
stultifying the doctrines and prophecies of thirty 
years of Protection. 
Thomas, second Baron Grantham, died in 1786, and 
was succeeded by his elder son, 

Thomas Philip, Earl De Grey, Baron Lucas of 
Crudwell in Wilts, and Baron Grantham ; Commander 
of the Yorkshire Hussars; Lord -Lieutenant and Custos 
Rotulorum of Bedfordshire, in which county he inherited 
the Wrest estate from his aunt, Amabel, Countess De 
Grey ; and Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland under Sir Robert 
Peel's Administration, 1841-44. The Earl's political bias, 
whatever it was, had not prevented him on a previous 
occasion from advocating the cause of the oppressed. 
This was in the matter of the judicial inquiry into the 
conduct of George IV. 's Queen, Caroline of Brunswick, 
when, as Lord Grantham, together with other peers, he 
openly recorded his disapproval of the Bill of Pains and 
Penalties, though put in execution by the Ministry of 
which his brother, Frederick Robinson, was a member. 
In private life Earl De Grey was a liberal patron of the 
decorative sciences, and is said to have himself exhibited 
skill as a painter. He certainly made an extensive 
and tasteful collection of works of art. Of the various 
portraits taken of him from time to time, a resemblance 
to his ancestor, the Protector, seems traceable in the 
quarto engraving after John Wood's picture, executed 
when he must have been in the prime of life, though the 
same can hardly be said of that by Sir Thomas Lawrence. 

174 The House of Cromwell. 

Earl De Grey married, in 1805, Henrietta Frances Cole, 
daughter of William, first Earl of Enniskillen, and, 
besides a son who died in infancy, had two surviving 
daughters : 

I. Anne Florence, Baroness Lucas ; married, in 
1833, to George Augustus Frederick, sixth Earl 
Cowper, of whom presently. 

II. Mary Gertrude, married, in 1832, to Captain 
Henry Vyner, of whom presently. 

Earl De Grey died in 1859, when he was succeeded in 
his barony of Lucas by his daughter, Lady Cowper, and 
in his other titles by his nephew, the Earl of Ripon. 

Sir George Frederick Samuel Robinson, born 
1827; succeeded his father as Earl of Ripon and Viscount 
Goderich, and his uncle as Earl De Grey, Baron Grantham, 
and a Baronet. Previous to this he had been M.P. in 
succession for Hull, Huddersfield, and the West Riding. 
In 1859 he was Under-Secretary for War. He married 
Henrietta Anne Theodosia, eldest daughter of Captain 
Henry Vyner, and grand-daughter of the late Earl De 
Grey, and had issue : Frederick Oliver, Lord De Grey, 
born 1852 ; and Mary Sarah, who died in 1858. 

Earldom of Cowper. 

Anne Florence, elder daughter of Earl De Grey, who 
married George Augustus Frederick, sixth Earl Cowper 
and Lord- Lieutenant of Kent, had issue as follows : 

I. Francis Thomas De Grey, who in 1856 succeeded 
his father as seventh Earl, and also as a Prince of the 
Holy Roman Empire. He subsequently married Katrine 
Cecilia, daughter of Lord William Compton. 

II. Henry Frederick, M.P. for Herts. 

III. Henrietta Emily Mary, died 1853. 

IV. Florence Amabel, married, in 1871, to the Hon. 
Auberon Herbert. 

Descendants of the Protector s Fourth Datighter. 175 

V. Adine Eliza Anne, married to Julian Fane, fourth 
son of John, eleventh Earl of Westmoreland, and died 

VI. Amabel, married, in 1873, to Lord Walter Kerr, 
R.N., son of the late Marquis of Lothian, and has issue. 

Family of Vyner. 

Mary Gertrude, younger daughter of Earl De Grey, 
was married in 1832 to Captain Henry Vyner, son of 
Robert Vyner, of Gautby, and his wife, the Lady Theo- 
dosia Maria Ashburnham, and had six children, as 
follows : 

I. Henry Frederick Clare, 1836, of Gautby, Lincoln- 
shire ; Newby Hall, Ripon, Yorkshire ; and of Coombe 
Hurst, Kingston, Surrey ; died on November 11, 1882. 

II. Reginald Arthur, M.P. for Ripon ; died 1870. 

III. Robert Charles, of Fairfield, Yorkshire; married, 
1865, to Eleanor, daughter of Rev. Slingsby Duncombe 
Shafto. His eldest daughter, Mary Evelyn, was married, 
in 1886, to Lord Alwyne Compton, 10th Royal Hussars, 
third son of the Marquis of Northampton. His younger 
daughter, Violet Aline, was married in July, 1890, to Lord 
Loughborough, eldest son of the Earl of Rosslyn. 

IV. Frederick Grantham, murdered by brigands in 
Greece, April 21, 1870.* 

V. Henrietta Anne Theodosia, present Marchioness of 

* The Earl of Shaftesbury in his Diary thus alludes to this event : 
"April 2$. — Three English gentlemen, among whom was Fred Vyner, the 
son of my old friend, Lady Mary, have been captured and slain by brigands 
near Athens. Cecil [Ashley] had intended to join the party to Marathon. A 
special providence, God's interposing mercy, saved him from it. Had not the 
steamer to Italy been ordered to sail the next day, he would have gone with 
the rest, and have shared their fate. 

il April 17. — This very dreadful event has seized hold of my imagination, 
and haunts me day and night. O God, to whom vengeance belongeth, show 
Thyself. The cruelty, the cowardice, the bloodthirstiness of the deed ! Poor 
boy, poor dear boy ! Fred Vyner, so young, so gentle, and so handsome !" 

176 The House of Cromwell. 

Ripon, having married her cousin, Sir George Robinson, 
afterwards Earl of Ripon and De Grey. 

VI. Theodosia, Marchioness of Northampton; died 1864. 

Family of Parker and titles of Boringdon and Morley. 

Theresa, only daughter of Thomas, first Lord 
Grantham, became, in 1769, the second wife of John 
Parker, M.P. for the county of Devon, afterwards created 
Baron Boringdon in that county. His children by Lady 
Theresa were John, his successor, and a daughter, 
Theresa, married to Hon. George Villiers, of whom pre- 
sently. Lord Boringdon died 1788, and was succeeded 
by his son, 

John, born 1772 ; created Earl of Morley in 1815. He 
married, first, Augusta, daughter of John, Earl of West- 
moreland, by whom he had one son, who in 1816, at the 
age of eleven, met his death at St. Maud, near Paris, 
through inadvertently swallowing a stalk of rye. 

Family of Villiers and titles of Hyde and Clarendon, Lytton 
and Skelmersdale. 

Theresa, only daughter of John, first Lord Boringdon, 
married, in 1798, George, third son of Thomas Villiers 
Earl of Clarendon, and died in 1855. Her children 
were : 

I. George William Frederick, successor to his uncle, 
the third Earl of Clarendon. 

II. Thomas Hyde, died 1832. 

III. The Right Hon. Charles Pelham Villiers, born 
1802 ; M.A. Cantab., barrister-at-law, late Judge- Advo- 
cate-General, and a Privy Councillor ; President of the 
Poor Law Board, 1859 > M.P. for Wolverhampton ever 
since 1835; Deputy -Lieutenant for Herts. Finally — 
and here his fame principally rests — he was chairman of 
the memorable Anti-Corn-Law League. While Colonel 
Thompson, Dr. Bowring, George Wilson, Richard Cobden, 

Descendants of the Protector s Fourth Daughter. \ yj 

and John Bright worked the question out of doors, to 
Mr. Villiers was assigned the more trying task of righting 
the battle of Free Trade against his own order — against 
the entire aristocratic phalanx, whether Whig or Tory. 
While, therefore, we wonder not that, as the reward of 
his well-sustained fortitude, he should ever enjoy a fixed 
and abiding place in the esteem of the mercantile classes 
and in the affections of the labouring classes, it were 
equally true to add that his merits have long received the 
like homage from eminent members of his own class. In 
the summer of 1879 a colossal statue of the veteran states- 
man was erected in the town which he had represented 
for forty-four years. 

IV. Edward Ernest, born 1806; married, in 1835, to 
Elizabeth Charlotte Liddell, fifth daughter of Lord Ravens- 
worth, and died 1843, leaving issue : 

I. Ernest, born 1838. 

II. Maria Theresa; married, 1864, to Captain 
Earl, of the Rifle Brigade. 

III. and IV. Edith and Elizabeth, twins. Edith 
married Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton, of whom pre- 
sently (page 181). 

V. Henry Montague, D.D., of Christchurch, Oxon., 
born in 1S13. Lord Chancellor Cottenham presented 
him to the vicarage of Kenilworth, and when Dr. T. 
Vowler Short was advanced to the bishopric of Sodor and 
Man, Dr. Villiers succeeded Dr. Short at St. George's, 
Bloomsbury. In 1847 ne was nominated by Lord John 
Russell, then Prime Minister, to a canon-residentiary in 
St. Paul's Cathedral. In 1856 Lord Palmerston advanced 
him to the bishopric of Carlisle, his promotion culminating 
at Durham, when Dr. Longley attained the archbishopric 
of York. The money value of Durham was then estimated 
at £8,000 a year, with considerable patronage attached. 
He married, in 1837, Amelia Maria, eldest daughter of 


178 The House of Cromwell. 

William Hulton, of Hulton Park, Lancashire, and had 
issue : 

1. Henry Montague, M.A., Rector of St. Paul's 
Church, Wilton Place, London ; married Victoria, 
second daughter of Earl Russell, and has : Henry 
Montague, John Russell, Thomas Lister, another 
son ; Frances Adelaide, Gwendolen Mary, Rhoda 
Victoria, Margaret Evelyn, Dorothy, Mabel Agatha, 
Katharine Helen. 

2. Frederick Ernest, born 1840. 

3. Amy Maria, married the Rev. Edward Cheese. 

4. Gertrude Fanny. 

5. Mary Agneta. 

6. Evelyn Theresa. 

VI. Augustus Algernon, of the Royal Navy; died 


VII. Maria Theresa, married, in 1830, to Thomas 
Henry Lister, Esq., of Armitage Park, co. Stafford. Mr. 
Lister dying in 1842, his widow remarried Sir George 
Cornewall Lewis. The children of her first marriage were : 

1. The Hon. Thomas Villiers Lister, of Armitage 
Hill, Sunninghill, and 61, Eaton Square ; born 1832 ; 
married, first, Fanny Harriet, daughter of William 
Coryton, Esq., of Pentillie, in Cornwall, and had: 
George Coryton, 1863, with three other sons and 
three daughters. He married, secondly, 1877, Florence 
Selina, daughter of William John Hamilton, Esq., 
and has a daughter. Mr. Lister, who was educated 
at Harrow, and Trinity College, Cambridge (M.A. 
1853), is a Deputy-Lieutenant for co. Radnor, and 
Assistant - Under - Secretary of State for Foreign 

2. Maria Theresa, married Mr. (now Sir) William 
Vernon Harcourt, M.P., and died 1863, leaving one 
son, Lewis Reginald. 

Descendants of the Protectors Fourth Daughter. i 79 

3- Alice Beatrice, married Algernon Borthwick 
Esq., of 60, Eaton Place, who was knighted in 1880' 
made a peer in 1895, and has two children 
The Lister family is one of long standing and celebrity 
in the Northern counties, whose senior branch, now repre- 
sented by Lord Ribblesdale, is repnted to have been 
seated at Gisburn, ,n the West Riding, for fi ve centuries 
or more. During the period of the great Civil War, their 
leading members were prominent as patriots 

Ba?o E n° H^ W,L f L H M J^™™' Earl <* Clarendon and 
Baron Hyde, of Hindon, in Wilts, K.G., G.C.B P C 

•U.C.L.; born m 1800; succeeded as fourth Earl on the 

decease of his uncle in !8 3 8 (page i 7 6). From an earlv 

period Mr. Villiers selected diplomacy as his spec il 

sphere being only twenty } -ears old when he was attached 

to the Embassy at Constantinople. After the second 

Revolution in France of ,830, he went to that counrrv to 

arrange a commercial treaty, and became still mTe co ! 

spumous by his residence in Spain as Lord Grey's Envoy 

during the period of the civil war between the CaS 

and , h e Chnstinos. He never concealed his preference 

for the people's party, and when the success of the 

Christines had confirmed his own popularity, he used 

the influence so acquired for the advancement of liberty 

sabe^r T S '" tHe merC eStablis ""-nt of Oue e 

Isabellas throne, negotiating, among other schenie, " 

"a/ in Geo T effretUa ' SUPPreSSi ° n ° f <"™ 
s rec 0rd ed o fT r0WS " BiWe in Spain '" ™ in ^»ce 

iff ,n" M P Pr ° m r r,' idtUde f ° re ' ieVC indi » d -' 
rt I Mr - Borrow had been thrown into prison bv 

Bib,l Pan He a : n "■ T f ° r r n!ng a Sh °P "saeof 
Mr Vdlie ' PPe , ,'° ^ English ^ba^ador, and 
Mr Villiers immediately paid him a visit, heard his own 
explanation of the affair, and then, hastening o 7he 

fr:;: surd- at on , cc proc,,red ■* --« 

release. Succeeding to the earldom, he came to England 

180 The House of Cromwell. 

in 1839 to take his place in the House of Peers, and, as 
Lord Privy Seal, to strengthen the Melbourne Administra- 
tion ; but the days of that Cabinet were already numbered, 
and the advent of Sir Robert Peel shut him out of office 
for another five years. But the interval was well im- 
proved. He performed, in conjunction with his brother 
Charles, the chairman of the Anti-Corn-Law League, 
a very important part in furthering Sir Robert Peel's 
Corn-Law Repeal Bill of 1846, and the dislocation 
of the Conservative Party consequent on that measure 
made way for the return of the Whigs. And now Lord 
Clarendon, as Viceroy of Ireland, had to take part in 
another civil war, though on a much smaller scale than 
that in Spain. 

From the Earl's triumphs in Ireland, we pass on to 
his important Embassy in France during the Crimean 

The post of Ambassador to France brought into requisi- 
tion all the experiences of his past life, to which the suavity 
of his manners and the goodness of his heart were, under 
the circumstances of the hour, added qualifications of the 
utmost value. If it were too much to say that no other 
Englishman could have supplied his place, it will probably 
be admitted that none could more ably have forwarded the 
views of Napoleon III. Whether or not he was constitu- 
tionally in love with the policy which united us to France 
is a matter of doubt. 

Lord Clarendon's latest appointment to office was under 
Mr. Gladstone, in 1868, and his death eighteen months 
after was felt to be a great blow to the stability of that 
Cabinet. He married, in 1839, Lady Katharine, daughter 
of Walter James, first Earl of Verulam, and widow of 
John Barham, of Stockbridge, by whom (who died 1874) 
he had : 

1. Edward Hyde, died in infancy. 

2. Edward Hyde, fifth Earl. 

Descendants of the Protector s Fourth Daughter. 1 81 

3. George Patrick Hyde, born 1847 ; Captain, Grenadier 
Guards ; Military Secretary to Lord Lytton in India, 
holding a staff appointment in the Afghan Expedition of 

4. Francis Hyde, married, 1876, Virginia Katharine, 
second daughter of Eric Carrington Smith, Esq. 

5. Constance, married, 1864, to Frederick Arthur, the 
younger son of Edward, fourteenth Earl of Derby, and has 
issue : Edward George Villiers, Victor Albert, Geoffrey 
and Arthur — twins, Geoffrey dying in infancy — Ferdinand 
Charles, Katharine Mary, and others. 

6. Alice ; married, i860, to Edward Bootle Wilbra- 
ham, Baron Skelmersdale, of Lancashire, and had issue : 
Edward George, Villiers Richard, Randle Arthur, Reginald 
Francis, Alice Maud, Constance Adela, Florence Mary, 
Bertha Mable, Edith Cecil. 

7. Emily Theresa, married, 1868, to Odo William 
Leopold Russell, Baron Ampthill of Ampthill, third son 
of the late Major-General Lord George William Russell, 
G.C.B. Lord Ampthill died in August, 1884, in Berlin, 
where he was then British Ambassador to Germany, 
and had issue : Arthur Oliver Villiers, born at Rome, 
1870 ; Victor Alexander Frederick and Alexander Victor 
Frederick, twins ; Constance Evelyn Villiers. 

8. Florence Margaret, died in infancy. 

His lordship died in 1870, and was succeeded by his 
eldest son, 

Edward Hyde Villiers, fifth Earl of Clarendon and 
Baron Hyde ; an officer in the South Herts Yeomanry 
Cavalry ; M.P. for Brecon, 1869. Born 1846 ; married, 
1876, to the Lady Caroline Elizabeth Agar Ellis, eldest 
daughter of the Earl of Normanton, and has issue : George 
Herbert Hyde, born 1877. The earldom of Clarendon is 
a branch of the earldom of Jersey, but derived maternally 
from the Lord Chancellor Clarendon of the Civil War 

1 82 The House of Cromwell. 

Barony of Lytton. 

Edith, second daughter of Edward Ernest Villiers (see 
page 177) ; married, in 1864, Sir Edward Robert Lytton 
Bulwer-Lytton (only son of the first Baron Lytton, of 
Knebworth, in Herts), late Minister at Lisbon, and Viceroy 
of India in 1876. In the following year the Queen con- 
ferred on him the Grand Cross of the Civil Division of the 
Order of the Bath. His children are : 

I. Rowland Edward, died in infancy. 

II. Henry Meredith Edward, died young. 

III. A son born at Simla in 1876. 

IV. Elizabeth Edith. 

V. Constance Georgina. 

VI. Emily. 

His father, the first Lord Lytton, distinguished as a 
novelist, a poet, and an orator, was buried in Westminster 
Abbey in 1873. Sir William Lytton, of Knebworth, M.P. 
for Herts in the Long Parliament, was one of the Com- 
missioners to treat with King Charles at Uxbridge. 



THE descendants of Sir Henry Cromwell — "the 
Golden Knight," as he was termed on account of 
his lavish generosity and hospitality — having 
been traced through his two sons, Sir Oliver 
and Mr. Robert Cromwell, it will now be convenient to 
add a brief account of the other three sons of Sir Henry, 
namely, Henry, Richard, and Philip. From the Register 
of the University of Oxford, printed by the Oxford Histori- 
cal Society, we learn that each of these gentlemen had the 
advantage of an education at the University of Oxford. 

Henry, third son of Sir Henry, at the age of fifteen 
was matriculated at St. John's College, in 1581, and was 
admitted Fellow in 1588, after having taken the degree of 
B.C.L. He resided on his patrimony at Upwood, was 
a Justice of the Peace, and was returned as member for 
the borough of Huntingdon in the first Parliament called 
by James I. As a sign of his interest in the public welfare, 
we are told that he was one of the "adventurers" who 
subscribed their money for the colonization of the infant 
colony of Virginia. He died in 1630, leaving one son — 
Richard — who died without male issue in 1626, and was 
buried at Upwood. 

184 The House of Cromwell. 

Richard, fourth son of Sir Henry, at the age of 
fifteen was matriculated at Brasenose College, Oxford, in 
1587, and admitted to the degree of B.A. in 1590. On the 
authority of Willis's Not. Parlem. we are told by Noble 
(vol. i. 30) that this Richard Cromwell was member for 
the borough of Lostwithiel in Cornwall, in the forty-third 
year of Queen Elizabeth. How he became connected with 
so distant a part of the country, we are left to conjecture ; 
and it is just possible that Willis may have made a mis- 
take, and may have confounded this Richard Cromwell 
with another of the same name in Wiltshire, who matricu- 
lated, in 1581, at Magdalen Hall, Oxford. He is supposed 
to have left no child, as his landed property passed at his 
death, in 1628, to his nephew Oliver, afterwards the Lord 

Philip, fifth son of Sir Henry, at the age of fourteen 
was matriculated, in 1592, at Brasenose College, like his 
brother Richard, and in 1599 was admitted at St. John's 
College to the degree of B.C.L. That old Sir Henry 
should thus have sent three of his sons to the University 
may be accepted as some indication that he did not 
undervalue for his children the benefits of a sound educa- 
tion. After leaving the University, Philip seems to have 
settled down into the position of a country gentleman, 
and to have resided on his estate at Biggin, between Ram- 
say and Upwood, in Hunts. He was knighted by James I., 
at Whitehall, in 1604, and died in 1629, leaving behind 
him five sons and three daughters. Three of these sons 
fought in the Civil War, two of them — Philip and Oliver 
— on the side of the Parliament, and one — Thomas — on the 
side of the King, thus illustrating the terrible nature of a 
Civil War, when brothers have to draw the sword against 
each other on the field of battle. 

1. Philip was wounded at the siege of Bristol, and 
died of his wounds (1645). 2. Oliver, after seeing service 
in England, accompanied his cousin, the Protector, to 

Descendants of Sir Henry Cromwell. 185 

Ireland, in command of a regiment, and there died in 

3. Thomas espoused the King's cause on the outbreak 
of the Civil War, and passed through it in safety. He left 
one son — Henry — whose chief claim to be remembered by 
posterity is that he was numbered amongst the friends and 
correspondents of Alexander Pope. Pope's letters to 
Henry Cromwell may be read in his correspondence. 
Nothing more is known about him — whether married or 

4. Richard, youngest son of Sir Philip Cromwell, appears 
to have succeeded in keeping out of service in the Civil 
War, and at the Restoration showed his dislike of the 
Protector's memory and all his doings by quietly abandon- 
ing the name of Cromwell, and resuming the name of 
Williams. He died in 1661, and was buried at Ramsay. 

The Brothers and Sisters of the Lord Protector. 

Oliver had two brothers, Henry and Robert, both of 
whom died in infancy, and seven sisters : Joan, Elizabeth, 
Catharine, Margaret, Anna, Jane, and Robina. Of these, 
Joan, born in 1598, died at the age of eight. Of the other 
six who reached maturity a brief account here follows : 

Elizabeth Cromwell, born in 1593 ; died unmarried 
in 1672, and was buried within the Communion-rails of the 
chancel of Wicken. An interesting letter to her finds its 
place in the last edition of " Cromwell's Letters and 
Speeches." Mr. Carlyle thus introduces it : "By accident 
another curious glimpse into the Cromwell family. Sister 
Elizabeth, of whom, except the date of her birth, and that 
she died unmarried, almost nothing is known, comes 
visibly to light here — living at Ely, in very truth, as 
Noble had guessed she did, quietly boarded at some 
friendly doctor's there, in the scene and among the 
people always familiar to her. She is six years older 
than Oliver — now and then hears from him, we are glad 

1 86 The House of Cromwell. 

to see, and receives small tokens of his love of a sub- 
stantial kind. For the rest, sad news in this letter : son 
Ireton is dead of fever in Ireland. The tidings reached 
London just a week ago. 

" For my dear Sister Mrs. Elizabeth Cromwell, at Dr. 
Richard Stand's house at Ely. These. 

" Cockpit, 

" 15 Dec, 1651. 

" Dear Sister, 

" I have received divers letters from you. I must 
desire you to excuse my not writing so often as you expect. 
My burden is not ordinary, nor are my weaknesses a few, 
to go through therewith ; but I have hope in a better 
strength. I have herewith sent you Twenty pounds as a 
small token of my love. I hope I shall be mindful of you. 
I wish you and I may have our rest and satisfaction where 
all saints have theirs. What is of this world will be found 
transitory, a clear evidence whereof is my son Ireton's death. 
" I rest, dear Sister, 

"Your affectionate brother, 

" Oliver Cromwell. 

" P.S. — My Mother, wife, and your friends here re- 
member their loves." 

Catharine Cromwell, the Protector's third sister, 
born 1597, married Roger Whitstone (descended from a 
Peterborough family), who served in the British forces in 
the pay of Holland, where also most of her children were 
born, and where he himself is supposed to have died some 
time before his brother-in-law's rise to power. The widow 
and her children then returned to England, Henry, the 
eldest of them, serving as a sea-captain under Admiral 
Stokes. But neither he nor his three brothers appear to 
have left descendants, and the same must be said of their 
sister Levina, who in 1655 was married to Major Richard 

The Sisters of Oliver Cromzvell. 187 

Beke, of Buckinghamshire. This lady is referred to as 
being near death, in the postscript of a letter by Lord 
Fauconberg. From another document here following, 
we gather that, on the Whitstone family returning from 
abroad, the widow and her daughter Levina shared for 
some time the dwelling-house of her brother Oliver at the 
Cockpit, and in that document Mrs. Whitstone is stated 
to have been "his best-beloved sister." 

Among the troops of petitioners besieging the throne of 
the restored Charles figures Lady Baker (widow of Sir 
Thomas Baker, of Exeter), who, while recounting the 
sacrifices which she and her husband had made during the 
wars, indulges in a long narrative touching her own corre- 
spondence with the Cromwell family, undertaken, as she 
represents, solely with a view to plead the King's cause. 
She had commenced proceedings by forming the acquaint- 
ance of Mrs. Whitstone, " Cromwell's best - beloved 
sister," at the time when the family was living at the 
Cockpit, in Westminster, in order to obtain through her 
means a personal interview with her brother, expressing to 
her dear friend the confident hope that, if she could only 
get speech of my Lord General, she doubted not to render 
him the happiest man alive. In pursuance of this object, 
she was so far successful on one occasion as to induce 
Mrs. Whitstone to carry a request in to her brother, who 
was no farther off than in an adjoining room ; but Mrs. 
Whitstone, after a talk with him, came back with tears in 
her eyes, saying that he was the dearest brother in the 
world, and she would never forgive herself if through her 
means any injury should befall him — in short, my Lady 
Baker was given to understand that many thought her a 
dangerous person, an insinuation which she repelled with 
laughter, asking whether they thought that, because she 
was a big woman, she must therefore be full of ammuni- 
tion. Henry Cromwell now enters the room, desiring to 
know the object of the lady's mission, and, after a renewed 

1 88 The House of Cromwell. 

colloquy with his father, revives her hopes of a personal 
audience. But a personal audience is not yet attainable ; 
her benevolent solicitude is again met with a message of 
dismissal, and a recommendation to put her thoughts 
upon paper ; and so ended this experimental visit. But 
shortly afterwards she again waited, by appointment, on 
Mrs. Cromwell at the Cockpit, and begged Mrs. Whit- 
stone's daughter to announce her arrival. Mrs. Crom- 
well, who had not yet left her private apartments, returned 
answer that it was out of no disrespect to Lady Baker that 
she was not up ready to receive her, but the fact was that 
she and her lord had not slept that night ; she would, never- 
theless, let him know that Lady Baker was come. The 
long-looked-for opportunity seemed now at last within 
reach ; but, alas ! instead of my Lord General coming 
forward to greet her, he was represented by two of his 
officers — to wit, Pickering and Fiennes — to whom, of 
course, she stoutly refused to give any explanation. She 
had not come to see them, and she had nothing to com- 
municate. Mrs. Whitstone now urgently recommended 
her departure, suggesting that very possibly there might 
be something brewing against her. Lady Baker, scorning 
to be supposed accessible to fear while in the discharge of 
her duty, was proceeding to walk into the garden, where 
she found her progress again checked by a guard of 
musketeers, and it required more than one additional 
messenger yet to persuade her to quit the premises. 

It could not have been long after this affair that the 
widow Whitstone married Colonel John Jones, one of the 
regicides who suffered the penalty of high treason on the 
King's return, from and after which event the lady also 
sinks out of history. Mark Noble observes respecting 
her : " She is said to have been very unlike to her brother, 
the Protector." 

Margaret Cromwell, the Protector's fourth sister, 
born 1601, was married to Colonel Valentine Wauton (or 

The Sisters of Oliver Cromwell. 189 

Walton), of Great Stoughton, co. Hunts, a member of a 
family which for generations back had been in cordial 
alliance with the Cromwells, and by this marriage the old 
friendship seemed more than ever confirmed. In one 
respect only — namely, in silent disapproval of the Pro- 
tectorate — did Wauton's friendship suffer abatement. On 
the return of royalism, Colonel Wauton, as having been 
one of the most impetuous of the late King's judges, could, 
of course, expect no mercy, and he accordingly retired to 
some spot in the Low Countries, where he died in the 
following year, the victim, as was supposed, of disappoint- 
ment, anxiety, and dread. His first wife, Margaret Crom- 
well, had been long dead, and his children must have found 
themselves great sufferers by the total confiscation of their 
father's estates. These children appear to have been : 

(1) George, born 1620, died in infancy ; (2) Valentine, 
born 1623; (3) another George, slain at Marston Moor; 
(4) Robert, a London mercer, ruined by a contract to 
supply nearly £7,000 worth of cloth at Oliver's funeral ; 
he married a daughter of Colonel Pride ; (5) Anna, born 
1622 ; and perhaps (6) Lieutenant Ralph Wauton, who 
fell in Scotland serving under General Monk. 

Anna Cromwell, the Protector's fifth sister, born 
in 1603, was married to John Sewster, of Wistow, co. 
Hunts, Esq., and was buried at Wistow in 1646, her 
husband surviving her thirty-six years. They were a quiet, 
unambitious race, and the "particular regard" which the 
Protector entertained towards them was no doubt based 
upon the Puritanism common to both houses. The chil- 
dren, six in number, were: (1) John, of whom presently ; 

(2) Robert, buried at Wistow, 1705 ; (3) Lucy, 1631 ; 
(4) Robina, named after her aunt, became the wife of Mr. 
Ambassador Lockhart ; (5) Catharine, died in infancy, 
1642 ; (6) Anna, died in infancy, 1647. 

John Sewster, eldest son and heir, died in 16S0 (the 
year before his father), leaving two daughters, who both 

190 The House of Cromwell. 

married, but had no issue. The family pictures descended 
to Mr. Cowley, of Fenny-Stanton. 

Jane Cromwell, the sixth sister of the Protector 
Oliver, born in 1606, married, 1636, John Disbrowe, after- 
wards one of the Major-Generals of the Protectorate, and 
a member of the Upper House. The family was seated at 
Eltisley, co. Cambs, and were very prominent Puritans in 
matters both ecclesiastical and civil. John Disbrowe was 
stoutly opposed to his brother-in-law's acceptance of the 
kingly title ; he was also a main agent in upsetting the 
Protector Richard. At the Restoration he went abroad, 
but was summoned back by the proclamation of 1665, 
requiring certain refugees to report themselves. He lived 
to exult in the Revolution of 1688, which virtually banished 
the Stuart race ; and it is thought that after the death of 
his wife, Jane Cromwell, he married a second time. 

Lady Jane Disbrowe is believed to have died about the 
year 1656, as various letters from her husband at that 
period, while he was executing his major-generalship in 
Wiltshire, refer to her failing health, and solicit permission 
to return home. 

Robina Cromwell, the Protector's seventh and 
youngest sister, was married to Dr. Peter French, a 
Puritan divine, Canon of Christchurch, Oxford, who died 
in 1655 during the dominion of his brother-in-law. In 
the following year she became the wife of another divine, 
the learned and eccentric Dr. John Wilkins, afterwards 
Bishop of Chester ; time of her death unknown. By her 
first marriage she had one daughter, Elizabeth, married 
in 1664 to John Tillotson, afterwards Archbishop of Can- 
terbury. The prelate's children were' three in number : 
(1) A son who died in early manhood ; (2) Elizabeth, died 
unmarried, 1681 ; (3) Mary, married to James Chadwick, 
of Wanstead, Esq., and had issue : George, John, and 
Mary. Of these last three, George left one son, Evelyn ; 
and Mary, as the wife of Edward Fowler, son of Bishop 

Wills and Registers. 191 

Fowler of Gloucester, had two daughters, Anna Maria and 

Wills and Registers. 

It appears, upon a review of the family history, that the 
Lord Protector had ten male cousins, many of them 
stanch Royalists, righting and dying for their King. Only 
two of those ten cousins left a son each. Both of these 
sons bore the favourite family name of Henry, and both 
of them died, so far as is known, without issue — one 
in 1673, and the other in 1712 — if we may place reliance 
upon the statements made by the Rev. Mark Noble in his 
" Memoirs of the House of Cromwell." It is possible that 
he may have failed to trace quite accurately the history of 
those ten cousins of the Protector, and that from some of 
them may have descended one or more of those persons 
who, in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, lived 
and died in London, and bore the name of Cromwell. The 
registers of the old burial-ground in Bunhill Fields,* now 

* Extracts from Registers of Burials in Bunhill Fields. 

... Mr. Cromwell's child fr. St. Sepulchre's. 
... Mr. Cromwell's child fr. Bartlett's Buildings. 
... Mrs. Cromwell fr. Hamstid (sic). 
... Mrs. C. fr. St. George the Martyr. 
(She was the wife of Major Hy. Cromwell.) 
... Mr. C.'s child fr. St. Sepulchre's. 
... Mrs. C. fr. Snowhill. 

Mr. C.'s child fr. Lingon's Fields (sic). 
... Mr. C.'s child fr. Grasinlane (sic). 
... Mr. Oliver C. fr. Holeborn (sic). 

Mr. C. fr. Bridgwater Square. 
... Mr. C. from Bocking in Essex. 
... Miss C. fr. Paternoster Row. 
... Mrs. Sarah C. from Hamstid. 
... Edward Cromwell Esqr. fr. Hamstid. 
... Mr. Rob. C. fr. Cheshunt. 
... Mr. Henry C. fr. " Bartolmew " Close. 
... Mr. Henry C. fr. the Old Bailey. 
... Wm. C. Esqr. fr. "Holeborn." 
... Mr. C.'s child from St. Antlins. 

Miss C. fr. " Barkhamstead." 
... Mr. Oliver C. fr. the Strand. 
























2 3- 



1 1. 





































ig2 The House of Cromwell. 

kept at Somerset House, and the various registers of the 
city and "suburbs of London,* contain numerous entries 
of that name. The name is also found four or five 
times upon the Deed Poll of the Livery Voters in the 
City of Londonf in the early years of the eighteenth 

1789. Nov. 25. ... Miss L. Cromwell fr. Hampstead. 
181 3. Feb. 8. ... Mary C fr. Ponder's End (age 108). 
1834. March 7. ... Susannah C. fr. Plamstead End (age 89). 

* Extracts from Various London Parish Registers. 
1 701. John C, son of John, bap. at St. James's, Clerkenwell. 
1707. John C, son of John, buried at St. Mary Aldermanbury. 

1 710. Chas. C. buried at St. Botolph's. 

1 71 1. Jane C. married at St. Dioni's to Chas. Faethr. 

1 71 8. John C. buried at St. Mary Aldermanbury. 

1 7 19. Elizabeth C. buried ditto. 

1741. Eliz. C. daughter of James and Joanna bap. at Mr. Keith's Chapel, May 

1743. Oliver C. (a boy) buried at St. James, Clerkenwell. 
1746. James C. (a boy) ditto. 
1779. Sophia bap. at St. Sepulchre's, Newgate. 
1 779. Mary C. married at St. George's, Hanover Square, to Robert Lowe. 

+ Extracts from the Deed Poll of Livery Voters in the 
City of London. 
1700. Francis Cromwell, Citizen and Goldsmith. 
1700. Henry Cromwell, Plaisterer. 
1 7 10. Willm. Cromwell, Citizen and Baker. 
1 7 10. Jonathan Cromwell, Scrivener. 

Copy of a Certificate from Register of the Masons' Company, 

William Cromwell of London, Mason was admitted into the Freedom afore- 
said and sworn in the Mayoralty of Thos. IVright Esq r Mayor zn<\John Wilkes 
Esq 1 " Chamberlain and is entered in the book signed with the letter A relating 
to the Purchasing of Freedoms and the Admissions of Freemen (to wit) The 
4 th day of April in the 26 th Year of the Reign of King George the Third And 
in the Year of our Lord 1786 In Witness whereof the Seal of the Office of 
Chamberlain of the said City is hereunto affixed dated in the Chamber of the 
Guild- hall of the same City the day and year aforesaid. 

Countersigned with the initials J. W. 

IV ills and Registers. 193 

century. One of them was a citizen and goldsmith, 
another a plasterer, another a baker, another a scrivener, 
and another a mason. In Chester's " London Marriage 
Licenses "* also may be found five or six entries in 
the seventeenth century ; and in Phillimore's " Note- 
book of London and Middlesex"! some interesting in- 
formation about the family is contained. The Register 
of Gray's Inn} shows that eight or nine members of the 
family were at various times enrolled in that home of legal 
learning. The first was Thomas Cromwell, who after- 
wards became Earl of Essex, and for a time the greatest 
man in England under Henry VII. 

* Extracts from Chester's "London Marriage Licenses." 

1661. John Cromwell of Eling married Joan Bennett. 

1663. George C. of Eling married Elizabeth Bolles. 

16S6. Clement C. of St. Dunstan's married Christina Stanniford. 

1700. John C. of St. Mary Abchurch married Elizabeth Aston. 

1702. Robert C. of Kensington, widower, married Margaret Benton. 

f Extracts from Phillimore's " Notebook of London and 

Walter Cromwell of Ealing, yeoman, by his Will dated July 16, 1668, devised 
Hangers to his son, John, and to his Wife ^40 a year. To the Poor of Ealing 
he bequeathed /io a year. 

In Feltham Churchyard are several monuments to this family. 

Mr. Joseph Cromwell, brewer and maltster of Hammersmith, died Nov. 4, 
1S16, aged 70. 

Mr. Geo. Cromwell died July 25, 1825, aged 85. 

Jas. Cromwell, Esqr., brewer and maltster of Hammersmith, died June 3, 
1S41, aged 89. 

J Extracts from the Admission Register of Cray's Inn. 

1524. Thomas Cromwell (afterwards Earl of Essex). 

1561. Francis C. (probably son of Sir Richard). 

1609. Giles C. of Westerham, Kent. 

1620. Henry C. son of Sir Philip of Ramsey. 

1654. Henry C. son of the Protector. 

1703. Oliver C. son of Henry of St. Andrew's, Holborn. 

1709. Samuel C. son of Samuel of Mansfield, Doctor of Medicine. 

1747. Richard C. of St. Andrew's, Holborn. 

1S06. Oliver C. son of Thomas of Enfield. 


194 The House of Cromwell. 

The wills proved in the Prerogative Court of Canter- 
bury,* and the wills at Somerset House,-}- are full of 
interest, the earliest carrying us back to the time of 
Henry VI., and the latest bringing us down to George III.'s 
reign. When the eye glances over these various records 
of the past, one is inevitably led to the conclusion that 
long before the days of Oliver Cromwell there were in 
and around London not a few persons who bore the same 
surname. We know that John Cromwell, who died at 
Lambeth in 1523, left sons ; and probably they married 
and left progeny. 

Passing from London to York, % we shall find some very 

* Wills proved in Prerogative Court of Canterbury. 


1455. Rolph, Lord Cromwell of Tattershall. 
I 5 2 3- John Cromwell of St. Mary's, Lambeth. 
1534. Maude Cromwell of St. Mildred, Poultry. 

1546. Sir Rd. Cromwell, alias Williams (sic) of Hinchinbrook in the county 
of Huntingdon. 

(He was the nephew of Thomas, Earl of Essex.) 

t Wills at Somerset House. 

1748. Thos. C. : his Executors his Brothers Wm. and Henry. He left a son 

Henry. Affidavit to Will sworn by Rd. Cromwell. 
1772. Ann Cromwell, from " Herts " (sic). 
1779. Geo. C. of Feltham, yeoman : left sons Geo. and Wm. 

J Extracts from Wills at the Registry, York. 

William Cromewell of lownde. Will dated 26 July 1525 ; proved 12 
October 1525. My bodie to be buried in the church of Sutton of Saint 
Bartilmowe within the belhouse, and the church to have iij s iiij d . To my 
broder Rchard Cromewell. To ych on' of my sisters a shepe. Residue to my 
. . . Cecilie my executrix. Supervisors, Ric. Cromwell my fader and John 
Atkinson. Witnesses, Vicar of Sutton, John pecke yonger, and Ric. Crowme- 
well, with others. (Vol. 9, folio 323.) 

Richard Cromewell of Sutton. Will dated 18 December 1528; proved 
7 May 1529. My bodie to be buried in the church of Sutton of Sainte 
Bartilmowe. To our ladie of Southwell ij d . To Sutton church Beldyng ij s . 
To my iij doughters. To Jenet pynchebeke. To ich on' of my childer 
childer. To Thomas and henry Cromewell my brether childer. To my 
broder Roberte. Residue to Richard Cromewell my sone. William dpyng 
dann' and John Atkynson my executors. Witnesses, William hawmond, vicar 
of Sutton, Thomas Colby the elder, and William fedean. (Vol. 9, folio 

Wills and Registers. 195 

quaint entries of wills made by persons who bore the name 
of Cromwell. They all belong to the first half of the 
sixteenth century. 

But it is in the West of England that we shall find a 
greater number of representatives of the name from the 
sixteenth century onwards. 

In the neighbourhood of Devizes and of Bath, the 
registers of several parish churches have been searched, 
with the result of showing that from the sixteenth century 
downwards many persons bearing this name lived there. 
For example, in the parish register of All Cannings, near 
Devizes,* we find three entries in the sixteenth century. 

Henrie Cromrwell of Sutton opon loundc. Will dated 4 November 
1546; proved 5 May 1547. My bodie to be buried within the churche yerde 
of Sainte Barthilmewe of Sutton. To Thomas Cromewell my son. To 
dorothie my doughter. Residue to Isabell my wif my executrix. -Supervisor, 
Thomas Cromewell my broder. Witnesses, Thomas Cromewell, husbandman, 
Will'm kendall, and John Preston. (Vol. 13, folio 322.) 

Alexander Cromewell of Moregaite in p'ish of Clareborough. Will 
dated 8 Aprile 1550 ; proved 9 October 1550. My bodie to be buried within 
the churche yerde of Clareborough. 1 To Thomas Johnson dwellinge at 
Bolsore. To Tohn my sone. To Agnes my doughter. To the poore folks at 
the daie of my buriall viij d . To Jennett Cromwell and to Elizabeth Cromwell 
my doughters. Residue and make them my executors. Supervisors, Thomas 
Cromwell my brother and Thomas Cromwell my cousin. Witnesses, Sir 
William Carre, prest, Roger Bramston, Roberte Spenser, Will'm hides the 
clerke, with other moo'. (Vol. 13, folio 665.) 

Thomas Ckowmwei.l of morhous. Will dated 28 August 1558; proved 
13 October 1558. To the me'ding of morhouse chappell iij s iiij d . To the pore 
folks in Laxton & morhous iij s iiij d . To Will'm browne. To Jasper Sainpall. 
To leonard Wilson my servant. To barbara temple, Will'm pomfrett, and 
Dorothe Flyntham. To barbara my wife all my messuage in morhows with all 
the lands, etc., as they lye in the towne and Feilds in the lordshippes of 
Laxton and Ossington.- Residue to barbara my wife my sole executrix. 
Witnesses, Sir hugh pullan, vicar of Laxton, Christopher bettnay, George 
pullaine, and Will'm browne. (Vol. 15, part ii., folio 364.) 

* From the Parish ok All Cannings, Co. Wilts. 

Maria Cromwell, filia Johan' Cromwell baptisata 8 Oct. 15S5. 

John Cromwell buried 28 Nov. 1586. 

John Beale and Elizabeth Cromwell married 12 June 159S. 

1 Clareborough is near Retford. 

- Laxton and Ossinsrton are near Newark. 


The House of Cromwell. 

And in the parish of Rodney-Stoke,* numerous entries are 
found between the years 1656 and 1775. Similarly, in 

From the Register of Baptisms, Marriages, and Burials in the 
Parish of Rodney Stoke, Somerset, 1654- 1787. 

1656. Lenard Cromwell to be . . . Parish Register . . . (greater 

part illegible) 
1656. Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Cromwell, born ... 
1658. Leonard, son of Thos. Cromwell, born ... 
1660. Agnes, daughter of Thomas Cromwell and ffrancis his wife, 

baptised ... 
1660. Leonard Cromwell signs the Rector's declaration 

1662. William and Agnes, son and daughter of Thos. and ffrancis 

Cromwell, baptised 
Agnes, grand-daughter of Thos. Cromwell, buried 
William, grandson of Thos. Cromwell, buried 

1663. Leonard Cromwell, buried 

1675. Edward Cromell (sic) son of Mark Cromell, buried 

1676. Mark Cromwell, buried 

1692. George Cromwell and Joan Sage, married 

1694. George, son of George Cromwell, baptised 
George, son of George and Joan Cromwell, buried 

1695. George, son of George and Joan Cromwell, baptised 
1699. Esther, daughter of George and Joan Cromwell, baptised ... 
1705. Frances, daughter of George and Jone Cromwell, baptised 
1716. John, son of George and Jone Cromwell, baptised 

1719. Hester Cromwell, buried 

1720. Hester, daughter of George and Jone Cromwell, baptised ... 
1720. George Cromwell and Jone Denmead of Cheddar parish, 

married ... 
1724. Elizabeth, daughter of George and Jone Cromwell, baptised 
1727. George, son of George and Joan Cromwell, Junr., buried ... 
1729. Joan Cromwell, buried 
1731. Mark Cromwell, buried 
1733. Frances Cromwell, buried 

1736. John Cromwell and Hannah Williams, married ... 

1737. Frances, daughter of John and Hannah Cromwell, baptised 
1737-8. George Cromwell, buried 

1738-9. Mary, daughter of John and Hannah Cromwell, baptised ... 
1741. George, son of John and Hannah Cromwell, baptised 

1744. John, son of John and Hannah Cromwell, baptised 

1745. Jane, daughter of John and Hannah Cromwell, baptised ... 
1747. James, son of John and Hannah Cromwell, buried 

1749. James, son of John and Hannah Cromwell, baptised 

George Cromwell, Junr., buried 
1751. John Cromwell, buried 
1759. Jane Cromwell, buried 

Jone Cromal (sic), buried 

Oct. 8. 
Nov. 1. 

Feb. 25. 
Mar. 31 

Aug. 8. 
Aug. 9. 
Aug. 11. 
Feb. 21. 
June 17. 
Oct. 5. 
Jan. 24. 
Oct. 21. 
Nov. 18. 
Mar. 22. 
Ap. 9. 
Feb. 21. 
May 1. 
Feb. 11. 
Oct. 3. 

May 17, 

Oct. 5, 

Sep. 8. 

Feb. 20, 

Nov. 29 

Feb. 4 

May 2 

Aug. 12 

Jan. 2 

Jan. 21 

Aug. 9 

Ap. 1 

Nov. 3 

Aug. 2 

Ap. 2 

Jan. 21 

Nov. 6 

June 18 

Mar. 2 

Wills and Registers. 197 

several of the parish registers of churches in the city of 
Bath* many entries have been found of the name Crom- 
well between the years 1726 and 1791. 

It seems difficult now to ascertain what was the link of 
connection between members of the family in Wiltshire 
and Somersetshire, and those in the Eastern counties and 
London. So far as is known to the writer of these lines, 
the name of Cromwell has entirely fallen away in the 
Eastern counties, where it was so well known and dis- 
tinguished between two and three centuries ago ; and not 
more than half a dozen representatives of the name are 
known at the present day, so completely has the hand of 
Time reduced to obscurity and insignificance the repre- 
sentatives of one of the greatest names inscribed upon the 
pages of English history. 

George Cromal [sic), buried ... ... ... ... June 22. 

1766. John Cromwell, buried ... ... ... ... Oct. 22. 

1775. James Cromwill (sic), buried ... ... ... June 6. 

* Extracts from St. James's Baptismal Register, Ba 1 h. 

1726. Wm. C. son of James, baptised. 

1745. Jas. C. son of Joseph, baptised. 

1749. Joseph C. son of Joseph, baptised. 

1754. Oliver C. son of Peter, baptised. 

1755. John C. son of Oliver, baptised. 

1767. James C. son of James, baptised. 

1785. Willm. C. son of Oliver and Catherine, baptised. 

Extracts from Widcombe Baptismal Register. 

1732. Peter C. son of Oliver, baptised. 

1 75 1. James C. son of Joseph, baptised. 

1754. Benjamin C. son of Joseph, baptised. 
1764. Joseph C. son of Joseph, baptised. 

Extracts from Walcot Registers, near Bath. 

1755. Dec. 30. ... Willm. C. married Elizh. Rawlins. 
1757. Oct. 2. ... JohnC. bapd. 

1789. June 7. ... Joseph C. son of Joseph and Mary, bapd. 
1797. Nov. 12. ... Oliver C. son of John and Hannah, bapd. 

Extract from Baptismal Registers of St. Michael's, Bath. 
1760. Mar. 30. ... Ann, daughter of James and Susannah C. 



THE list of officers who fell on the King's side at 
Marston Moor includes the names of Charles 
Towneley, of Towneley, Esq., a Lancashire 
Papist, connected with whose death we have 
a family tradition illustrative of Oliver's humanity. 
Towneley's wife, Mary, daughter of Sir Francis Trappes, 
was, during the anxious period of the battle, waiting 
with her father at Knaresborough, where the news of her 
husband's death was brought to her on the following 
morning and prompted her to go and search for his body. 
On reaching the fatal field, where the attendants of the 
camp were stripping and burying the dead, she was ac- 
costed by a general officer, to whom she told her melan- 
choly story. He heard her with great tenderness, but 
earnestly besought her to quit a place where, besides the 
distress of witnessing such a scene, she might probably be 
insulted. She complied, and he called a trooper, who 
took her en croup. On her way to Knaresborough she 
inquired of the man the name of the officer to whose 
civility she was indebted, and learnt that it was Lieutenant- 
General Cromwell. The lady survived till 1690, dying at 
Towneley, and being buried in the family chapel at Burnley, 

Anecdotes and Traits of Oliver Cromwell. 199 

aged ninety-one. The anecdote was told to Dr. Whitaker, 
the editor of " Sir George Radcliffe's Correspondence," 
by the then representative of the family, to whom it had 
been handed down by his ancestress, Ursula Towneley (a 
Fermor of Tusmore, and aunt to Pope's Belinda), who 
had it from the lady herself. (J. Langton Sanford's 
" Studies and Illustrations of the Great Rebellion," p. 611.) 

His Faithful Valet. 

During the severe illness which prostrated the Lord 
General in Edinburgh, he was watched and tended by a 
most devoted French servant named Duret, one who 
heartily loved and appreciated him, and was in return 
treated with unreserved confidence. Cromwell not only 
committed to him the management of domestic affairs 
while campaigning, but during this illness he would receive 
food and medicine from no other hand. This unremitting 
assiduity on the part of Duret, involving as it did pro- 
tracted midnight watchings, had at length a fatal result 
for the watcher himself, and Oliver, as he advanced 
towards recovery, had the intense grief to discover that 
his friend was rapidly sinking. It was now his own turn 
to act as nurse and spiritual consoler. Duret, for himself, 
cheerfully accepted his fate ; he was quite satisfied to lay 
down his life in such a cause and for such a master, and 
he merely desired that the case of his mother, sister, and 
two nephews might be taken into consideration ; they 
were still in France, and were in some measure dependent 
on his services. " I will look to that," said Cromwell. 
" My obligations to you are so great that it were impos- 
sible for me to do otherwise." Immediately, therefore, 
after Duret's death, a message was sent to the survivors, 
begging the entire family to come to England ; and at the 
same time Cromwell gave to his wife, by letter, a full 
account of the affair, representing that she should treat 
the strangers on their arrival in London in a manner cor- 

200 The House of Cromwell. 

responding with her just sense of the merits and good 
offices of the deceased, and that, as it was entirely to 
Duret's care, pains, and watchings, that he owed the 
preservation of his own life, she would proportion the 
kindness shown to them to the love which she bore to 
himself as her husband. The Duret family at once 
accepted the invitation, and were welcomed into Mrs. 
Cromwell's household with the utmost cordiality. Madame 
Duret was of course promoted to her table, the sister 
became a maid of honour, and the two nephews occupied 
the post of pages. Cromwell had still an arduous cam- 
paign to complete, which kept him in Scotland for several 
weeks longer, and it was not until after fighting the battle 
of Worcester that he at last found an opportunity of re- 
visiting the sanctuary of home, and of ratifying by his 
personal salutation the new domestic alliance. The scene 
at that moment must have been redolent of Christian 
pathos. The mutual tears and incoherent greetings had 
an eloquence of their own, for it was through the medium 
of his daughters, who were better skilled in the French 
language than himself, that he testified to the old lady 
how he rejoiced at her arrival, assuring her at the same 
time that, as she had lost her first son in his service, he 
would do all possible to fill the vacancy as her second 
son. Moreover, he took pains to acquire sundry French 
phrases wherewith to salute her whenever they might 
chance to meet. 

The Spoliation of Churches. 

Not only the capture of bells, but every other form of 
church spoliation, wherever found in England, is habitually, 
but wrongly, attributed to the personal agency of Crom- 
well. It was rather the previous age (that of the Reforma- 
tion) which witnessed these defacements, concerning which 
let a statement from Goodwyn's " Catalogue of Bishops," 
published forty years before the Civil War, be heard re- 

Anecdotes and Traits of Oliver Cromwell. 201 

specting Ely Cathedral, under whose shadow the Crom- 
wells dwelt. Bishop Hotham, he tells us, " lieth entombed 
in a monument of alabaster that was some time a very 
stately and goodly building, but now [160 1] shamefully 
defaced, as are also all other monuments of the church." 

Whatever may have been the fanaticism of some few 
iconoclasts, no wanton destruction either in respect of 
churches, towns, or country-houses, is chargeable on the 
Cromwell family. It is even told of Oliver that, when the 
Parliament dismantled Nottingham Castle, he was heartily 
vexed at it, and told Colonel Hutchinson that if he had 
been in the House when it was voted, he would not have 
suffered it to be done. Nor, indeed, are the Parlia- 
mentarians, as a rule, to be credited with the house- 
burnings and town-burnings belonging to that period. 
Such actions were almost without an exception the work 
of the Royalists, and were frequently quite independent 
of the accidents or exigencies of war. This is not a 
statement loosely made, but is the result of a pretty 
close and prolonged investigation of the recorded facts. 
Prince Rupert, a foreigner, and one who acquired the 
sobriquet of " Prince Robber," first set the example by 
burning Cirencester and Marlborough, and devastating 
Fawley Court, belonging to Bulstrode Whitelock. Then 
followed the destruction of Bridgnorth, unhousing three 
hundred families, and consuming £90,000 worth of 
property. Wooburn, in Bedfordshire, was treated in like 
manner in 1645, and in the year following the combined 
towns of Great Faringdon and Westbrook, in Berkshire, 
were burnt, to the value of £56, 976, as appraised by 
judges of assize at Reading. These afflictions, together 
with the sack of Leicester, the Parliament endeavoured 
from time to time to mitigate by the action of a Com- 
mittee of Burnings, and by ordering public contributions 
for the sufferers to be made either throughout the realm 
or in a group of counties. (In respect of Leicester, see 

202 The House of Cromwell. 

the Lords' Journals, vii. 665 ; the Bridgnorth affair, 
ibid., ix. 657 ; Great Faringdon, ibid., x. 485. Consult 
also the Commons' Journals.) 

Yet, if only a tradition survive in any domestic history 
that the family estate was wrecked in the Civil Wars, 
it will almost invariably be found that such tradition is 
made to do duty for the wrong party. The house, so the 
family annalist usually informs us, " was burnt by the 
rebels, and the money estate was all lost in the royal 
cause." Take, for instance, the case of Drake of Ashe. 
The Drakes, like the families of naval heroes generally, 
went in roundly for the Parliament, and the petition 
of Lady Ellen Drake (Commons' Journals, v. 508), as 
well as a mass of documents among the Composition 
Papers, all attest that the destroyer of the family mansion 
was the Cavalier Lord Pawlet, who had to make ample 
restitution for the same. Yet the modern annalist of the 
Drake family tells us that it was the work of the rebels. 
(Burke's " Extinct and Dormant Baronetage.") 

Dean Stanley, in his " Memorials of Westminster 
Abbey," remarks that : " After the overthrow of Charles I., 
the Abbey was placed for twelve years in the hands of the 
Commonwealth and the Protector. The royal monuments 
in the Abbey, which suffered cruelly under Henry VIII., 
remained uninjured, so far as we know, under Cromwell." 
This testimony should never be forgotten when one hears 
the verger of a cathedral ascribe every act of vandalism to 

The Ceremony of Kissing Hands. 

"Our Lord Protector gave a noble audience to the 
Dutch ambassadors last Saturday. His part was just as 
the King's used to be, only kissing his hand excepted." 
(From an intercepted letter, March, 1654.) The testimony 
of the three Ambassadors themselves, Beverning, Nieuport, 
and Jongestall, is still more graphic. After the final inter- 

Anecdotes and Traits of Oliver Cromwell. 203 

change of friendly expressions in the banqueting-room at 
Whitehall, " we presented unto his Highness twenty of 
our gentlemen, who went in before us, being followed by 
twenty more, to have the honour to kiss his hand. But 
instead thereof, his Highness advanced near the steps and 
bowed to all the gentlemen one by one, and put out his 
hand to them at a distance, by way of congratulation." 

In 1653, some person addressing him in St. James's 
Park, and omitting what was called " the homage of the 
hat," induced him to relate, with a smile, a circumstance 
which he remembered to have witnessed on the same spot 
some years back, when the late King was once walking 
there. The Duke of Buckingham on that occasion was 
advancing towards his Majesty without uncovering, where- 
upon an indignant Scot in the King's train at once struck 
off the Duke's hat. 

But while Oliver gracefully waived the accustomed 
forms of personal worship, he was not solicitous to abate 
the innocent parade of sovereignty which might be sup- 
posed due to the nation's representative. For instance, 
" My Lord of Leda gave his adieu yesterday to my Lord 
Protector, who sent his own coach of six white horses. 
Certain it is, as many told me, that none of the English 
Kings had ever any such. And with it ten more coaches 
of six horses, with many cavaliers. So was Leda con- 
ducted and re-conducted ; but what he did at the interview 
is not known." (James Darcy to Dr. John Smith of Dun- 
kirk, June 13, 1655. See also Carlyle's narrative of the 
ceremonious reception of the Swedish Ambassador in July, 

His Love of Horses and other Animals, and also of Races and 
other Sports. 

The epicedium by Andrew Marvell says : 

" All, all is gone of our or his delight 
In horses fierce, wild deer, or armour bright." 

204 The House of Cromwell. 

Writing to Cornet Squire just after Gainsborough fight, 
he says : " I will give you all you ask for that black horse 
you won last fight." Two months later Squire captures 
another horse, for which also he makes application : "I 
will give you sixty pieces for that black horse you won at 
Horncastle, if you hold to a mind to sell him, for my son, 
who has a mind to him." In after-days Longland, his 
agent at Leghorn, and Sir Thomas Bendysh, in Turkey, 
busied themselves in procuring Barbary horses. Races 
continued in Hyde Park during the Protectorate ; and 
Dick Pace, the owner of divers horses who live in racing 
chronicles, was the Protector's stud-groom. His adven- 
ture in the Park when attempting to drive his own coach- 
horses is too well known to need repetition. We therefore 
pass to the " wild deer " mentioned by Marvell. This 
probably refers to the twelve reindeer, which, together 
with their two Laplander drivers, were sent by the Queen 
of Sweden in 1654. (See Bulstrode Whitelocke's narra- 
tive.) Oliver is also said to have " fallen in love with the 
company" of Sir James Long, of Wiltshire, a gentleman 
eminent as a naturalist. During the fighting days of 1645 
this knight, then Sheriff of Wilts, was, together with his 
entire regiment, captured by Cromwell and Waller, near 
Devizes. Sir James is described by his friend Aubrey as 
orator, soldier, historian, and romancer, as excelling in the 
arts of fencing, falconry, horsemanship, and the study of 
insects — in short, a very accomplished gentleman. The 
belligerents probably had not met since the scrimmage at 
Devizes placed Sir James in a private position, till one day 
when Oliver (now Protector), hawking on Hounslow 
Heath, recognised his old antagonist, who, we may 
suppose, was engaged in the like pastime. The knight's 
discourse was so skilfully adjusted to the altered state of 
affairs that Oliver forthwith fell in love with his company, 
and commanded him to wear his sword, and to meet him 
again when they should next fly their hawks. All which 

Anecdotes and Traits of Oliver Cromwell. 205 

caused some of the stricter cavaliers to look upon Sir James 
with an evil eye. (Aubrey.) 

His Opinions on Agriculture and the Scheme for a Canal 
between Bristol and London. 

John Aubrey says : " I heard Oliver Cromwell, Pro- 
tector, at dinner at Hampton Court in 1657 or 8, tell the 
Lord Arundel of Wardour and the Lord Fitz-Williams 
that he had been in all the counties of England, and that 
the Devonshire husbandry was the best. And at length 
we [in Wiltshire] have obtained a great deal of it." Hartlib, 
a Pole, who translated Child's Treatise on the Agriculture 
of Flanders, obtained a pension from the Protector. It 
was, no doubt, the canals of Flanders which suggested the 
scheme for uniting by a canal the Bristol Avon with the 
Thames, which Captain Francis Matthew having illus- 
trated with a map, the Protector would have put into 
execution had he lived long enough. (" Natural History 
of Wilts.") A hundred and thirty years later it was 
accomplished by John Rennie. 

His Natural Eloquence, and Protection of Learning. 

Bishop Burnet, on the authority of Lieutenant-General 
Drummond (afterwards Lord Strathallan), mentions that 
in Drummond's presence Cromwell engaged in a long 
discourse with a group of Scots Commissioners, on the 
nature of the regal power according to the principles of 
Mariana and Buchanan; and Drummond's conclusion was 
that Cromwell had manifestly the better of the Commis- 
sioners at their own weapon and upon their own principles. 
Indeed, a modern French writer declares him to have been 
the only eloquent man in the kingdom. " En effet," says 
Villemain, " dans la Revolution Anglaise, il n'y eut qu'un 
homme eloquent, et e'est celui qui aurait pu se passer de 
l'etre, grace a son epee — Cromwell. Hormis Cromwell, 
eloquent parce qu'il avait de grandes idees et de grandes 

2o6 The House of Cromwell. 

passions, la Revolution Anglais n'inspirait que des rheteurs 
theologiques, en qui la verite du fanatisme meme etait 
faussee par un verbiage convenu." 

Beverning, one of the Dutch Ambassadors, writing home 
in 1653, says : " Last Saturday I had a discourse with his 
Excellency above two hours, no one else being present. 
He spoke his own language so distinctly that I could 
understand him. I answered again in Latin." 

Touching the various schemes adopted daring his brief 
tenure of power for the advancement of learning, it is 
unnecessary to enlarge. A passage from Anthony a Wood, 
a very unexceptional witness in a case of this nature, may 
suffice. In his biographical notice of Henry Stubbs, 
keeper of the Bodleian, who took his degree in the days of 
Owen, he remarks : " While he continued undergraduate 
it was usual with him to discourse in the public schools 
very fluently in the Greek tongue. But since the King's 
restoration we have had no such matter, which shows that 
education and discipline were more severe then than after- 
wards, when scholars were given more to liberty and 
frivolous studies." It should not be forgotten that Oliver 
proposed to found a University at Durham for the benefit 
of education in the northern parts of the kingdom, and 
that Westminster School and its famous head-master — 
Dr. Busby — shared his protection and favour all through 
the troublous days of the Civil War. 

His Interview with Archbishop Usher. 

The Irish prelate was considerably his senior ; and this 
circumstance, combined with his fervid Churchmanship, 
enabled him to present a defiant front when in colloquy 
with the Protector, who, nevertheless, was most generously 
disposed towards him, and anxious to have a courteous 
interview. Usher's own account is that he at last con- 
sented to accept the invitation of the Protector only lest 
further evil towards his brethren should grow out of his 

Anecdotes and Traits of Oliver Cromwell. 207 

refusal. At their first meeting, the Protector's opening 
observations about advancing the Protestant interest in 
Europe appeared to the Archbishop little better than 
" canting discourse " ; and as he was evidently too much 
of an enthusiast to take his (the Archbishop's) advice in 
the matter, a civil dismissal closed the affair. On the next 
occasion, the Archbishop, carrying in his hand a petition 
for enlarged liberty to the clergy in the matter of preach- 
ing, found Oliver under the hands of a doctor, who was 
removing a boil from his breast. After begging his guest 
to be seated, Oliver said : 

" If this core were once out, I should be quickly well." 

Archbishop : " I doubt the core lies deeper. There is a 
core at the heart that must be taken out, or else it will not 
be well." 

Oliver : " Ah, so there is indeed !" and sighed. 

The Archbishop, finally gathering that the curb was not 
to be removed from the Royalist clergy, departed to his 
home in grief, and placed on record his indignant judg- 
ment : " This false man has broken his word. Royalty 
will now speedily return." It is commonly added that at 
the death of Usher, which followed shortly after, the Pro- 
tector decreed a public funeral for him in Westminster 
Abbe}-, but left the family to bear the charges, which 
Henry Cromwell's testimony indirectly shows to be 
destitute of all credibility. (See also the Mercurius Politicus, 
March and April, 1656.) 

His Contributions to the Repairs of a Church. 

Richard Byfield, the Rector of Sutton, in Surrey, con- 
tested the repairs of the church with his patron, Sir John 
Evelyn, of Godstone. To put an end to the contest, the 
Protector got them together in his presence, when Sir 
John charged the minister with reflecting on him in his 
sermons, which, of course, Byfield repelled. Oliver then 
addressed the belligerents in the following terms : " I 

2o8 The House of Cromwell. 

doubt, Sir John, there is something indeed amiss. The 
word of God is penetrating, and if, as I suspect, it has 
found you out, you will do well to search your ways." 
He succeeded in making them good friends before parting, 
and, to mollify the knight's chagrin, ordered his secretary 
Malyn to pay him £100 towards the repairs of the 
church. Byfield was afterwards one of the ejected 
of 1662. 

His Patronage of Music and Painting. 

The Protector of England had many personal traits in 
common with Martin Luther. Zwingle's zeal in destroy- 
ing pictures and organs in the churches of Zurich has often 
been contrasted with the conduct of Luther, who system- 
atically protected and honoured art. As Carlyle has said : 
" Death defiance on the one hand, and such love of music 
on the other. I could call these the two opposite poles of 
a great soul. Between these two all great things had 
room." And again : " Who is there that in logical words 
can express the effect that music has on us ? — a kind of 
inarticulate, unfathomable speech, which leads us to 
the edge of the Infinite, and lets us for moments gaze 
into that." 

Cromwell's order that Dr. Wilson should regularly give 
his music lecture at Oxford, though passed over by 
Walton, is commented on in an essay in the Edinburgh 
Review (No. 193). John Hingston, a scholar of Orlando 
Gibbons, after being in the service of Charles I., became 
organist to Cromwell at a pension of £100 a year, and 
instructed his daughters in music. His portrait was in 
the music school at Oxford. (Braybroke's Pepys, Decem- 
ber 10, 1667.) The first step towards the revival of 
dramatic music after the Civil War took place in 1653, in 
the performance of Shirley's mask of Cupid's death, and 
three years later Davenant obtained a license to open a 
theatre for operas. A modern chronicler of the town of 

Anecdotes and Traits of Oliver Cromwell. 209 

Tewkesbury, while gossiping about its abbe)', narrates 
as follows : " The organ, now placed in a gallery between 
two of the pillars in the nave, beneath which is the prin- 
cipal entrance to that portion of the church appropriated 
for Divine service, is not more distinguished for its ex- 
terior appearance and great powers than for the singu- 
larity of its history. It originally belonged to Magdalen 
College, Oxford. Oliver Cromwell, who was fond of 
music, and particularly of that of an organ, which was 
proscribed under his Government, was so delighted with 
the harmony of this instrument that, when it was taken 
down from its station in the college, according to the 
Puritanical humour of the times, as an abominable agent 
of superstition, he had it conveyed to Hampton Court, 
where it was placed in the great gallery for his entertain- 
ment. It remained there till the Restoration, when it was 
sent back to Oxford ; but another organ having been 
presented to the college, it was, in the year 1737, removed 
to Tewkesbury." The local cicerone of Tewkesbury 
further avers that this was the instrument on which John 
Milton was in the habit of performing for the delectation 
of the Protector's family, a perfectly possible case, and, 
were it authenticated, a very welcome fact, for it would be 
the furnishing of one instance, in the absence of any other, 
of Cromwell and Milton being sometimes found in personal 

At the sale of Charles I.'s pictures, Oliver secured the 
cartoons of Raphael to the nation for £300, and fifty years 
later William III. took measures for their preservation 
and restoration. In the interval they had a narrow escape. 
Charles II. was on the point of selling them to Louis XIV., 
and it was all that the Lord Treasurer could do to save 
them from the clutches of Barillon. Probably Danby 
found by some other means the money they were to have 
raised. Yet we fancy that even Charles II. would hardly 
have thrown away the chance, which in more modern days 


210 The House of Cromwell. 

presented itself to an English Prime Minister, of securing 
the entire collection of paintings in the Pitti Palace. 
When the French republican armies were overrunning the 
North of Italy, and commencing their wholesale system of 
plunder, the Grand-Duke of Florence offered this magnifi- 
cent gallery to the English nation for the comparatively 
small sum of .£100,000 ; but this offer was declined by the 
English Government. 

When the Dutch Envoys arrived in March, 1653, to 
settle the terms of peace, they seem to have brought over 
with them some of Titian's paintings. The intercepted 
letter of a Royalist (name unknown) has the following : 
" One that was present at the audience given in the 
banqueting-house told me that Cromwell spent so much 
time looking at the pictures, that he judged by it that he 
had not been much used heretofore to Titian's hand." 
(Thurloe, ii. 144.) Might we not rather say that, the 
more he had seen of Titian, the longer he loved to linger ? 

Beyond the pencils employed to execute the portraits of 
the members of his family, there is not much evidence of 
Oliver's patronage of living artists. Three entries in the 
Exchequer accounts for 1657-58 refer to a sum of £150 
paid " to Mr. Francis Clyne for the designing of two 
stories by the tapestry men." He also engaged a naval 
painter named Isaac Sailmaker, a pupil of Gildrop, to 
execute a sea-view of the English fleet as it lay before 
Mardyke during Sir John Reynolds' assault on that fort 
in 1657. Sailmaker lived to paint the naval fight between 
Sir George Rooke and the Count de Toulouse. 

On February 22, 1649, Lieutenant-General Cromwell 
reports from the Council of State " that divers goods 
belonging to the State are in danger of being embezzled, 
whereupon it is ordered that the care of the public library 
at St. James and of the statues and pictures there be 
committed to the Council of State to be preserved by 
them." (Commons' Journals.) 

Anecdotes and Traits of Oliver Cromwell. 2 1 1 

The goods here referred to were the pictures, statues, 
household furniture, and other personal estate of the late 
King, which the House thereupon ordered to be in- 
ventoried, appraised, and sold. The sale soon afterwards 
commenced, and went on till August, 1653. The prices 
were fixed, but if more was offered, the highest bidder 
became the purchaser. Part of the goods were sold by 
inch of candle. The buyers, called "contractors," signed 
a writing for the several sums ; but if they disliked the 
bargain they were at liberty to withdraw from the engage- 
ment on payment of a fourth part of the sum stipulated. 
Among the contractors appears Mr. John Leigh, who, 
August 1, 1649, buys goods for the use of Lieutenant- 
General Cromwell to the value of £109 5s., and on the 
15th are sold to the Right Hon. the Lady Cromwell goods 
to the amount of £200.* But no sooner was Oliver in 
possession of the supreme power than he not only put a 
stop to the sale, but detained from some of the purchasers 
goods for which they had contracted. Such, at least, was 
the affirmation made in a petition addressed, after the 
Protector's death, to the Council of State by Major 
Edward Bass, Emanuel de Critz, William Latham, and 
Henry Willett, in behalf of themselves and divers others, 
in which they represent: "That in the year 1651 the 
petitioners did buy of the contractors for the sale of the 
late King's goods the several parcels thereunder named, 
and did accordingly make satisfaction unto the treasurer 
for the same. But forasmuch as the said goods are in 
Whitehall, and some part thereof in Mr. Kinnersley's 
custody in keeping, the petitioners do humbly desire their 
Honours' order, whereby they may receive the said goods, 
they having been great sufferers by the late General 
Cromwell's detaining thereof." The goods specified are 
hangings and statues, the latter adorning the gardens at 
Whitehall. This charge against the Protector of some- 

" This last-mentioned may have been a Countess of Ardglass. 

212 The House of Cromwell. 

thing little short of felony is one which there are probably 
now no means of adjusting. Had the petitioners made 
their appeal during his lifetime, we might have had an 
honest explanation. 

" Oliver Cromwell at Hampton Court" 

is the title of a paper contributed to the Gentleman's 
Magazine by John B. Marsh, containing a survey of the 
state of the palace and park just before the Restoration, 
and an account of the drawing up of an inventory of their 
contents by the Sergeant-at-Arms, Mr. C. Dendy, and Mr. 
John Embree, derived from the State Paper Office. But 
as the association of the works of art there with the Pro- 
tector's memory is no more than an accident, which he 
shares with his predecessors and successors, Mr. Marsh's 
facts, though highly interesting throughout, hardly claim 
more specific notice in this place than may be supplied by 
a few random extracts. 

According to tradition, Cromwell's bedchamber was 
upon the ground-floor, and had in the time of Charles I. 
been used as a day room — the same room where it is said 
the King with some of his children was once standing at 
the open window, when a gipsy woman solicited per- 
mission to tell the children's fortune. The King refused, 
whereupon she handed him a small mirror, in which, with 
terror, he beheld a severed head. To give the legend 
rotundity, she is further credited with a prophecy that 
when a dog should die in that room the King's son would 
regain his throne, all which came to pass, the dog being 
Cromwell's favourite. 

What is supposed to have been the King's own bed- 
room remained unoccupied and unfurnished during the 
time of Cromwell. 

The Earl and Lady Fauconberg's bedroom had been 
stripped before the inventory was taken ; but we are told 
that in one of their rooms, formerly occupied by the 
Duke of Richmond, the walls were hung about with old 

Anecdotes and Traits of Oliver Cromwell. 213 

green perpetuano, and there were two black stools, three 
folding stools, and one footstool covered with old green 
cloth. The Lady Frances Cromwell, widow of Mr. Rich, 
had "lodgings" in what was formerly the late King's 
cabinet room. Then followed a list of the furniture, all 
which had belonged to Charles I. There were three 
rooms used by Lady Claypoole as nurseries : one was at 
the end of the passage leading to the tennis-court ; a 
second was a portion of the armoury, a room hung round 
with striped stuff; and the third was a room formerly 
occupied by the " Bishop of Canterbury," which, from 
its furniture and hangings, must have been the largest 
and the best. This chamber contained one of the few 
looking-glasses remaining in the palace (four only occur- 
ring in the entire inventory), and is described as " One 
large looking-glass in an ebony frame, with a string of 
silk and gold." 

Colonel Cromwell and John Howe the preacher had 
bedrooms adjoining each other. Howe's room is " hung 
round in gray-striped stuff, and contains one standing bed, 
with feather-bed and bolster, two blankets, and a rug. 
The furniture of the like striped stuff. One bed had a 
head-cloth and four curtains. Dr. Clarke lay not far from 
Mr. Howe, and in his room were one half-headed bed- 
stead, one deal table, and a form. Colonel Philip Jones, 
the comptroller, occupied as a bedroom that which had 
formerly been the Lord Chamberlain's." The lodgings of 
all the personal attendants of the above are also fully 
described. " In a room below stairs, where the servants 
dine, formerly called the vestry," there are five tables and 
eight forms. 

The gardens boasted of various sun-dials, a large foun- 
tain surmounted with a brass statue of Arethusa, and 
divers objects in marble. In the privy-garden there was 
a brass statue of Venus, ditto of Cleopatra, and marble 
statues of Adonis and Apollo. Of these, the Venus is the 
only one now remaining, which the modern palace guide 

214 The House of Cromwell. 

calls Diana. George II. is credited with having removed 
the others to Windsor. 

Hampton Court has been greatly altered since Crom- 
well's time. The Great Hall, of course, remains, in which 
were two organs, the larger one a gift from Cromwell's 
friend, Dr. Goodwyn, president of Magdalen College, 
Oxford ; but the traditions of this part of the building 
belong to Wolsey's entertainments and subsequent dra- 
matic pageants rather than to any scenes in the Puritan 
Protector's life. The Mantegna Gallery, with its vast 
pictures representing the triumphs of Julius Caesar (pur- 
chased by Charles I.) it is reasonably thought must have 
often attracted his notice, though this is mere conjecture. 
But in respect of the armoury there is ground for thinking 
that the collection of specimens may have been in great 
part the result of his personal taste, for Andrew Marvell 
tells us that he delighted in bright armour. 

" Here Edward VI. was born, and here his mother, 
Jane Seymour, died. Here Queen Mary and Philip of 
Spain spent their dull honeymoon, and here Queen Eliza- 
beth held her Christmas festivities. Here James I. sat as 
Moderator, and listened to the arguments of Presbyterians 
and Churchmen, and here Queen Anne his wife died, in 
1618. Here Charles I. and Queen Henrietta passed their 
honeymoon, and here Charles I. was kept a prisoner pre- 
vious to his trial and execution. Here Mary Cromwell 
was married to Earl Fauconberg in 1657, and here, in 
r658, died little Oliver and his mother, the Lady Elizabeth 
Claypoole ; while almost at the same time Cromwell him- 
self was seized with the illness which eventually terminated 
in his death at Whitehall." 

Oliver's Wound at Marston Moor. 

The proclamation offering a large reward for killing the 
Protector, issued in 1654 by Charles II., has been duly 
noticed by Carlyle. Though no adventurer ever laid claim 
to the glittering reward promised, there was a certain 

Anecdotes and Traits of Oliver Cromwell. 215 

young gentleman who lived to taste the royal bounty in 
consideration of the inferior feat of wounding Oliver in 
battle. This was Marcus Trevor, Esq., who declared 
himself the author of the sword-thrust which drew blood 
from Oliver at Marston Moor ; and Trevor's claim being 
allowed at the Restoration, he was two years later created 
Viscount Dungannon. At the Archaeological Meeting at 
Shrewsbury in 1855, a modern Viscount Dungannon dis- 
played from Brynkinault the original patent, being a 
richly-emblazoned document in which Richard St. George, 
Ulster King-of-Arms, grants to the first Lord Dungannon 
a lion and a wolf as supporters, and recites that King 
Charles II., taking into consideration the faithful services 
of his beloved councillor, Mark Trevor, Esq., and parti- 
cularly his valiant action at the battle of Marston Moor, 
where, after many high testimonies of his valour and 
magnanimity, he that day personally encountered that 
arch-rebel and tyrant Oliver Cromwell, and wounded him 
with his sword, had created the said Mark Trevor Viscount 
Dungannon. Dated September 20, 1662. (See also the 
Peerages under the article " Downshire.") 

His Assassination attempted. 

The story of his being shot at by Miss Granville, on his 
passage into the City to dine with the Lord Mayor in 
1654, has been discussed more than it merits. Raguenet, 
who was the first to print it, in his French history of the 
Protector, says that he derived it from the manuscript of 
M. de Brosse, docteur de la faculte de Paris, an eye-witness 
of the event, which manuscript he was ready to show to 
anyone who desired it. According to our French authority, 
the young lady's lover, who was brother to the Duke of 
Buckingham, had fallen at the battle of St. Neot's by 
Cromwell's own hand. Hence her long-nursed revenge, 
and until the above opportunity presented itself she prac- 
tised pistol-shooting at a picture of Oliver. As the caval- 
cade passed her balcony on its way to the City, she dis- 

2 1 6 The House of Cromwell. 

charged her weapon at something more substantial than 
his picture, but the shot took effect only on the horse of 
his son, Henry Cromwell, whereupon she delivered herself 
in an appropriate tragic speech, and her attendants assuring 
those who were sent to arrest her that her mind had long 
been in a disordered state, the scene shifts to Grocers' 
Hall, where my Lord Mayor must have been verily guilty 
of thoughtless discourtesy if he failed to congratulate his 
Highness on his recent escape. On this point, however, 
the reporters are unaccountably silent, though otherwise 
the day's proceedings are graphically described in the 
Perfect Diurnal of February 6 to 13. 

Even that (so styled) amiable gentleman, Mr. Secretary 
Nicholas, saw no impropriety in the plan of assassination. 
" We have here seen," says he, writing to Lord Culpepper 
from Bruges, " a most excellent treatise entitled ' Killing 
no Murder,' dedicated to Cromwell, showing both Scrip- 
ture and many reasons that it is not only lawful, but even 
necessary, to kill him, being an usurper and a tyrant who 
ought no more to have any law than a wolf or a fox ; and 
I hear that Cromwell is no less fearful than Cain was after 
the murder of his brother Abel." 

Fairfax's Desertion and Hutchinson's. 

One of the deep sorrows of the Protector's latter days 
was the alienation of former friends. His secretary, 
Thurloe, who perhaps more than any other of those 
about him could estimate its depressing effect, is fre- 
quently quite touching in his narratives to Henry Crom- 
well of " the great man's " trials. He could bear with 
comparative indifference the barking of Cornet Day and 
John Sympson, who, preaching — as it was called — 
no farther off than Allhallows Church, assailed the 
Government as "the thieves and robbers of Whitehall." 
But when more creditable divines resisted his project 
for the admission of Jews into the country, and in a 

Anecdotes and Traits of Oliver Cromwell. 217 

variety of ways checked his intelligent patriotism, Thurloe 
writes : 

" I do assure you his Highness is put to exercise every 
day with the peevishness and wrath of some persons here. 
But the Lord enables him with comfort to bear the hard 
speeches and reproaches he is from day to day loaded 
with, and helps him to return good for evil, and goodwill 
for their hatred — which certainly is the way to heap coals 
of fire on their head, to melt them and bring them into a 
better frame and temper." And again, shortly after : "His 
Highness meets with his trials here at home, of all sorts ; 
being under daily exercises from one hand or another. I 
wish he may not have occasion to say, My familiar friends 
in whom I trusted have lift up their heel against me. 
These things should make him and all his relations to 
depend the more upon God, and to take heed of all carnal 
confidences. Trials work patience, and patience ex- 
perience, and experience hope. That hope will never 
make ashamed, but all hope in men will." 

Here is one of Carlyle's sketches : " Colonel Hutchin- 
son, as his wife relates it, Hutchinson, his old battle-mate, 
coming to see him on some indispensable business, much 
against his will — Cromwell follows him to the door in a 
most fraternal, domestic, conciliatory style, begs that he 
would be reconciled to him, his old brother-in-arms ; says 
how much it grieves him to be misunderstood, deserted by 
true fellow-soldiers dear to him from of old. The rigorous 
Hutchinson, cased in his Presbyterian formula, sullenly 
goes his way." 

Among trials of this nature, Fairfax's desertion must 
have especially increased his sense of isolation, and tested 
his magnanimity. Thomas Lord Fairfax, enriched by the 
forfeited spoils of the profligate Duke of Buckingham, had 
an only daughter, Mary, who, though very unattractive 
in appearance, it was thought might be utilized to bring 
about a reconciliation with the royal exiles, and at the 

2 1 8 The House of Cromwell. 

same time ensure the settlement of the newly-acquired 
estates. The young lady's mother, who was a Vere, was 
probably the contriver of this precious scheme. Whether 
or not Buckingham had previously made overtures for the 
hand of Frances Cromwell, as commonly reported, must 
ever remain doubtful ; but we may be quite sure that it 
was with no sort of reference to that transaction that 
Cromwell viewed the Fairfax intrigue with disgust and 
pity, for in this he did but share the sentiment of all the 
honest party. The marriage, nevertheless, was performed 
with great splendour at Nun-Appleton in Yorkshire, in 
September, 1657, which was only a few weeks before that 
of Frances Cromwell with Lord Rich ; and Fairfax then 
posted off to London to have a talk with the Protector 
about it. Thurloe can best tell us what passed. In a 
letter to Henry Cromwell, he says: "I suppose your 
lordship hath had a full account of the Duke of Bucking- 
ham's marrying the lord Fairfax's daughter. My Lord 
Fairfax was here this day, 27 Oct., with his Highness 
to desire favour in behalf of the Duke and his new wife, 
the Duke being now sought for to be committed to the 
Island of Jersey. His Highness dealt friendly with him. 
but yet plainly, and advised him to do that now, which he 
should have done before, that is, to consult with his old 
friends, who had gone along with him in all the wars, as 
to what was fit for him to do ; and no longer listen to 
those who had brought him into this evil, but to regard 
them as enemies both to his honour and his interest. My 
Lord Fairfax laboured to justify himself as well as he 
could. He was willing to believe that the Duke was 
a better man than the world took him to be ; — and so his 
Highness and he parted." And the parting appears to 
have been final, and the alienation complete. Those who 
watched the ex-General stalking from the presence-cham- 
ber, took notice that he cocked his hat and cast his cloak 
under his arm in a style which he was wont to adopt when 

A Singular Medal of Oliver Cromwell. 219 

his wrath was roused. He lived to see verified the words 
of his brother-in-arrns — -that both honour and interest had 
been bartered for this specious alliance. A few years later 
his promising son-in-law, in furtherance of an intrigue with 
the Countess of Shrewsbury, slew that lady's husband in 
a duel, and Fairfax outlived the event. As for his own 
dear daughter, naught but neglect and obloquy fell to her 
share, as a matter of course. 

" It is high time," observes a recent critic, " that the 
great and good Lord Fairfax, as Mr. Markham calls him, 
should be made to appear in his true contemptible light ;" 
and he refers, among other authorities, to Fairfax's own 
" Apologia," which, it is averred, clears his memory from 
not a single blot. (Notes and Queries, February 24, 1877.) 
Possibly true enough. But what, it may be asked, is the 
use of parading one defaulter, when the entire population 
was in full march back to Egypt ? Though otherwise the 
spectacle is not unsuggestive, which presents to view one 
historic name after another dropping away from the once 
beloved " Cause " and hiding itself in ignominy, as if 
to leave the Cyclopean figure of the Puritan King unap- 
proachable in its solitary grandeur. 

A singular medal, known as the Cromwell and Fairfax 
medal, is preserved at Brussels, and was first published in 
England by Mr. Henfrey. The obverse bears a head of 
Cromwell wearing a sort of imperial crown. The head is 
double, and when reversed represents that of a demon. 
In front of the faces is the word " Cromwel." The surround- 
ing Dutch legend (" Den een mens is den anderen siin 
duivel ") means, " This one [Cromwell] is the evil genius of 
the other " [Fairfax]. The reverse has a head representing 
Fairfax in a Puritan hat, reversible in like manner, and 
then displaying a fool's head with cap and bells, and 
opposite the faces the word" Farfox." The circumscription 
in this case ("Deen sot is den anderen siin gek ") signifies, 
" This simpleton [Fairfax] is the other's [Cromwell's] fool " 
or dupe. (" Numismata Cromwelliana.") 

2 20 The House of Cromwell. 

Oliver's Corpse torn from Westminster Abbey. 

Here follows the mason's receipt of wages for exhuming 
the bodies of Cromwell, Ireton, and Bradshaw, at the 
Restoration of Charles II., as copied by Dr. Cromwell 
Mortimer, Secretary of the Royal Society. 

" May the 4th day. 1661. Rec d then in full of the 
worshipful Sergeant Norfolk, fiveteen shillings for taking 
up the corpes of Cromell and Ierton and Brasaw. Rec. 
by mee, John Lewis." 

For a full account of the expulsion from the Abbey of 
these and sundry other of the buried heroes of the 
Commonwealth, the reader is referred to the classic pages 
of Dean Stanley's " Historical Memorials of Westminster 
Abbey." The following appear to have escaped the 
execution of the warrant : Elizabeth Claypoole ; the Earl 
of Essex ; Grace, wife of General Scott, a regicide ; 
General Worsley ; and George Wilde, Lord Chief Baron 
of the Exchequer. 

Over the breast of the Protector was found a copper 
plate, double gilt, engraved on the one side with the arms 
of the Commonwealth impaling those of the deceased, and 
upon the reverse this legend : " Oliverius Protector 
Reipublicae Anglise, Scotise, et Hiberniae. Natus 25° 
Aprilis Anno 1599. Inauguratus 16 Decembris 1653. 
Mortuus 3 Septembris Anno 1658, hie situs est." This 
plate, together with the canister in which it was enclosed, 
was appropriated by Mr. Sergeant Norfolk, of the Heralds' 
College above mentioned, who at first imagined it to be 
gold. From him it descended, through his daughter, 
Mrs. Hope Gifford, of Colchester, into the hands of the 
Hon. George Hobart, of Nocton in Lincolnshire, and 
from that family it has again passed into the possession of 
the present Earl of Ripon and De Grey. 

For " the savage ceremonial," as Dean Stanley termed 

The Corpse of Oliver Cromwell. 221 

it, " which followed the Restoration," the Dean himself 
made what atonement he could by placing a large tablet 
in the centre of the apse of Westminster Abbey, engraved 
as follows : 

In this Vault was interred 

Oliver Cromwell. 1658 

And in or near it 

Henry Ireton. his son in law. 165 i 
Elizabeth Cromwell, his mother. 1654 
Jane Desborough. his sister. 1656 
Anne Fleetwood. 

Also Officers of his Army and Council. 

Richard Deane. 1 ^53 

Humphrey Macworth. 1654 

Sir William Constable. 1655 

Robert Blake, admiral. 1657 

Dennis Bond. 1658 

John Bradshaw. president of 

The High Court ok Justice. 1 659 

And Mary Bradshaw. his wife. 
These were removed in 1661. 

The bones of Oliver share the honour which has 
apparently been common to heroes from Moses down- 
wards — that of becoming the subject of fierce debate and 
endless conjecture. Dryden said of him : " His ashes in 

222 The House of Cromwell. 

a peaceful urn shall rest " ; and perhaps Dryden for once 
was right. At any rate, no attempt will be made in this 
place to marshall the rival claims either of the aforesaid 
urn, or of the river Thames, or the field of Naseby, or the 
vault of the Claypooles at Northampton, or the crypt 
beneath Chiswick Church, close to the residence of the 
Fauconbergs, or the Fauconbergs' home in Yorkshire, or, 
lastly, of the storm fiend, who howled through the two 
nights or more preceding his death. But inasmuch as it 
is pleasant to meet with any corroboration of the filial 
devotion of Lady Mary Fauconberg, of which, indeed, 
there was never any reasonable doubt, but which the 
Royalists have sometimes sought to tarnish, an exception 
will be briefly made in favour of the Newburgh tradition, 
as the one also which more recently than others has 
invited public attention. The following passage from an 
account of Sir George Orby Wombwell's home-life at 
Newburgh is quoted from the World of September n, 

"There is, however, a mightier memory than that of 
Laurence Sterne associated with Newburgh. In the long 
gallery is a glass case containing the saddle, holsters, bit, 
and bridle of the greatest prince who ever ruled in 
England. The saddle and holster cases are by no means 
of Puritan simplicity, being of crimson velvet, heavily 
embroidered in gold. The pistols are of portentous 
length, and very thin in the barrel ; and the bit is a cruel 
one, with the tremendous cheek-pieces common two 
centuries ago. Doubtless the Lord Protector liked to 
keep his horse like his Roundheads — well in hand. Not 
quite opposite to these relics hangs the portrait of a lady 
clad in dark-green and demureness. This serious-looking 
dame is Mary Cromwell, wife of the second Lord Faucon- 
berg. It was she who, with keen womanly instinct, 
sharpened yet more by filial affection, foresaw that, the 
Restoration once achieved, the men who had fled before 

The Tomb of Oliver Cromwell. 223 

Oliver at Naseby and Worcester would not allow his 
bones to rest in Westminster. At dead of night his 
corpse was removed from the vault in the Abbey, and 
that of some member of the undistinguished crowd substi- 
tuted for it. In solemn secrecy the remains of him of 
whom it was said, ' If not a king, he was a man whom it 
was good for kings to have among them,' were conveyed 
to Newburgh, where they yet repose, the insane fury of 
the Royalist ghouls, who hung the supposed body of Crom- 
well, as well as that of Ireton, on the gallows at Tyburn, 
having thus been cheated of its noblest prey. The tomb 
of Cromwell occupies the end of a narrow chamber at the 
head of a flight of steep stairs, and is an enormous mass 
of stonework built and cemented into the walls, apparently 
with the object of making it impenetrable. There is no 
reason to doubt the truth of this story, preserved in the 
Bellasyse family for two centuries and a quarter. It is not 
a legend, but a genuine piece of family history, and 
implicitly believed on the spot. It is needless to say 
that the over-curious have again and again begged the 
lords of Newburgh to have the tomb opened, but this 
request has met with invariable refusal, even when 
proffered by the most illustrious personages. ' No, no,' 
observes Sir George Wombwell, heartily as ever, but 
quite firmly, ' we do not make a show of our great 
relative's tomb, and it shall not be opened. In this 
part of Yorkshire we no more dig up our remote great- 
uncles than we sell our grandmothers. The Protector's 
bones shall rest in peace — at least, for my time.' " (Notes 
and Queries, October 5, 1878.) Sir George Wombwell, the 
second Baronet, married in 1791 Lady Anne Bellasyse, 
daughter of Henry, second Earl of Fauconberg. 

The Newburgh tradition might very safely take a slightly 
altered and more credible form by making the acquisition 
of the Protector's body an event subsequent to the Tyburn 
exposure. Whether or not the three bodies were, after 

224 The House of Cromwell. 

decapitation, buried beneath the gallows, as commonly 
alleged, two of them, at least, were recovered by friends 
and carried off, as proved by Mr. Godfrey Meynell's dis- 
covery of the coffins of Ireton and Bradshaw in the vault 
beneath Mugginton Church in Derbyshire ; and in respect 
of the recovery of the third body, Lord and Lady Faucon- 
berg were just the persons who of all others might be most 
reasonably credited with it. Compared with them, there 
were not at that moment any of the Protector's represen- 
tatives possessing a tithe of the power and influence 
necessary for the accomplishment of so hazardous a 
scheme. The first place of concealment might then have 
been the Chiswick crypt. Beyond this point we tremble 
to advance. 

The Head of Oliver Cromwell. 

The genuineness of the embalmed head belonging to 
Mr. Horace Wilkinson, of Sevenoaks, is, of course, depen- 
dent on the previous question, Was it the Protector who 
was hung at Tyburn ? That the head in question is the 
same which (together with a portion of the pikestaff) fell 
from the pinnacle of Westminster Hall in James II. 's 
reign is sufficiently credible, and every portion of its 
internal evidence is so far favourable as to make it im- 
possible to gaze on the relic without deep emotion. The 
history of its transmission and of its present condition 
has been exhaustively treated by the late C. Donovan, 
Esq., in two numbers of the Phrenological Journal for 
1844. There is also "An Account of the Embalmed 
Head of Oliver Cromwell at Shortlands House in Kent," 
by Colonel Sir James Edward Alexander, in the "Trans- 
actions of the Glasgow Archaeological Society," vol. ii., 
p. 35. The following scanty notice must suffice : 

The upper half of the skull has been sawn off; this 
was for the purpose of embalming. The lower half being- 
then filled with the spicy composition, long since con- 

The Head of Oliver Cromwell. 225 

creted, it has come to pass that this portion of the head, 
including the lower jaw and the pike passing through it 
all, is cemented into one mass, a state of things which, it 
has been asserted, could not be predicated of any other 
known head, since the long exposure of thirty years would 
in ordinary cases have detached the lower jaw and destroyed 
the fleshy covering. And whereas the crown of the skull 
would be pushed off by the upward action of the pike, this 
difficulty was met by piercing the crown with a central 
hole, through which the pike then passed, and appeared 
above the skull. Phrenologically speaking, the head has 
no large or small organs, all being nearly alike well 
developed, consequently it is absolutely a large head, the 
circumference over the occipital bone and round the super- 
ciliary region being 22 inches ; in life it would have been 
23 inches. The spot where the well-known wart over the 
right eye was placed is indicated by a small cavity in the 
bone, the excrescence having dropped away. The ragged 
remains of hair, which is of a reddish chestnut, and which 
covers the jaw, corresponds with the account of his remain- 
ing unshaved during the anxious weeks passed at Lady 
Claypoole's bedside, and with the remark made by his 
relations when they saw the post-mortem plaster cast, 
that his habitual practice had latterly been to preserve a 
clean chin. The elder Mr. Wilkinson, writing in 1827, 
says : "This head has been in my possession nearly fifteen 
years. I have shown it to hundreds of people, and only 
one gentleman ever brought forward an objection to any 
part of the evidence. He was an M.P., and a descendant 
by a collateral branch from Oliver Cromwell. He told me, 
in contradiction to my remark that chestnut hair never 
turned gray, that he had a lock of hair at his country 
house which was cut from the Protector's head on his 
death-bed, and had been carefully passed down through 
his family to his own possession, which lock of hair was 
perfectly gray. He has since expressed his opinion that 

J 5 

226 The House of Cromwell. 

the long exposure was sufficient to change the colour." 
In the Dublin University Magazine, April, 1843, it is stated 
that a lock cut from Charles I.'s head, when washed, was 
of a bright brown colour, though it is known to have been 
of a grizzled black in life ; the embalming materials prob- 
ably wrought the same effect in both. The ground on 
which the sculptor Flaxman pronounced in its favour was 
the squareness of the lower jaw, a marked speciality in 
the Cromwell family. Oliver Cromwell, Esq., of Cheshunt, 
after comparing it with the mask taken after death, ex- 
pressed himself satisfied ; while Dr. Southgate, librarian of 
the British Museum, and Mr. Kirk, the medallist, reached 
the same conviction from their knowledge of the Oliverian 
coins and medals. 

Cromwellian Personal Relics. 

Of these, as may well be supposed, there is a large 
crop. In briefly cataloguing them, it will be best to 
begin with the heirlooms of the Cromwell family pre- 
served in the custody either of the Rev. Paul Bush, Hon. 
Canon of Truro Cathedral and Rector of Duloe, Cornwall, 
or the Rev. Thomas Cromwell Bush (eldest son of Canon 
Paul Bush), of Cheshunt Park, and Rector of Michel 
Dean, Gloucestershire. 

The portraits at Duloe Rectory are (1896) as follows : 

1. Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector, by Walker. (Mr. 
Bush possesses the receipt.) 

2. Elizabeth Bourchier, wife of the above, by Sir Peter 

3. Richard Cromwell, Protector, by Walker. 

4. Henry Cromwell, Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, by 
Christian Dusart. 

5. Mary Cromwell, wife of Lord Fauconberg, by Michael 
Dahl, the Danish painter. 

6. Elizabeth Cromwell, wife of John Claypole. 

Relics of Oliver Cromwell. 227 

7. Frances Cromwell, Lady Russell, by John Riley. 

8. Major Henry Cromwell, son of the Lord-Lieutenant 
of Ireland, by W. Wissing. 

9. Hannah Hewling, wife of the above, by W. 

10. William Cromwell, of Kirby Street, fourth son of 
Major Henry Cromwell, by Jonathan Richardson. 

11. Richard Cromwell, fifth son of Major Henry Crom- 

12. Sarah Gatton, wife of the above. 

13. Eleanor Gatton (Mrs. Hynde), sister of the above. 

14. Thomas Cromwell, seventh son of Major Henry 
Cromwell, by Jonathan Richardson. 

15. John Thurloe, secretary to the Lord Protector, by 

16. General Stewart, uncle to the Lord Protector. 

17. Elizabeth Cromwell, daughter of the Protector 

18. Oliver Cromwell, son of Richard Cromwell, of 

19. Oliver Cromwell, of Cheshunt Park, died in 1821. 

20. Morgan Morse. 

21. Mrs. Morgan Morse. 

22. Artemidorus Cromwell Russell, of Cheshunt Park, 
grandfather of Rev. Thomas Cromwell Bush. 

23. Mr. Russell, of Hereford, grandfather of the 

24. A family group, comprising Richard Cromwell, fifth 
son of Major Henry Cromwell ; Sarah Gatton, his wife, 
with an infant son in her lap ; two daughters, Elizabeth 
in blue and Anna in red ; Mrs. Letitia Thornhill in yellow ; 
Mrs. Eleanor Gracedieu in white ; the widow of Mr. Robert 
Thornhill ; Mrs. Hynde making tea — painted by Richard 

The following heirlooms have descended to the Rev. 

228 The House of Cromwell. 

Thomas Cromwell Bush at Michel Dean Rectory, near 
Gloucester : 

Oliver Cromwell's mask ; Henry Cromwell's helmet ; 
Long - Parliament hat, wide - brimmed ; spurs ; Oliver 
Cromwell's powder-flask ; another helmet ; seal of Lord- 
Lieutenant of Ireland ; Oliver Cromwell's private seal ; 
four pieces of padded armour ; pedigree ; pair of leather 
leggings ; Oliver Cromwell's stirrups ; eight swords, one 
serpentine ; mourning sword belonging to the last Oliver 
Cromwell, Esq. ; dagger ; Henry Cromwell's Bible and 
Prayer-book ; piece of the pear-tree planted by Oliver 
Cromwell in the garden of Sidney Sussex College, Cam- 
bridge ; piece of Shakespeare's mulberry-tree ; portrait of 
Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex, by Holbein ; ditto, 
Henry VIII. ; Oliver Cromwell's father and mother ; 
Charles I., in needlework; John Pym; Richard Cromwell ; 
ditto in locket ; Lord and Lady Thomond, by S. Cooper ; 
Nicholas Skinner, by the same painter ; hatchment carried 
at the Protector's funeral; small gilt-edged diary; banner; 
Oliva pacis ; small cannon-ball ; medicine-chest ; large 
Tuscan cabinet in ebony, of elaborate design, for per- 
fumes, presented by the Grand-Duke of Tuscany to his 
Highness on the arrival of his portrait in Florence ; small 
picture of Mary, daughter of Nicholas Skinner, widow of 
Thomas Cromwell, who died in 1813, at the age of 104 
(see pp. 61, 62) ; various Lives of the Protector and mis- 
cellaneous papers, in cabinet. 

His Highness's coach appears, from an entry in the 
Commons' Journals, May 28, 1660, to have been trans- 
ferred to the service and use of Charles II., or such at 
least was the design, though, from a passage in the first 
volume of " State Papers," p. 266, it seems to have 
eventually reached the hands of Lord Hollis. Mark 
Noble tells us (but this was a hundred years ago) that a 
large barn built by Oliver at St. Ives still (1785) goes by 

Relics of Oliver Cromwell. 229 

his name ; and the farmer renting the estate still marks 
his sheep with the identical marking-irons which Oliver 
used, having " O. C." upon them. State-coach and 
marking-irons ought certainly to have been secured by 
Lord Hollis. 

Respecting the articles which descended through Mary 
Cromwell, Mark Noble has the following: " The present 
Earl of Fauconberg (1785) possesses some valuables which 
were the first nobleman's of that title, and presented 
to him by his Highness, his lordship's father-in-law. 
Amongst these are a sabre worn by Oliver at Naseby. 
His head is engraved upon the blade, with this inscrip- 
tion : ' Oliver Cromwell, General for the English Parlia- 
ment, 1652'; above it, 'Soli Deo gloria'; below it, 'Fide, 
sed cui vide.' On the other side of the blade is the 
same head and inscription, and a man on horseback, 
with the words 'Spes mea est Deo,' and ' Vincere aut 
mori.' ' A similar weapon is described in the Gentleman's 
Magazine for 1793, p. 209, belonging to some other party. 
This may suffice for the O. C. swords, which might fill an 

But the Fauconberg collection long included an object 
of still greater interest, which has now passed into the 
possession of the Earl of Chichester. This was Oliver's 
pocket Bible, an edition printed for the assignees of Robert 
Barker in 1645, bound in four thin volumes for portability, 
and having Cromwell's autograph at the beginning of 
vol. iii., thus, " O. C. el. 1645," and the words " Qui 
cessat esse melior cessat esse bonus." Each volume also 
contains " Lord Fauconberg his Book, 1677." Lastly 
must be mentioned Lady Mary's knife, fork, and spoon in 
a shagreen case, which she derived from her father, and 
which she bequeathed to Miss Plaxton, from whom they 
passed to her descendant, Mr. Thomas Beckwith, of York, 
painter and F.A.S. 

Mr. H. R. Field, formerly of Munster Lodge, Tedding- 

230 The House of Cromwell. 

ton, possesses the portrait of Elizabeth Bourchier, the 
Protector's mother, by some Dutch master, a marble bust 
of the Protector, several original letters, various articles 
belonging to his medicine-chest, one of the brass breast 
ornaments worn on the belt of his troopers, Gillray's 
caricature representation of George III. inspecting a 
miniature of Cromwell, and a collection of drawings 
formerly at Brantingsay. 

At the thirty days' sale, in 1806, of Sir Ashton Lever's 
museum, Oliver's helmet and gorget, and a buff doublet, 
were bought for five guineas. They were presented by 
a descendant of General Disbrowe to Mr. Busby, who 
gave them to Sir Ashton. A three - quarter bust in 
armour cut in white paper, and regarded as the work of 
his daughter, Mrs. Bridget Fleetwood, is now in the 
United Service Institution ; where also are divers other 
Cromwelliana. A clock, now in the Philadelphia Library, 
and regarded as the oldest clock in America, is called 
Oliver Cromwell's clock. His watch, delineated in a print 
in the Gentleman's Magazine, December, 1808, is now in 
the British Museum. His oval brass snuff-box was 
minutely described in Notes and Queries, October 29, 1864. 
At an archaeological meeting in York, September, 1846, 
another watch turned up, a repeater, maker's name Jaques 
Cartier, exhibited by Mr. F. H. Fawkes, of Farnley Hall, 
near Otley, together with the original matrix in silver 
of a seal for the approbation of parish ministers. Mark 
Noble believed himself to be the happy possessor of 
the Protector's steel tobacco-box. His boots, with many 
other articles, used to be shown to visitors at the 
Chequers, in Buckinghamshire ; while a rival pair of 
boots formed part of Mr. Mayer's Museum at Liverpool, 
together with a cocoanut cup mounted in silver ; and 
there is a silver shoe-buckle in the rooms of the Edin- 
burgh Antiquaries. Mrs. Inigo Thomas, of Ratten, had 
his brooch. Even his finger-ring was found in 1824 at 

Portraits of Oliver Cromwell. 2 3 1 

Enderby, near Leicester, having a pointedly-cut diamond 
between rubies, and " O. C." on each side of the rubies. 
Inside the ring were the words " For the Cause " {Gentle- 
mail's Magazine, July, 1824). Thomas Dickenson Hall, 
Esq., of Whatton Manor, co. Notts, has his silver 
drinking-cup, with a cover. The numerous articles in- 
herited by the Dickenson family were likely to be genuine, 
as they came through the Claypooles. An aunt of 
Daines Barrington formerly rejoiced in the possession of 
an intricate lock, manufactured in Scotland, but attached 
to a chamber-door in Whitehall. Other possessors of 
relics are, or were, Mr. Goodall, of Dinton Hall, Ayles- 
bury ; Sir Peter Dick, of Sloane Street, Chelsea ; and the 
owner of the armoury in the chapel of Farley Castle, the 
ancient seat of the Hungerfords, in Wiltshire. The above 
list, copious though it may appear, is far from being 
exhaustive, and a small space must still be claimed for 
objects more strictly belonging to the Protectress's de- 
partment. It remains, then, to state that at a sale of 
porcelain belonging to Miss Wroughton, of Wilcot, near 
Devizes, one lot was styled Oliver's, probably a set of 
Delft earthenware, which was popular in England from 
1600 to 1660. And when about the same time the antique 
furniture of Chavenage House, near Tetbury, was sold by 
auction, amongst various Oliverian relics, his quilt in 
satin, trimmed with silk fringe, was sold for £3. A 
similar quilt of Ireton's fetched one guinea. Nor must 
an article belonging to Ireton's wife, Bridget Cromwell, 
be overlooked. This is a brass-mounted pair of bellows 
adorned with scroll-work and flowers encircling a portrait 
of her father, exhibited by Mr. Burkitt at the archaeo- 
logical meeting in 1845. Lastly, a kettle — a camp-kettle, 
a gift from Mrs. Russel, of Cheshunt — was cherished by 
the late Sir Charles Reed, of Hackney, derived through 
his wife from her father, Edward Baines, Esq., M.P., of 

232 The House of Cromwell. 

There was a gentleman resident in the Paragon at 
Hackney, Mr. De Kewer Williams, the pastor of an Inde- 
pendent Church, whose Cromwellian museum, in one re- 
spect at least, was emphatically unique, for it included 233 
different engraved portraits of him, 180 being English, 39 
French, 7 Dutch, 6 German, 1 Italian ; and by this time the 
collection is doubtless still further enriched. Other items 
in this gathering were portraits in oil (one apparently an 
original) ; miniatures on various grounds and bas-relievos of 
every material ; a statuette of considerable age, possibly 
contemporary ; besides coins, medals, seals, silver lockets, a 
large ivory tankard, the carving around which represents 
the Dissolution of the Long Parliament ; all the best en- 
gravings of Oliver, inclusive of caricatures native and 
foreign ; and lastly a book-case of characteristic device, 
containing a selection of rare works illustrative of his 
career, in various languages. 

In the execution of his picture of the Dissolution of the 
Long Parliament, Benjamin West was anxious to examine 
a miniature of great repute, then belonging to an old lady, 
a member of the Russell family. " Lord Russell " is 
described as the mediating channel through whom per- 
mission to inspect was, after much difficulty, obtained. 
But permission was only one step in advance. Sundry 
preliminaries had to be observed, for which the painter 
was hardly prepared. The box containing the miniature 
lay at the lady's banking-house, and whenever it was 
brought to her own home, the servants were all put into 
livery as for a State reception, and visitors were required 
to appear in Court dress. Benjamin West's Quaker pre- 
judices revolted against the sword and other paraphernalia 
belonging to that costume ; but deeming it best to waive 
his objections for the nonce, he was duly ushered along 
with others into the lady's bedroom, where she appeared 
propped up with pillows and dressed with plumes and 
jewels. The box was opened, and Mr. West had at 

Portraits of Oliver Cromwell. 

last the satisfaction of holding the Protector's miniature 
in his hand. A glance sufficed to verify the report of its 
excellence. He had never before seen, he said, so ex- 
pressive a likeness of " Cromwell." At the word "Crom- 
well " the old lady's eager hand had plucked the jewel from 
his profane grasp and replaced it in its casket. With an 
agitated voice she declared that Mr. West could not again 
be permitted to handle it. " You must know," she added, 
" that in my presence he is never spoken of but as my 
Lord Protector." Lord Russell here interposed, and after 
suitable apologies and explanations obtained for Mr. West 
the privilege of another long inspection, in the course of 
which the courtly painter found sundry opportunities for 
magnifying the name and virtues of our Lord Protector. 
After the lady's death, he made another effort to see it 
through her executors, but all the information he could 
get was that when the box was recovered from the banker's 
the picture was absent, and was supposed to have gone 
abroad. Thus it seemed hopelessly lost, but Mr. West 
was of opinion that the beauty of its execution would 
ensure its restoration to the light. (Notes and Queries, 
July 15, 1865.) Possibly its subsequent history may be 
read in a statement occurring in a letter to the present 
writer, written in 1848 by the late Sir Thomas Frankland 
Lewis, to the effect that the best portrait of Oliver he had 
ever seen was " a miniature in the hands of Sir Augustus 
Foster, who had purchased it at Turin. It was by Cooper, 
and had belonged to some of Oliver's descendant's." As 
to the lady herself, who paid such affectionate homage to 
his memory, she may be conjecturally identified with one 
of the two members of the Russell family who successively 
filled the office of bed-chamber woman to the Princess 

The portrait (life-size) in Sidney Sussex College, 
Cambridge, was probably the last taken from life, for it 
represents him worn and faded from the fatigues of office 

234 The House of Cromwell. 

and indoor life. It was presented to the college, in 1766, 
by Thomas Hollis, the antiquary, who accompanied the 
gift with two unsigned letters as follows : 

" To the Master and Fellows of Sidney Sussex College, 

" An Englishman, an assertor of liberty, citizen of the 
world, is desirous of having the honour to present an 
original portrait in crayons of the head of O. Cromwell, 
Protector, drawn by Cooper, to Sidney Sussex College in 
Cambridge. London, Jan. 15, 1766. 

' I freely declare it, I am for old Noll ; 
Though his government did a tyrant's resemble, 
He made England great, and her enemies tremble.' 

" It is requested that the portrait should be placed so as 
to receive the light from left to right, and be free from 
sunshine. Also that the favour of a line may be written 
on the arrival of it, directed to Pierce Delver, at Mr. 
Shore's, bookbinder in Maiden Lane, Covent Garden, 

Second letter : 

"A small case was sent yesterday by the Cambridge 
waggon from the Green Dragon, Bishopsgate Street, 
directed to Dr. Elliston, Master of Sidney Sussex College, 
Cambridge, free of carriage. It contains a portrait which 
the Master and Fellows of that College are requested to 
accept. London, Jan. 18, 1766." 

How and when the donor's real name was discovered is 
uncertain, but the letters were so characteristic that it 
could not long remain a secret. Thomas Hollis died in 
1774, Dut we learn from his memoirs that it was known in 
1780. (Notes and Queries, February 24, 1872.) 

The Standard of Oliver Cromwell. 235 

The Standard of Oliver Cromwell. 

Mr. Henfrey observes, writing in 1875, that there seems 
to be only one example of a Commonwealth flag now in 
existence in this country. It was the standard hoisted 
during that period on the flagstaff at Chatham Dockyard, 
and it is still preserved at the private house of the Captain- 
Superintendent of the dockyard, Captain Charles Fellowes, 
C.B. It is there deposited in a curious chest of carved 
cypress, taken by Sir George Rook out of a Spanish 
galleon in Vigo Bay in 1704, and which was used for hold- 
ing colours. The following notice of it occurs in the 
Kentish Gazette, January 11, 1822 : 

" Cromwell's Standard. — When his Royal Highness the 
Duke of Gloucester visited the dockyard at Chatham a 
few days since, he was shown Cromwell's standard, 
supposed to be the only one remaining in the kingdom. 
Its ancient simplicity and good preservation excited the 
attention of his Royal Highness. When his late Majesty 
visited the yard in 1781, it was shown to him, and he 
expressed a desire that particular care might be taken of 
it. The flag is red, twenty-one feet by fifteen, having on 
it St. George's Cross, red on a white field, and the Irish 
harp, yellow on a blue field, the shield surrounded by 
branches of palm and laurel." 

Respecting which memorandum, Mr. Henfrey further 
observes that the writer errs in calling it Cromwell's 
standard, since it carries the arms of the Commonwealth 
of England and Ireland only, which differ considerably 
from the bearings of the Protectorate. On May 18, 1658, 
an order of Oliver's Council directed " That the standard 
for the General of his Highness's fleet be altered, and do 
bear the arms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, with 
his Highness's escutcheon of pretence according to the 
impression of the great seal of England, and that the 
jack-flags for the flag-officers of the fleet and for the 

6 The House of Cromwell. 

general ships of war of his Highness be the arms of 
England and Scotland united, according to the ancient 
form, with the addition of the harp, according to the 
model now shown, and that the Commissioners of the 
Admiralty and Navy do take order that the standard and 
jack-flags be prepared accordingly." The standard thus 
determined on bore quarterly, first and fourth, argent, the 
cross of St. George, gules, for England ; second, azure, a 
saltire, argent, being St. Andrew's cross for Scotland ; 
third, azure, a harp, or, stringed, argent, for Ireland. On 
an escutcheon of pretence in the centre were the paternal 
arms of Cromwell, sable, a lion rampant, argent. 

The National Ensign was in all probability down to 
1658 the flag of St. George introduced by the Common- 
wealth in 1649 ; but by the order above quoted we learn 
that the old Union Jack, bearing the combined crosses of 
St. George and St. Andrew, was revived, with the singular 
alteration of placing the Irish harp "over the centre" (as 
Mr. Henfrey supposes) of the flag. This altered Union 
Jack was, of course, disused upon the restoration of 
Charles II., nor was Ireland again represented in the 
Union flag until the reign of George III., when the cross 
of St. Patrick was added to the jack on the union with 
Ireland, January 1, 1801. During the short period 
between the resignation of the Protector Richard and the 
return of the King, the standard was probably that of the 
Protectorate with the Cromwell escutcheon omitted. The 
ensign was perhaps the Union Jack as altered in 1658. 
(From a paper by H. W. Henfrey on the " Commonwealth 
Flags.") In the matter of colours, costumes, and badges 
worn by the several companies of the fighting armies in 
the early stages of the war, much information is supplied 
in the life of Admiral Deane by his descendant, John 
Bathurst Deane. 

The Coins of Oliver Cromwell. 237 

The Coins of Oliver Cromwell. 

" Numismata Cromwelliana ; or, The Medallic History 
of Oliver Cromwell, illustrated by his Coins, Medals, and 
Seals, dedicated by permission to the Marquis of Ripon, 
' the eminent statesman, the patron of archaeology and 
art, and a descendant of the Cromwell family,' " by 
William Henry Henfrey, author of " A Guide to English 
Coins," member of the Numismatic and other learned 
societies (4to., 1877), is a fascinating and exhaustive 
treatise on a department of our history concerning which, 
notwithstanding the extant account of Simon's works, 
little before was known. With a copious history of mint- 
ing operations during the period in question, it supplies 
also the biographies of the artists engaged, and is rich not 
only in scientific data, but in contemporary anecdote. 
The pictorial delineations, which are of extraordinary 
beauty, being the product of the Autotype Company, 
include all the English specimens, and also foreign imita- 
tions and Dutch satirical pieces. In presence of so 
finished a work of art, it would be an impertinence to 
treat its details in a cursory style. Beyond, therefore, a 
notice of the Dunbar medal, but little attempt will be 
made to rifle its contents. 

Oliver's numismatic history commences with the victory 
of Dunbar, September 3, 1650. Two days after the news 
of that event reached the House, a resolution was passed 
for a general distribution of memorial pieces to the army, 
and constitutes the first instance in English history of the 
same medal being granted to officers and men alike, as is 
our present practice. Nor was it ever done again till the 
battle of Waterloo, in 1S15, when a distribution of silver 
medals was in like manner made to every man present at 
the action. Relics of this kind in commemoration of 
great men and great events have, of course, been common 
time out of mind ; but in the whole space of our own 

238 The House of CromwelL 

history preceding the battle of Waterloo, the Common- 
wealth of England stands alone in the gift of this form of 
decoration to every man of every grade in the army. 

It was proposed that the Dunbar medal should exhibit 
on the one side a view of the Parliament sitting, and on 
the other an effigy of the victorious General, backed by a 
distant view of the army, and superscribed "The Lord of 
Hosts," which had been the battle-cry on the occasion ; 
and Thomas Simon, the renowned medallist, was sent 
down to Scotland to convey to him the wishes of the 
House, and to make the necessary studies for the bust. 
Oliver expressed his cordial approval of the design, except 
that he wished his own portrait to be left out ; but as this 
would not be listened to, Simon went back to London 
furnished with those materials, which have issued in that 
representation of the General in middle life, which we 
instinctively feel to be the true one, well executed in the 
Dunbar medals, but still better expressed in the Inaugura- 
tion medal. Both are represented in Plate I. of the auto- 
types in Mr. Henfrey's work. 

In executing the reverse for the smaller of the Dunbar 
medals, namely, the view of the Parliament sitting, Simon 
used up a die which he had formerly engraved for the 
Meruisti medal. This was a medal which had been ordered 
in 1649 to decorate several sea-captains who had done 
good service to the Commonwealth ; and it had on the 
obverse the Commonwealth arms in the form of the 
English and Irish shields suspended from an anchor, and 
the word Meruisti. These, with their gold chains, were 
ready for delivery in 1653, and Cromwell having in the 
meanwhile become Protector, he had the pleasure of per- 
sonally presenting them to Generals Blake and Monk, to 
Vice-Admiral Penn, Rear-Admiral Lawson, and others. 

Of the Cromwellian coinage generally, Mr. Henfrey, 
after reciting the eulogies of various numismatic authorities, 
concludes with those of B. Nightingale and R. Stuart 

The Coins of Oliver Cromwell. 239 

Poole, the latter being the Keeper of the Coins in the 
British Museum. Says Mr. Nightingale: "They have 
always been considered the most truthful, graceful, and 
highly-finished specimens of modern medallic art. Indeed, 
they have never been surpassed by any productions of the 
English Mint. Perhaps we might say they have never 
been equalled." Mr. Poole says : " The great Protector's 
coins, designed by Simon, the chief of English medallists, 
are unequalled in our whole series for the vigour of the 
portrait, a worthy presentment of the head of Cromwell, 
and the beauty and fitness of every portion of the work." 

But, beautiful as the Protector's money was, it had but 
a very limited circulation. As he died within a few months 
after the great coinage of 1658, the specimens then afloat 
would very naturally be hoarded as memorials of him and 
as curiosities. Samuel Pepys tells us that even so early 
as 1662 Cromwell's pieces were prized and bought up by 
connoisseurs. From the circumstance that no specific 
mention is made of them in Charles II. 's proclamation 
calling in the Commonwealth money, it has even been 
argued that they were never in public circulation. This 
Mr. Henfrey does not admit, and thinks, with Sir Henry 
Ellis, that it must have been deemed quite unnecessary to 
prohibit in a proclamation the currency of coins which had 
virtually gone out of sight. 

Oliver's seal on the death-warrant of the King differs 
from that which he commonly used, inasmuch as the 
demi-lion holds a fleur-de-lys instead of a javelin or ring. 
The same seal follows Harrison's name. Perhaps he was 
without a seal at the time, and Cromwell, standing by, lent 
him his. The published facsimiles of the warrant do not 
correctly represent this seal. 

240 The House of Cromwell. 

Church Policy of Oliver Cromwell. 

Oliver Cromwell was a man of prayer. To his honest 
apprehension the hand of Providence was throughout his 
career as distinct and palpable as the sun in the heavens. 
To retain the benefit of this sure defence, it followed that 
the only possible course open to him was that of childlike 
obedience. Along this path he moved with the serene 
confidence only known to the sons of faith, and the 
power of his genius was born of the innocency of his 
heart. Personal supremacy was valuable only as it 
furnished the means for carrying out those maxims of 
religious liberty, civil order, and Protestant ascendancy in 
Europe, which he often told his brother sovereigns abroad 
were the terms of his Divine commission. In Rome he 
discerned the chief eneirry to the liberties, the prosperity, 
and the piety of mankind, and in nations devoted to her 
sway the strongholds of tyranny and vice. In face of 
such a state of things, he was not called upon when 
smitten on the one cheek to offer the other also. That 
might be a personal duty. Possibly it might not be a 
national duty. Nationality was an element not of his 
creation, but it was a factor which went for a great deal in 
the history of human progress, and he found himself, by 
the will of Heaven, in possession of a national sword. 
Without adopting the fiction of a Christian nation, he had 
to ask himself the question why that sword was placed in 
his hand as a Protestant potentate in the then state of 
Europe. His answer to that question was, as we know, 
a systematic plan of resistance to Papal influences 
abroad. By parity of reasoning it appeared to him just 
and right to exercise the same law of force at home ; and 
he exercised it so far as to meet and ratify the universal 
craving for an outward and visible profession of Chris- 
tianity, but combining therewith absolute toleration for all 
doctrines that were not opposed to the nation's peace. 

Church Policy of Oliver Cromwell. 241 

To him, as to Milton, the attainment of those ends was a 
more important object than the symmetry of the machinery. 
The respective views of the two men in matters ecclesiastic 
may or may not have corresponded in some executive 
details, but Milton had the good sense not to stand against 
the Protector's decision under the circumstances of the 
hour. Milton was born to be a theologian ; Cromwell 
was born to be a Ruler. Milton's views of Church 
organization were manly, Apostolic, and evangelical ; and 
when looked at from the private Christian's standpoint, 
they were all-sufficient. But Cromwell had to look at the 
matter from the Ruler's standpoint, and this was a very 
different affair. He had to sweep a politico-ecclesiastic 
horizon which was charged with thunder-clouds, an horizon 
of far wider reach than that of Milton's model Church, 
which only asked to be guided back into Apostolic order. 

The period between the battle of Worcester and the 
dissolution of the Long Parliament was greatly occupied 
by national discussions on what was called "the propaga- 
tion of the Gospel " — a term embracing the whole question 
of the alliance of Church and State, the selection 01 
pastors, and the maintenance of the old system of tithes 
versus a declaration of absolute voluntaryism. Committees 
were sitting, books printed, petitions presented, proposals 
entertained, in all which Cromwell was a patient worker 
and watcher ; and we must therefore conclude that, when 
he reached the conviction that England was not yet ready 
for the experimental adoption of Milton's theories, he had 
weighed the matter with all the powers he possessed. 

Now, it has often been stated that his resolution to 
maintain the parochial clergy by force and arms was the 
one point in which he thoroughly disappointed John Milton 
and his brother voluntaries. It may be so. Perhaps he 
much more disappointed himself. But before surveying 
the difficulties of his position, let us clear the ground by 
first disposing of Richard Baxter's objections. It was the 


242 The House of Cromwell. 

recorded opinion of this divine that Cromwell systemati- 
cally prepared the public mind for his own personal 
exaltation by first stimulating the religious extravagances 
of the hour, in order that himself might be welcomed as 
the patron and restorer of order ; and that, having attained 
his end, he trusted thenceforward to the policy of doing 
good for his continued security, "that the people might 
love him, or at least be willing to have his government for 
that good." So, then, we are to understand it was all in 
furtherance of his own interest. Any solution will satisfy 
Baxter rather than admit that the Protector adopted the 
course which he deemed most righteous for righteousness' 
sake. But to those of us who believe that Cromwell 
possessed what the Scriptures term "a single eye," the 
crooked policy here attributed to him is altogether inad- 
missible. To a dignitary like Baxter, who caused Quakers 
to be put in the stocks at Kidderminster, and to other 
ministers who shared his sentiments of clerical domination, 
the Protector's decision, one would think, might have 
been sufficiently palatable, let the motive be what it 
might. It was the amount of toleration which went along 
with it which the Presbyterian champion so resented. 
No man loved better than he did the order and power 
implied in the phrase " Church and State," and liberty of 
conscience consequently took, in his estimation, the place 
of rank heresy — liberty of the lay conscience, that is to say ; 
for ministers were the only true guides of opinion. " If," 
says he, referring to the early stages of the struggle, " there 
had been a competent number of ministers, each doing his 
part, the whole plot of the furious party might have been 
broken, and King, Parliament, and religion preserved." 
By the " furious party " here are meant the Anabaptist 
soldiers, who in the days of his army chaplaincy had so 
often outraged his official dignity by controverting his 
dogmas of Church polity. 

But leaving Baxter to learn in the after-school of tribu- 

Church Policy of Oliver Cromwell. 243 

lation the lesson of mutual forbearance, we may now look 
at some other of Oliver's difficulties, and in so doing take 
a glance at the actual state of English churches. They 
comprehended, then, to begin with, the entire population. 
Everyone who had been made a Christian by baptism 
could claim a legal right to church privileges, by which 
fiction it came to pass that church discipline was, as it 
always must be under the circumstances, a farce. When 
Peter Ince, one of the conscientious pastors of South 
Wilts, ventured to restrict communion by instituting a 
character test, all the parish rose in arms. The church 
was theirs, not his. Still more dire must have been the 
confusion and clash of tongues when the incumbent hap- 
pened, as was sometimes the case, to be a Baptist. Such 
was the nature of parochial church life which Cromwell 
had to deal with — a system wrought for ages past into 
the very fabric of society, one which he had no hand 
in initiating, and which he certainly had no power to 

Church discipline, then, must for the present be re- 
garded as unattainable, even if it had ever been possible 
to bring it within the reach of an ecclesiastical police ; and 
congregations must be treated, not as Christians, but as 
citizens. Cromwell knew as well as anyone that Churches 
of the primitive age had their organization in their own 
hands, but he also knew that as soon as they learned to 
look to earthly authority in support or recognition of their 
spiritual status, from that moment they became merged in 
surrounding influences. Their spiritual status was quenched 
in their citizenship, and forthwith became, if not a myth, 
at least an undefinable quantity outside of the legislator's 
notice. Milton, with the daring of youth, had once said : 
" A commonwealth ought to be but as one huge Christian 
personage, one mighty growth and stature of an honest 
man." The aspiration was poetic — it was even prophetic 
and Biblical — but as yet it was far enough out of sight in 

244 The House of Cromwell. 

England ; and when he and Cromwell found at last an 
opportunity of giving to their endeavours a practical 
shape, the reform had to drop down to the regulation of 
parish churches ; and how to exalt and purify even these 
by legislative action it was felt could only be a very 
superficial affair. 

But in addition to them, the legislator had also to 
recognise the existence of other gatherings of Christian 
men. From the days of Constantine downwards, Catholic 
unity had forcibly preserved the peace in this respect ; but 
Protestantism is the nurse of sects, and as England and 
Scotland were Protestant, so the sects abounded. They 
could not be obliterated. Nay, putting aside the bitter- 
ness of rivalry kept alive in them by the action of paid 
teachers, they are a healthy symptom of life. In any case, 
then, let them enjoy a common share of that protection 
which is their undoubted right as citizens, though not as 
spiritual persons. Even Milton could not withhold this 
amount of governmental support. 

By this principle, therefore, Cromwell appears to have 
guided his course. The various religious parties were 
given to understand that they had perfect liberty to think 
and let think. He attempted neither to define nor to 
defend the theological position of any one of the belligerents, 
but he was resolved, if possible, to keep them one and all 
from cutting each others' throats. How this amicable 
neutrality could be secured, when the beneficed clergy 
retained the power of summoning the civil sword in defence 
of their tithes, could never have been very clear. Ap- 
parently, there was at present no mode of escape out of 
the dilemma ; but so far as the circumstances of the case 
permitted, he became what has been termed " a despot for 
freedom of conscience," paradoxical as it may sound. 
Could a succession of Cromwells be counted on, the 
system of compromise thus put into action might possibly 
retain some healthy efficiency, and the religious freedom, 

Church Policy of Oliver Cromwell. 245 

which he secured in spite of the parochial clergy, be 
indefinitely perpetuated. Still, it was but a compromise, 
a temporary expedient adopted in hope of something better 
turning up ; and, so far as his own conscience was con- 
cerned in the matter, it is satisfactory to know from his 
repeated declarations that he believed he had pursued the 
right course. 

Was there any other prominent object to be considered? 
Yes, there was the selection and payment of ministers. 
Here, also, if legislation would but consent to sit still and 
ignore the existence of Christianism, Milton's conclusions 
were irresistible. And as England then was, another con- 
clusion also was irresistible — every parish would become 
in succession the seat of civil war. Those who are 
familiar with the schedules of estates called " particulars," 
which the Royalists had to furnish when they compounded 
for their " delinquency," will have observed how frequently 
the rural rectories were in the hands of laymen, who, 
while they kept the tithes to themselves, and maintained 
the fabric of the church in repair or disrepair, as the case 
might be, met the ecclesiastical wants of the people 
by paying a small stipend of from £40 to £70 to 
some curate or vicarius, who was very much at their 
mercy. And as were the Royalist landowners, so were all 
other landowners. Now, let it be conceived for a moment 
what would have been the result of tearing up such a 
system as this in countless parishes, where there could be 
no possible agreement in doctrinal matters, and conse- 
quently no concord in the choice of a pastor — at a time, 
too, when the Quakers were perambulating every village in 
the realm and sowing broadcast the seeds of ecclesiastical 
revolt. Was it not better to allow the right of presenta- 
tion to remain for the present with the landowners or 
other patrons, and qualify the evil by subjecting the 
nominees to the strait gate of examination ? So Oliver 
appears to have reasoned. 

246 The House of CromwelL 

And this brings us at last in sight of the county courts 
of arbitrators, called " tryers " or " expurgators," and by 
the episcopal party basanistai, or "tormentors," selected 
from professors of different Protestant creeds, lay and 
clerical, and appointed to pronounce on the fitness or 
otherwise of candidates for benefices. They were not 
altogether a new institution, Acts for the ejectment of 
scandalous and insufficient divines having been on the 
statute-books ever since the time of James I. (see the 
Commons' Journals as far back as June 22, 1604), but under 
the Commonwealth the system was brought into more 
rigorous practice. This is what Professor David Masson, 
in his " Life of John Milton," so repeatedly terms " Crom- 
well's State Church," but which, after all, means no more 
than this : that he met the helpless cry for a paid pastorate 
by furnishing the best article within his reach ; and in 
furtherance of this object it must be admitted that his 
supervision was anxious and incessant. In Marchmont 
Needham's book, published in 1657, entitled " The Great 
Accuser Cast Down," we are told that " His Highness, 
having near one half of the livings in England one way or 
other in his own immediate disposal by presentation, he 
seldom bestoweth one of them upon any man whom him- 
self doth not first examine and make trial of in person. 
Save only that at such times as his great affairs happen to 
be more urgent than ordinary, he useth to appoint some 
other to do it in his behalf. Which is so rare an example 
of piety, that the like is not to be found in the stories of 

And then, touching the sources of income, how to find 
a substitute for tithes was felt to be a bottomless question. 
There was some talk of experimenting in Ireland, and 
gathering tithes into a common fund for re-distribution 
among incumbents, but it came to nothing. Oliver 
evidently shrank most sensitively from the injustice of 
any plan which looked like pauperizing the regular clergy. 

Church Policy of Oliver Cromwell. 247 

On this ground he fought their battle from first to last. 
He told the House that the best among the clergy would 
heartily welcome some more gracious scheme of support, 
if such could be found ; but until that happy discovery 
were made, tithes were unavoidable. To fall back on 
universal voluntaryism, he thought, would be unfair treat- 
ment towards the ministers. 

But let Cromwell's solicitude as the father of his people 
be what it might, was not the above plan tainted with the 
old inherent vice of withholding from the churches the 
right to choose their own pastors ? It certainly was 
the withholding of that right from the parishioners in the 
mass, whether they were Christians or not. And if we 
wish to know how the exercise of such right would be 
likely to work, we have only to look at those parishes 
where the popular election of their rectors or ministers 
still prevails in England. Though blood may not be 
actually spilt, as was the case in some of the earlier 
battles between bishops, the spectacle is equally unedify- 
ing. What, then, it will be asked, is legislation to do in 
such a case ? After an experience prolonged for two 
centuries since Oliver fell asleep, we might be tempted to 
utter a summary sentence very much at variance with his 
plan of action. But in judging of that plan so far as he 
was implicated, we have to remember that, in the Reforma- 
tion era, through which his own youth had passed, the 
Protestant conscience was absolutely saturated with the 
Divine mission of a stationary preaching clergy. Ever 
since the hour of his conversion he had been prominent 
in their advocacy, and to give them a fair chance now 
that he had the power was clearly with him a point of 
conscience. The most advanced Christian thinkers of 
that day were as yet very far from taking the ground 
which John Foster (the essayist) occupied a hundred and 
fifty years later when he started the suggestion that all 
ecclesiastical organizations were useless and mischievous, 

248 The House of Cromwell. 

and the sooner they were dissolved the better. Pure 
Protestantism, or the Biblical principle of light against 
darkness, had never before found herself in the seat of 
authority — at least, in England. The metaphor which 
represents the champion of Puritanism with a sword in 
one hand and a Bible in the other is a perfectly just one; 
for though Puritanism was something more reformed than 
the Anglican Reformation, it was that something still 
pronouncing itself by the aid of Governmental force. 
The main difference lay here : that, in place of subsidizing 
a Church of priests, the monopoly was transferred to a 
Church of pastors. These had now to be put upon trial, 
and in spite of the check delivered by the re-ascent of the 
Anglican Church to the supreme power, the experimental 
preaching dynasty of the sixteenth century has gone on 
ever since. Should it have to resign its functions to 
something better, it will not, in the meanwhile, have lived 
in vain. 

Here the defence of Oliver's Church policy must come 
to an end. If we say that, in presence of the moral 
upturnings through which the nation had passed, he saw 
no other method whereby to ride the angry storm, let it 
be accepted as an admission that he was able to read his 
position better than we can read it for him, though it 
leave untouched the counter-axiom that no civil power 
has ever yet shown itself sufficiently pure to become the 
earthly representative of the kingdom of righteousness. 
How far he was himself aware of the false position held 
by subsidized divines may be partly gathered from his 
own explicit disavowal of their exclusive charter, and this 
in fairness ought to be now added : " Where do you find 
in Scripture," he had said to the Scots ministers, "a 
ground to warrant such an assertion that preaching is 
exclusively your function ? Though an approbation from 
men hath order in it, and may do well, yet he that hath 
no better warrant than that hath none at all. I hope He 

Church Policy of Oliver Cromwell. 249 

that ascended up on high may give His gifts to whom He 
pleaseth ; and if these gifts be the seal of mission, be not 
you envious though Eldad and Medad prophesy." To 
the Irish prelates and priests he had further said : 

" I wonder not at discontents and divisions where so 
antichristian and dividing a term as clergy and laity is 
given and received — a term unknown to any save the anti- 
christian Church and such as derive themselves from her. 
' Ab initio non fuit sic. . . .' It was your pride that 
begat this expression, and it is for filthy lucre's sake that 
you keep it up, that by making the people believe that 
they are not so holy as yourselves they might for their 
penny purchase some sanctity from you, and that you 
might bridle, saddle, and ride them at your pleasure, and 
do (as is most true of you) as the Scribes and Pharisees 
of old did by their laity — keep the knowledge of the law 
from them, and then be able in their pride to say : ' This 
people that knoweth not the law are cursed.' " 

These revelations of his personal convictions give us 
some insight into the conflicting elements through which 
he had to steer his course. It was impossible, for ex- 
ample, that he could be deaf to the woes and waitings of 
the Quakers, flogged, imprisoned, and robbed by tithe- 
gatherers. We know, in fact, that a very fair list could 
be exhibited, were there time, of kindnesses and deliver- 
ances wrought not only by himself, but by members of his 
household, in behalf of the sufferers. Some (not all) of 
the Quaker annalists have been very unjust towards him 
in this matter, attributing to him personally what was 
due to the tyranny which, in that age of local govern- 
ment, magistrates at a distance from London were able 
to exercise with impunity. Where he could not legally 
interfere was in those violations of established order in 
which some of the more audacious Quakers indulged. It 
matters little. The Quakers, meanwhile, were quite right 
in attributing to his governmental sanction the ugly 

250 The House of Cromwell. 

machinery of a dominant clergy, under which they suffered 
most cruelly. He became — we can hardly doubt it — 
more fully sensible of the reigning evil when failing health 
and foreign complications left him no further time for 
organic reforms. 

The effect on the ministers themselves was still more 
morally disastrous. They supported the Protector's 
authority so long as it lasted, and then, as one man, fell 
prostrate at the feet of returning Royalism, having done 
their utmost to bring it about in pure dread of the 
encroachments of Quakerism. And their official repre- 
sentatives and successors to the present hour revile the 
Protector and all his works. 

The crucial test of the Act of Uniformity proved the 
personal worth of many of them as men and as Christians, 
and so far forth reflected credit on the system which 
placed them in office ; and if that crucial test did not at 
once bring the expelled Two Thousand round to the 
platform of John Milton and the Quakers, it at least gave 
positivism to those principles which, by a slower routine, 
will eventually show that platform to be the only honest 
and victorious one. Strange was the destiny of the 
Puritan poet. Led, like his illustrious friend, the Puritan 
captain, away from the path which he had originally 
chosen into other scenes and controversies which were 
necessary for his mental education, he proved in his own 
case the wisdom of that friend's axiom — how feeble is 
human forecast when compared with the faith which asks 
where the next footstep shall be planted ! If the Civil 
War had brought forth no other fruit than John Milton's 
controversial writings, the crop might well challenge the 
benediction of all succeeding ages. His polemics were as 
far in advance of the pulpit of his day, or of our own, 
either, as the intelligent patriotism of the Protector went 
ahead of the crotchets of his Parliaments. Not a few of 
his compatriots of the present generation have this con- 

Church Policy of Oliver Cromwell. 251 

viction profoundly seated in their hearts, and their own 
forced and temporary inaction is rendered just support- 
able by the thought that the words of the master ready 
stand, waiting like Samson's foxes, so soon as the 
Philistines' harvest shall be fully ripe, to run in and set 
the field on fire. 

For two hundred years the exaltation of John Milton's 
poetry has been made by his pseudo-admirers the means 
of smothering his authority as a divine. In an epic or 
lyric form he may be tolerated in the most fastidious 
drawing-room — pictorially edited or plain — illuminated or 
obscured, as the case may be, by distracting quotations 
from heathen writers or the microscopic revelations of 
commentators. There is only one proviso to be observed 
— his orthodox writings must never be bound up with his 

But this apocryphal divinity of John Milton will yet be 
the death of idolatry. Absorbing all that was crystalline 
in George Fox, all that was practicable in Puritanism, 
and all that was gallant in good citizenship, he sets forth 
Christianity as hostile indeed to lawless tyranny, but in 
no sense uncongenial with national self-assertion — rather, 
indeed, as the sole guarantee of a people's advance. 
Priestcraft by a law of necessity withers beneath his touch, 
and God's true heroes stand out in celestial relief. The 
sacerdotalists to a man instinctively recoil from his pages, 
but they will never be permitted to forget that the 
anatomist who has gibbeted their cause, and their martyrs, 
too, in perennial infamy, was the sublimest of poets and 
the ripest of scholars, the most logical controversialist 
and the most finished Latinist — a man of child-like faith, 
serenest valour, and harmonious soul. Vain is it for one 
traducer after another to tell us how he was ignominiously 
" vomited forth of the University," or to picture him as 
destitute of natural affection. His position in the heavens 
is fixed and eternal. His imperial friend and himself 


The House of Cromwell. 

stand out as the Castor and Pollux of a storm-ridden sky, 
nor has their lustre yet reached its culmination. Oliver 
once threatened that the guns of England should be 
heard under the walls of the Vatican. The guns of 
England in those days, simple Puritan guns though they 
were, were sufficiently eloquent to awake in the sacerdotal 
breast the desire, as John Dryden expresses it, " Behind 
more Alps to stand, although an Alexander were her 



MEMBERS of the Cromwell stock, though they 
are still numerous in North America, have 
to a great extent died out of the old country. 
This remark is made, not in reference to 
the Protectoral branch only, but to various offshoots 
parting company with the central stem of the Midland 
Counties before Oliver became conspicuous, and now 
only dimly traceable through earl)- parish registers, testa- 
mentary documents, and ecclesiastical presentations. And 
some of these evidences, it may be observed, crop up 
in very unsuspected quarters. For instance, there are 
several such existing in the registers of rural parishes 
round Devizes in Wiltshire, as well as in the neighbouring 
county of Somerset, and in the city of Bath, as already 
mentioned. Moreover, the title has disappeared from the 
peerage. But Cromwell, as a patronymic, is not the only 
illustrious name which has been gradually suffering eclipse ; 
and we must rest contented with the assurance that its 
memory at least will never die. Not a few cases of dis- 
appearance arose from the action of sundry cautious or 
prejudiced individuals, in the era of reaction, discarding 
the name of Cromwell and reassuming the family alias of 

254 The House of Cromwell. 

Williams ; but still more from the practice, which early- 
set in, of emigration to New England and Maryland. In 
that country there would be little temptation in after-times 
to put the name under a bushel. The tendency would be 
rather the other way ; and the result has been, as stated 
above, that Cromwells are now found scattered over the 
Eastern States ; they have even penetrated California. 
Mark Noble quotes the " History of Massachusetts Bay " 
as authority for the existence of a valiant and wealthy 
buccaneer, known in the Western seas as Captain Cromwell, 
who died at Boston as far back as " about 1646." We are 
not to suppose that the old sea-rover went thither in 
pursuit of religious freedom ; but in less than a dozen 
years after his death we have abundant evidence in the 
Land Agency Office of Annapolis of the presence of more 
permanent and law-abiding settlers bearing the same 
name — of whom more anon. At a still earlier period than 
the above — namely, in James I.'s time — Henry Cromwell 
of Upwood, third son of Sir Henry Cromwell of Hinchin- 
broke, had interested himself in the settlement of Virginia, 
and was one of the " adventurers " who advanced money 
to cultivate that province. The fictitious story of Oliver 
Cromwell's being frustrated by royal mandate, when at- 
tempting to embark for America, no doubt obtained 
popular currency from the known fact that so many of his 
name from time to time pursued the like course. The 
principal point of attraction seems to have been Maryland 
rather than New England, for the following reason. As 
the Lords Baltimore had in succession procured for their 
territory in Maryland charters favourable to religious 
freedom, in the interests of those who, like themselves, 
held the Romish faith, sober Protestants shared in the 
privilege ; so that it came to pass that members of the 
Church of England, who were excluded by rigid Puritanism 
from Massachusetts, and Puritans, on the other hand, who 
found Virginia too hot for them, alike found refuge in this 

The Cromwells of America. 255 

intermediate province. Other inducements to colonize the 
Baltimore territory were made from time to time. It was 
understood that fifty acres, more or less, were free to all 
comers, and that everyone might claim it, whether rich or 
poor. Here is an early entry from the Annapolis records : 
In 1653 " Geessam [Gershom ?] Cromwell demands land 
for his own transportation and for the transportation of 
his wife and daughter " (liber iv., folio 49). Annapolis 
is the county town of Anne-Arundel, and capital of the 
State of Maryland ; from the city of Baltimore it is 
distant about eighteen miles. 

The question that Americans, then, naturally ask is : 
" Whence did these early Cromwellians spring ? Do we or 
do we not possess amongst us the direct descendants of the 
Protector ? Our own personal tastes — the tastes, that is 
to say, of some of us — together with various family tradi- 
tions, seem to point to an affirmative issue ; though, after 
the lapse of two centuries, the documentary evidence has 
confessedly become obscure and intricate." 

In answering this question, it will be well to commence 
by removing certain misconceptions ; and first, in respect 
of cognate descent from the Protector through the Clay- 
poole connection. Although it is an indisputable fact that 
the children of Elizabeth Claypoole, Cromwell's second 
daughter, died without issue, the belief, nevertheless, long 
prevailed in the States, owing to the number and promi- 
nence of Claypooles there resident, that the link was well 
authenticated. The owners of the name, it is presumed, 
are by this time pretty well disabused of the conception ; 
but it may be interesting to make a short digression in 
their favour, before treating of the Cromwells proper. 
First, as furnishing a creditable set-off against the moral 
shadow cast by Mark Noble on the memory of John Clay- 
poole, the Protector's son-in-law ; and secondly, as as- 
sociating the name with the triumphant march of American 

256 The House of Cromwell. 

James Claypoole, the brother of John, quitted the old 
country for New England when somewhat advanced in 
years ; but previous to that event his eldest son John, 
having become intimate with William Penn, had accom- 
panied the philanthropist to Philadelphia in 1682, in the 
capacity of surgeon. In 1689 he was holding the more 
prominent office of Sheriff of Philadelphia. In Penn's 
Diary are preserved one or more letters confirmatory of 
this friendship. John's grandson William was the husband 
of Elizabeth Griscom, who, as " Betsey Claypoole," long 
carried on the upholstery business in Philadelphia, and 
was the maker of the first American standard flag. In 
this first standard she arranged the thirteen stars in a 
circle, and the form of her star, with its five points, is still 
retained throughout the States. Her house of business 
was No. 239, Arch Street, and was still standing in 1885. 
In Harper's Magazine for July, 1873, may be seen a 
narrative of George Washington's visit to her establish- 
ment in 1777, in company with George Ross of Maryland 
(who was her brother-in-law). Betsey Claypoole died in 
l8 33, aged eighty-six years, and the flag-making business 
continued for some time to be carried on by her daughter 
Clarissa Claypoole ; but this lady, as a member of the 
Society of Friends, becoming increasingly unwilling that 
her handiwork should be utilized for belligerent objects, 
eventually relinquished the occupation. 

Returning to James Claypoole, with whom we began, 
an extract from a letter of his, written in England in 1682, 
preserved in the Philadelphia Historical Society, ma)- here 
be recited. " My eldest son John," says he, " is going 
away this week in the Amity, R. Dymond, Pens., to be 
assistant-surgeon to William Penn. I have bought five 
thousand acres of land, and have fitted John out with all 
things necessary. His employment is very creditable, and 
if he is diligent and sober, may come in a few years' time 
to be very profitable. ... I have a great drawing in my 

The Cromwells of America. 257 

own mind to remove thither with my family ; so that I am 
given up, if the Lord clears my way, to be gone next 
Spring, — it may be, about a year hence." 

Pursuant to this " drawing " towards a land of freedom, 
James Claypoole, in the following year, reached Phila- 
delphia by the ship Concord, carrying with him his wife 
Helena, his four remaining sons — James, Nathaniel, 
George, and Joseph — and his three daughters — Mary, 
Helena, and Priscilla ; besides five servants. From this 
stock numerous representatives have branched off in 
various directions, and their annals, we feel assured, can 
well afford to stand on their own merits. We now go on 
with the representatives of the Cromwell name. 

In meeting a second misconception, it will hardly be 
necessary to warn the reader off from Negroland. Yet it 
may not pass unnoticed, that among the commercial an- 
nouncements made by persons of this name in Philadel- 
phian and other newspapers and directories, the advertisers 
not unfrequently turn out, upon inquiry, to belong to the 
coloured race. Nor must we blame the innocent ambition 
of men who, after emancipation from the condition in 
which they were known only as Tom or Nick, and finding 
themselves at liberty to adopt their own patronymics, 
sought to identify themselves with such houses as Raleigh, 
Trevelyan, Sydney, Russell, Talbot, or Cromwell ; besides 
that in many cases they did but call themselves after 
their own masters. If this explanation suffice not, more 
domestic consanguinity will not be worth the tracking. 

There were two principal Cromwellian groups in Mary- 
land — those of Baltimore City and those of Cecil County. 
The former were the earliest on the scene by perhaps half 
a century, though other arrivals would naturally occur 
from time to time, claiming clanship with their pre- 
decessors, and intermarrying with them, other kindred 
families associated with them being those of Hammond, 
Bond, Rattenbury, Woolghist, Trahearne, Wilson, etc. 


258 The House of Cromwell. 

With the Cecil County group, who went over near the 
middle of the eighteenth century, descent from Oliver 
Protector is out of the question, since the pedigree of the 
Protectoral house at that period is thoroughly well known 
and definitely recorded. If existing anywhere, it must be 
sought among those of the previous century. 

The first oral tradition to be noticed is that of Miss 
Katharine Cromwell, of Washington, living in 1885, and 
who, if still alive, must be ninety-four years of age. Her 
statement is to the effect " that among the individuals 
constituting an early colony of Cromwells, Hammonds, 
and Bonds, the eldest of the Bonds was named Peter, and 
that one of the Cromwells was a William, born in the old 
country in 1678, and dying in 1735, and that his wife's 
name was Mary." All very true, probably, and seemingly 
built on transmitted dates. We have to see how far it 
dovetails with other facts. Miss Cromwell is aunt to 
Mr. Thomas Cromwell, of 906, First Street, N. W. Wash- 

A more positive narrative rests on the testimony of 
Mrs. Sidney Norris, residing at Olney, near Ilchester, in 
Howard County, Maryland (born Elizabeth, daughter of 
Richard Cromwell, of Baltimore, M.D.), a lady con- 
spicuous for her intelligent interest in the ancestral story. 
Here we are first introduced to a barrister, named Richard 
Cromwell, practising in Huntingdonshire in England, 
whose three sons (keeping an eye on the Annapolis 
records), John, William, and Richard, were grown men 
in 1670. But what was the exact era of this Huntingdon 
barrister? His age would very well fit in with that of 
Richard, the son of Sir Philip Cromwell, born in 1617 
(Noble's " Protectoral House," i. 357), but that Richard 
seems to have left a daughter only. This solution failing 
us, it must be admitted that there is no other printed 
record capable of supplying the want ; and we must there- 
fore suppose him to be one of the (then) numerous Crom- 

The Cromwclls of America. 259 

wells whose memorial is still shrouded in a parish register. 
Neither may we identify him with Richard, son of Henry 
Cromwell, the Lord - Lieutenant of Ireland, for that 
Richard, being born in 1665, could not have been the 
father of sons grown up in 1670, even if it could be shown 
that any of Henry's children ever went to America. It 
has, indeed, been suggested that Richard and William, 
sons of the Lord-Lieutenant, becoming, like the rest of 
their brothers and sisters, unfortunate, were dropped out 
of notice by the family biographers, and that the story of 
their obscure and early deaths might more truly have 
taken the form of emigration to America ; but as there 
were already on the Transatlantic scene still older persons 
bearing their name, they really are not wanted to help us 
out of the difficulty, and we may therefore go on with 
Mrs. Norris's narrative. 

Richard Cromwell, though he appears never to have 
set foot in America, acquired the grant of a large estate in 
Frederick County, subsequently known as Cromwell's 
Manor. He was also one of the largest, if not the very 
largest landowner in Baltimore, and the estates thus 
acquired, together with town-houses in Baltimore City, 
are still enjoyed by his descendants, who are persons of 
good fortune and standing. The family carried over with 
them from the old country a large stock of household 
plate, engraved with a Cromwell coat-of-arms. There is 
no trace of Richard's will in America. A search at Peter- 
borough, in England, would probably bring it to light. 
The next in descent to be noticed is : 

John Cromwell, styled " of Fairfield," one of the 
Baltimore estates. He married Elizabeth Todd, and had 
three sons, namely : 

I. Richard, of whom presently. 

II. Colonel Thomas Cromwell, of Bedford County, 
Pennsylvania, where, about 1785, in conjunction with 
partners, he established the first iron-works, west of 

260 The House of Cromwell. 

the Susquehanna. In 1787, a new county being 
formed out of a part of Bedford, Colonel Cromwell, 
being on the Commission, caused it to be named 
Huntingdon, and one of its townships is called Crom- 
well. Descendants of this gentlemen are believed to 
be still extant. 

III. John Cromwell, M.D., died s.p. 
Richard Cromwell, of Fairfield. A will bearing his 
name, preserved at Annapolis, August 17, 1717, mentions 
Elizabeth as the name of his wife, and Richard and John 
as his two sons, while Thomas Cromwell is the name of a 
cousin. By this will slaves are bequeathed, but no real 
estates are devised. One of the legacies is that of a negro 
girl to Margaret Rattenbury, and after her death to 
Hannah Rattenbury and her heirs for ever (!) The next in 
succession is : 

John Cromwell, of Fairfield, who marries Hannah 
Rattenbury (Hannah was born in 1704), and is subse- 
quently represented by another Richard of Baltimore, 
M.D., father (by Miss Hammond) of Mrs. Norris afore- 
said. But it is evident that two or more generations 
have been lost sight of in this sketch, and as there were 
divers contemporary kinsmen, it may be as well to com- 
plete this section by recording the titles of the Cromwell 
charters, etc., preserved in the Land Office at Annapolis, 
not hitherto referred to : 

1670. A warrant, granted 19th December, to George 
Yale for 600 acres. Three hundred of them, bearing the 
name of " Cromwell's Adventure," are at the same time 
assigned to John and William Cromwell, of Calvert 
County (liber xvi., folio. 151). Sixty - five years later 
" Cromwell's Adventure " is re-surveyed for William's two 
grandsons, William and John. 

1680. Will of William Cromwell, signed by himself and 
his wife, Elizabeth Trahearn. Mention is made of two 
brothers, John and Richard; of two sons, William and 

The Cromwells of America. 261 

Thomas, though there were others. The lands willed are 
" Cromwell's Adventure," " Mascall's Hope," and " Hunt- 
ing Quarter." Will proved 3rd March, 1684-85. 

1723. Will of Thomas Cromwell. Two sons are men- 
tioned, Thomas and Oliver. The lands devised are " Ken- 
sey," to his brother John Ashman ; " Oliver's Chance," to 
John Cromwell ; " Maiden's Chance " and " Oliver's Range," 
with " Cromwell's Chance," to the two sons. Proved in 
the same year ; but the four exors., William Cromwell and 
John Ashman, two cousins, viz., John Cromwell and 
George Bailey, together with his eldest son, all immedi- 
ately after resigned the office. No reason stated. 

1731 or 1733. " South Canton," being a part of the 
Fairfield estate, granted to Robert Clarkson in 1680, is 
now assigned to Captain John Cromwell. 

1733. Will of John Cromwell. Four children men- 
tioned — Margaret, John, Hannah, and Anne. Lands 
willed are : Three tracts in ' Gunpowder Forest," called 
" Cromwell's Park," "Cromwell's Chance," and "Crom- 
well's Addition." The land formerly held by Thomas 
Cromwell in " Whetstone Neck " to be sold for his debts. 
His wife Hannah (Rattenbury) executrix. Proved 9th 
May, 1734. The widow re-married within the same year 
William Worthington, at St. Paul's. 

1730. Will of William Cromwell. Four sons, William, 
Alexander, Joseph, and Woolghist. Lands willed: "The 
Deer Park " and " Cromwell's Enlargement." Witnesses : 
John Cromwell, Joshua Cromwell, and George Ashman. 
Proved 12th February, 1735. 

1745. Will of John Rattenbury, in favour of his 
nephew, John Cromwell. 

1813. " South Canton " and " Hay-Meadow," two 
portions of Fairfield, re-surveyed, and patented as one 
tract for Richard, son of John Cromwell (by Elizabeth 

It now remains to take note of the Cromwells of Cecil 

262 The House of Cromwell. 

County, and of their offshoot in Kentucky. Here we have 
to begin with Thomas Cromwell, of Huntingdonshire, in the 
old country, who in the early part of the eighteenth century 
married a Welsh lady, named Venetia Woolgrish, or Wool- 
ghist, and himself died in England, leaving two surviving 
sons, John Hammond Cromwell and Vincent Cromwell, 
who, with their widowed mother, passed over to America in 
1763 to join the Cromwells of Baltimore, with whom they 
claimed kinship, and apparently had full warranty for so 
doing. The elder son at that time was twenty years of 
age, and Vincent was eleven. The family at first located 
themselves at Port Tobacco, in the southern part of Mary- 
land, but eventually secured an abiding-place on the ridge 
of an imposing plateau called Mount Pleasant, in Cecil 
County, in the north-east corner of the State ; their own 
particular domain bearing the name of Cromwell's Moun- 
tain, subsequently corrupted into " Cromley's Mountain," 
for such is the name of the neighbouring railway-station 
on the Columbia and Port Deposit line. The quaint old 
family residence, which still dominates this tableland, 
stands in the midst of a farm of 300 acres, at a spot 
between the main road and the Susquehanna River, and 
about a mile and a half from Rowlandville Station on the 
Philadelphia and Baltimore Central Railway. It is con- 
structed partly of stone, but principally of timber, sheathed 
with clap-boards and surmounted by a gambrel roof. 
Inside the house the walls of the rooms are scored all 
over in diamond pattern, and the floors are, from 
age and settlement, far from level. The founders of the 
house sheltered it with Lombardy poplars ; but perhaps 
the most interesting feature of the place is a quadrangular 
enclosure not far from the house, surrounded by a box 
hedge six feet in height. This is the family cemetery, and 
here may be spelt out the brief memorials of many a 
Henry, a Venetia, an Oliver, or a Henrietta of the illus- 
trious clan. 

The Cromwells of America. 26 


Here lived and died the elder of the two brothers afore- 
said, John Hammond Cromwell. His wife's name was 
Mary Hammond Dorsay. His children were : I. Henrietta 
Maria, who married Reuben Reynolds, and became the 
mother of Dr. John Cromwell Reynolds, surgeon of the 
U.S. army, and others. By her second husband, John 
Briscoe, of Kent County, Maryland, there was also issue. 
II. Matilda, married to Mr. Harlan. III. Frances. 
IV. Delia, married to Richard H. Keene, of Kentucky, all 
of whom left descendants. His will, which was proved 
October 12, 1819, is registered at Elkton (lib. G. G., 
No. 7, folio 309). The old family house, which it seems he 
had named " Success," he leaves in succession to the 
Harlan family, and then to Dr. John Cromwell Reynolds 
aforesaid. It is still occupied by relatives ; but, as he had 
no sons, the name of Cromwell has there died out. One of 
his surviving representatives is Mrs. Stacey, of Oswego, 
in New York State, wife of Colonel M. H. Stacey, of the 
U.S. army. Among other provisions of his will, Mr. 
Cromwell frees his slaves. 

Now, in respect of Vincent, the younger brother of John 
Hammond Cromwell, he appears to have moved into the 
neighbouring State of Kentucky (where, in fact, both the 
brothers had acquired estates), settling near Lexington 
about 1793, where he died in the same year as his brother, 
1819. By his wife, Rachel Wilson, he had eleven children, 
as follows : 

I. John, born 1781, whose descendants live in 

II. Benjamin, born 1782. His children were: 
(1) John; (2) Oliver; (3) Alvin ; (4) William; 
(5) Howard ; (6) Vincent ; (7) Marcus ; (8) Caroline ; 
(9) Nancy. Of this group, John was recently reported 
as living at the age of eighty. Oliver, the second son, 
must be the gentleman who, a few years back, while 
passing through Cape Town on a cosmopolitan tour, 

264 The House of Cromwell. 

attracted so much notice by his characteristic bearing 
and physiognomy, that a resident artist — Mr. Barnard 
— was happy to secure several photographs from him. 
III. Joseph, of Lexington, in Missouri, where his 
descendants still flourish. 

IV., V., VI. Joshua, Vincent, and Oliver ; this last 
possibly identical with the Oliver Cromwell of Caro- 
lina who, in 1828, published a poem entitled " The 
Soldier's Wreath," in celebration of General Jackson's 
defence of New Orleans. 

VII., VIII., IX., X., XI. Sarah, Rebecca, Hannah, 
Rachel, and Mary. One of these daughters was the 
mother of the present Hon. Cromwell Adair, of 
Kentucky. Hannah, the third mentioned, married 
Nathaniel Ford, whose daughter is the wife of H. 
Hammond Randolph. Mrs. Ford died in 1881, at 
the age of ninety-two. 
During the War of Independence, two names con- 
spicuous on the American side were Captain William 
Cromwell and Major Stephen Cromwell, both from the 
vicinity of Baltimore City. A third member of the family 
was John Cromwell — who entertained at his house near 
" Rye Pond," New York, Generals Washington and 
Lafayette — described as a descendant of John, cousin of 
the Protector, and son to Sir Oliver, of Hinchinbroke. 

Sidney Cromwell, in 1776, at New York, published an 
essay entitled " Political Opinions." 

Mrs. C. T. Cromwell, in 1849, was the author of " Over 
the Ocean ; or, Glimpses of Travel in Many Lands " ; 
New York. 

A final notice may be taken of the name of Hammond, 
which, it will have been observed, is frequently found in 
connection with the American Cromwells, as it had also 
been in England. This ancient and knightly family, Mark 
Noble observes, were greatly divided in their religious and 
political opinions. The most notable historical figure 

The Cromwells of A?7ierica. 265 

among them is, perhaps, Robert Hammond, the guardian 
of Charles I. in the Isle of Wight ; but there is no reason 
to conclude that the Major-General John Hammond, who 
held office in Maryland under Queen Anne, was other than 
the descendant of a Royalist. An entry in the register of 
St. Anne's, Annapolis, states that he was buried by James 
Walton, the Rector of that parish, November 29, 1707, 
who describes him as " the Honourable John Hammond, 
Esq., Major-General of the Province of Maryland, Western 
Shore, and one of her Majesty's Most Honourable Council, 
and Judge of the High Court of Admiralty in the said 
province." The funeral took place, not at Annapolis, but 
on the Hammond estate, three miles from that city, where 
the inscription on his tombstone is still legible, and states 
that he died in the sixty-fourth year of his age. He 
married a daughter of Colonel Greenberry, and left 
descendants at Baltimore, who were subsequently joined 
by other English emigrants of the same name. One of 
the race still living — viz., William A. Hammond, M.D., 
Surgeon-General in the army — has a name of great and 
deserved eminence in the States. 

For the gathering of the above facts I am entirely 
indebted to the industrious courtesy of P. S. P. Conner, 
Esq., of 126, South 18th Street, Philadelphia, who has 
long been on intimate terms with various members of the 
Cromwell house, and whose intelligent interest in historical 
matters eminently qualifies him for the task of sifting 
evidence. His principal informant was Mr. William H. 
Corner, connected by marriage with the Baltimore Crom- 
wells. One of Mr. Corner's friends, Mr. William Henry 
Cromwell, of Philadelphia, deriving from the Cromwells 
of Road, near Frome, in Somerset county, England, bears 
an unmistakable resemblance to Oliver the Protector ; 
and yet the Somerset Cromwells do not derive from Oliver 
direct, but rather from Sir Philip, his uncle. There can 
be little doubt that the early progenitors of this race must 

266 The House of Cromwell. 

have been distinguished by personal traits of a very pro- 
nounced character ; and as it is a known fact that ancestral 
resemblances, both mental and physical, do occasionally 
crop up after protracted intervals, there is no reason why 
the vera effigies of his Highness should not reappear 
amongst us from time to time. Sir Walter Scott has 
made use of this physiological tendency in his romance of 
" Red Gauntlet." Some have thought that the Protector's 
countenance is traceable in the Addison family, of Soham, 
who descend from him through Henry, the Lord- 
Lieutenant of Ireland. 



Acklom, Jonathan, m. Mary Con- 
stable, 170 ; issue : 

Richard, Ann Elizabeth [see 

Neville), Mary, Lucy (see Constable, 

Charles), Rosamund, 170 
Adair, Hon. Cromwell, 264 
Adams, Lucy Ducarel, daughter of 

Francis Adams, m. Sir William 

Adolphus Frankland, 159 
Addison, Elizabeth (v. D'Aye), m. 

Thomas Addison, of Soham, 50 ; 

issue : 

Mary, Elizabeth (see Hill), Mary 

Russell (see Sunman), Russell (see 

below) Thomas, Frances,\Villiam, 50 
Addison, Russell, 51 
Addison, William, son of above, 51 ; 

issue : 

Thomas Russell, William Oliver 

Cromwell, 51 (issue : Charles 

William, Charlotte Barnby, Frank, 

Edith Maud); Henrietta Fox, 51 

(see D'Eye) 
Agar-Ellis, Lady Caroline Elizabeth, 

daughter of the Earl of Normanton, 

m. Edward, fifth Earl of Clarendon, 

Ampthill, Odo William Leopold 

Russell, Baron Ampthill of, m. 

Emily Theresa Villiers, 181 ; issue : 
Arthur Oliver Villiers, Victor 

Alexander Frederick, Alexander 

Victor Frederick, Constance Evelyn 

Villiers, 181 
Anti-Corn-Law League, the Right 

Hon. Charles Pdham Villiers and 

the, 176, 177 ; Lord Clarendon and 

the, 1S0 

Armstrong, Avarilla Aphra, m. Arte- 

midorus Cromwell Russell, 68 
Armstrong, Mary Esther (v. Russell 

of Cheshunt), m. General George 

Andrew Armstrong, 6S 
Ashburnham, Lady Theodosia Maria, 

m. Robert Vyner of Gautby, 175 
Ashton, Captain John, father of Sir 

Thomas Frankland Lewis's second 

wife, 142 
Ashton, Julia, daughter of Job 

Ashton, m. Hugh Rerners, 108 
Astley, Lieut. - Colonel Francis 

L'Estrange, m. Rosalind Alicia 

Frankland (second wife), now Mrs. 

P>ankland Russell Astley, 157 ; 

issue : 

Bertram Reginald, Hubert 

Delaval, Reginald Basil, 157 

Barham, Lady Katharine, daughter of 
Walter James, first Earl of Verulam, 
relict of John Barham, m. George, 
first Earl of Clarendon, 180 
Barnard, Alfred, 100 
Barnard, Alfred Francis, too 
Barnard, Francis Fierrepont, loo 
Barnard, Henry Boldero, m. Sarah 
Elizabeth Gee, 164 ; issue : 

Henry Gee, Charles Lewyns, 
164 ; Edward William (issue : 
Edward Charles Gee, Rosamund, 
Caroline), 165 ; Sarah Eleanor (see 
Delpratt), 165 
Barnard, Thomas, IOO 
Barnard, William, second husband 

of Jane Ireton, 100; issue, ibid. 
Barnard, Win., grandson of above, 100 


The House of Cromwell. 

Barrington, Hon. and Rev. Lowther 
John, m. Katharine Georgiana 
Pelham, 162 

Barron, Anne, daughter of Edward 
Barron of Northiam, m. Francis 
John Field, 73 

Barron, Esther, daughter of E. 
Barron, m. Henry Field, 71 

Barton, Catherine, second wife of 
Rich Russell, 127 

Barton, Elizabeth, cousin to Oliver, 
second son of the Protector Richard, 

Baudouin, Anne, daughter of Rene 
Baudouin, second wife of Sir 
Thomas Frankland, third Bart., 
afterwards relict of Adam Car- 
donnel, and first wife of Frederick 
Meinhardt Frankland, 132 

Baxendale, Mr., the Hursley estate 
passed to in 1894, 40 

Beadnell, Alfred George Streatfield, 
m. Beatrice Mary Polhill, 99 ; 
issue : 

Montgomery Polhill Beadnell, 99 

Beke, Major Richard, m. the Pro- 
tector's niece Levina, 186 

Bell, Constance, daughter of Matthew 
Bell, m. Frederick Thomas Whin- 
yates, 147 

Bell, Jane, daughter of Mr. Bell, m. 
Wynyard Huddleston Warner, 70 

Bellasyse, Arabella, m. Sir William 
Frankland, 130 

Bendysh, Henry, 107 ; issue : 

Henry, Mary (see Berners), Eliza- 
beth (see Hagar), 107 

Bendysh, Thomas, m. Bridget Ireton, 

Bentinck, William, eldest son of Lord 
Edward Charles Cavendish Ben- 
tinck, m. Frances Elizabeth Con- 
stable, 170 

Berners, Charles, 108 ; issue : 

Charles, Henry Denny (see below), 
William (issue : William, Henry, 
Arthur), Martha (see Jarrett), 108 

Berners, Rev. Henry Denny, 108 ; 
issue : 

John, Hugh (issue), Ralph (issue), 
Alice, 10S 

Berners, William, m. Mary Bendysh, 
107 ; issue : 

Charles (see above), Henry (issue : 
Emma), 108 

Birkbeck, Robert, m. Mary Harriet 
Lubbock, 167 

Blackden, Catharine, daughter of B. 

Blackden, m. Henry Francis 

Worsley, 168 
Blackden, J. C, m. Isabella Worsley 

(issue), 168 
Bligh, Eliza Mary, daughter of the 

Hon. Sir John Duncan Bligh, m. 

Walter John, fourth Earl of 

Chichester, 162 
Bonner, Blanche Frances, daughter of 

Major-General Bonner, m. Herbert 

Cromwell Collier, 153 
Boringdon, John Parker, first Baron, 

m. Theresa, daughter of Thomas, 

first Lord Grantham, 172 ; issue : 
John, second Baron and Earl 

of Morley, Theresa (see Villiers), 

Borrett, Elizabeth, daughter of John 

Borrett of Shoreham, third wife of 

David Polhill, 98 
Borthwick, Algernon, Baron, m. Alice 

Beatrice Lister (issue), 179 
Bourchier, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir 

James Bourchier, of Felsted, Essex, 

m. Oliver Cromwell (see Elizabeth, 

the Protectress), 19 
Bourchier, Sir James, 19, 22, 86 
Bowles, Dinah, fifth daughter of 

Admiral Sir Thomas Frankland, 

m. William Bowles, 143 ; issue : 
William, Admiral, K.C.B., 140, 

141, 144; George, G.C.B. ; Thomas, 

Henry, Anne (see Fowler), Lucy, 

Charlotte, Harriet, Katharine, 

Amelia, Augusta, 145 
Briscoe, John, second husband of 

Henrietta Maria Cromwell, 263 

Bromley, Sir Thomas, Lord Chan- 
cellor of England, father of Sir 

Oliver Cromwell's first wife, 15 
Brown, Henry Alexander, m. Diana 

Caroline Hotham, 166 
Bruce, Louisa, daughter of William 

Bruce, m. Thomas H. W. Pelham, 

Brudenell, Mary, daughter of Robert, 

sixth Earl of Cardigan, m. Henry 

Thomas, third Earl of Chichester, 

Buller, Caroline, daughter of Rev. 

William Buller, m. John Barrington 

Pelham, 162 
Bulwer-Lytton, Sir Edward, m. 

Edith Villiers, 177; Viceroy of 

India, 1S2 ; issue : 



Rowland Edward, Henry Mere- 
dith Edward, another son, Eliza- 
beth Edith, Constance Georgina, 
Emily, 182 

Bunhill Fields, Cromwells buried at, 

Burghersh, Lady Augusta Selina 
Elizabeth, relict of Ernest Fitzroy 
Neville, Lord Burghersh, m. 
Thomas, sixth Baron Walsingham, 

Burn, Augusta Sophia (r*. Russell of 
Cheshunt), m. Robert Burn, 67 

Burroughs, Mrs. Jane, daughter of 
Jane Lloyd, 100 

Bush, Avarilla Oliveria Cromwell (v. 
Russell of Cheshunt), m. Rev. Paul 
Bush, 68 ; issue : 

Thomas Cromwell, Elizabeth 
Oliveria, James Graham, Paul 
Warner, Charles Cromwell, Char- 
lotte Mary Avarilla, Beatrice Maud, 
Herbert Cromwell, Ethel Julia, 
Gertrude Harriet Cromwell, Mabel 
Ottley, 68 

Buxton, Laura Priscilla, daughter 
of Sir Edward Buxton, m. Henry 
Francis Pelham, 162 

Callaghan, Grace Elizabeth, daughter 

of Grace Gosset, m. John Callaghan, 

154 (issue, see Palmer) 
Campbell, Elizabeth, of Ormisdale, 

wife of General Francis Frankland 

Whinyates, 147 
Campbell, Sir Alexander, m. Ilarriette 

Augusta Rover Collier, 154 
Cardonnel, Anne, relict of Adam 

Cardonnel, see Baud on in 
Carey, Katharine, daughter of General 

the Hon. Henry Carey, wife of Sir 

John Russell, eighth Bart., 130 
Carey, Katharine Henrietta, daughter 

of Roger Frankland, 141 
Carlyle, Thomas, vii-x, 1, 22,23, 3$) 

122, 185, 217 
Carncroft, Jane, m. Chief Justice 

Barron Field, 72 
Carter, Nathaniel, m. Mary Fleet- 
wood, 109 
Cayley, Anne, daughter of Sir Thomas 

Cayley, m. George Worsley, 168 
Cayley, Sarah Philadelphia, daughter 

of Sir George Cayley, m. William 

Worsley, 168 
Chadwick, James, m. Mary Tillotson, 

190 ; issue : 

George (issue, Evelyn), John, 
Mary (see Fowler), 190 

Chalmer, Sarah Mary Emily, daughter 
of Sarah Anne Catherina Whin- 
yates, m. Major Chalmer, 148 ; 
issue : 

Anna, Emily Eliza (see Cox), 
Catherine Frances, Charlotte Amy 
Rachel (see Lysaght), Georgina 
Isabella, Gilbert Stirling (issue : 
Henry Francis), Reginald, George, 
Francis, 148 

Chaplin, Emma, daughter of Roger 
Frankland, m. W. Chaplin, 141 

Cheese, Rev. Edward, m. Amy Maria 
Villiers, 178 

Chichester, Henry Thomas, third 
Earl of, 162 ; issue : 

Walter John, fourth Earl, 162 ; 
Francis Godolphin (issue : Jocelyn 
Brudenell, Ruth Mary, Henry 
George Godolphin, Anthony Ashlev 
Ivo, Herbert), 162 ; Thomas Henry 
William (issue : Mary Louisa), 
ibid. ; Arthur Lowther, Harriet 
Mary (see Darnley), 162 ; Susan 
Emma (see Smith), Isabella Char- 
lotte (sue Whitbread), 163 

Chichester, Thomas, second Earl of, 
161 ; issue : 

Mary, Henry Thomas, third Earl, 
Amelia Rose (see J ebb), 161 ; 
Frederick Thomas, Rear-Admiral 
(issue : Frederick John, Frederick 
Sidney, Constance Mary Kate, 
Emily Blanche, Beatrice Emily 
Julia, Kathleen Mary Maude), 161 ; 
John Thomas, Bishop (issue: Henry 
Francis, John Barnr.gton, Sidney, 
Herbert, Fanny), 161, 162 ; Hen- 
rietta Juliana, Katharine Georgiana 
(see Barrington), Lucy Ann (see 
Dundas), 162 

Chippenham, residence of Sir Francis 
Russell at, 43 ; Henry Cromwell 
retires to at the Restoration, 44 ; 
manor sold to the Earl of Orford, 
129 ; 48, 49 

Chiswick, Mary Cromwell died at, 
20, 121 ; house at bequeathed to 
Sir Thomas Frankland, 130 

Christmas, William, m. Octavia Whin- 
yates, 148 

Clarendon, George William Frederick 
Villiers, fourth Earl of and Baron 
Hyde, 179; diplomatic career, ibid.: 
Viceroy of Ireland, 180 ; issue : 


The House of Cromwell. 

Edward Hyde ; Edward Hyde, 
fifth Earl (issue, George Herbert 
Hyde), 180, 181 ; George Patrick 
Hyde, Francis Hyde, Constance 
(see Stanley), Alice [see Skelmers- 
dale), Emily Theresa (see Ampthill), 
Florence Margaret, 181 

Clark, Anne, daughter of John Shep- 
herd Clark, second wife of Robert 
Nicholas, 149 

Clarke, John, name assumed by the 
Protector Richard after his return 
from exile, 28, 35 

Claypoole, Clarissa, of Philadelphia, 

Claypoole, Cromwell, eldest son of 
Elizabeth Cromwell, 114 

Claypoole, Henry, second son of 
Elizabeth Cromwell, 114 

Claypoole, James, of New England, 
256, 257 ; his sons John, 256 (J ohn's 
grandson William, ibid.), James, 
Nathaniel, George, Joseph, 257, 
and daughters Mary, Helena, 
Priscilla, ibid. 

Claypoole, John, 21 ; m. Elizabeth 
Cromwell, no 

Claypoole, Martha, daughter of Eliza- 
beth Cromwell, 1 14 

Claypoole, Oliver, third son of Eliza- 
beth Cromwell, 114 

Clifton, Baron (see Darnley, Earl of) 

Cobb, Katharine, daughter of Thomas 
Cobb, m. Henry Pelham, 160 

Codrington, Samuel, m. Elizabeth 
Pyle, 100 

Cole, Henrietta Frances, daughter of 
William, first Earl of Enniskillen, 
m. Thomas, Earl de Grey, 174 

Collier, Harriet, daughter of Charlotte 
Nicholas, m. Admiral Henry Theo- 
dosius Browne Collier, 153 ; issue : 
George Baring Browne, Clarence 
Augustus, Herbert Cromwell, 153 ; 
Gertrude Barbara Rich {see Ten- 
nant), Harriet Augusta Royer (see 
Campbell), Adeline Letitia {see 
Gordon), Clementina Frances (see 

Coltman, William J., m. Philadelphia 
Worsley, 168 

Colville, Katharine, daughter of John, 
seventh Lord Colville of Culross, 
m. Roger Frankland, 140 

Compton, Katrine Cecilia, daughter 
of Lord William Compton, m. 
Francis, seventh Earl Cowper, 174 

Compton, Lord Alwyne, m. Mary 
Evelyn Vyne, 175 

Constable, Charles, 170 ; issue : Mary 
(see Strickland), 170 

Constable, Henry Strickland, 171 ; 
issue : 

Frederick Charles, Marmaduke, 
Ethel, Mary Sophia, Rosamund, 
Lucy Winifred, 171 

Constable, Marmaduke, m. Mary 
Worsley, 167 ; issue : 

Marmaduke Thomas (issue : 
Charles, see above, Marmaduke, 
Rachel Marian, see Salmond, 
Frances Elizabeth, see Bentinck, 
Sarah), Mary (see Acklom), Rosa- 
mund, 169, 170 

Cookson, Miss, daughter of W. Strick- 
land Cookson, m. Walter Field, 

? 8 
Corner, William H. , 265 

Cornewall, Harriet, fourth daughter 
of Sir George Cornewall, first wife 
of Sir Thomas Frankland Lewis, 

Corsbie, Mary, daughter of Jas. 
Corsbie, m. William Barnard, 100 

Coryton, Fanny Harriet, daughter of 
William Coryton, first wife of Hon. 
Thomas Villiers Lister, 178 

Courtenay, Rev. Henry Hugh, m. 
Anna Maria Leslie, 163 ; issue: 
Hen. Reginald, Hugh Leslie, 163 

Cowper, George Augustus Frederick, 
sixth Earl, m. Anne Florence Robin- 
son, Baroness Lucas, daughter of 
Earl de Grey, 174 ; issue : 

Francis Thomas de Grey, seventh 
Earl, Henry Frederick, Henrietta 
Emily Mary, Florence, Amabel 
(see Herbert), 174 ; Adine Eliza 
Anne (see Fane), Amabel (see Kerr), 

Cox, Captain P., m. Emily Eliza 

Chalmer, 148 (issue) 
Cox, Sophia Victoria, daughter of 

William Cox, m. Edward Barker 

Russell, 67 
Creyke, Stephen, m. Sarah Hotham, 

166 ; issue : 
Walter Pennington, Alexander 

Stephen, Alfred Richard, Caroline 

Julia, Diana Jane, Gertrude 

Hotham, 166 
Crompton, Elizabeth, daughter of 

Samuel Crompton, m. General Sir 

Edward Charles Whinyates, 146 



Cromwell, Anna, sister of the Pro- 
tector, m. John Sewster, 189; 

issue, ibid. 
Cromwell, Anna, sixth daughter of 

the Protector Richard (see Gibson, 

Mrs. Anna) 
Cromwell, Anne, second daughter of 

the Protector Richard, 3S 
Cromwell, Baron John de, Constable 

of the Tower, 1 
Cromwell, Baron Ralph de, Lord 

High Treasurer, 1 
Cromwell, Bridget, eldest daughter 

of the Protector, 20 ; marriage with 

Henry Irelon, 87 ; second marriage 

with Charles Fleetwood, 90; letters 

from her father to her, 93, 94 ; 

letter from her to Henry Cromwell, 

95 ; issue, 97-109 
Cromwell, Captain, buccaneer, 254 
Cromwell, Captain John, 261 
Cromwell, Captain William, 264 
Cromwell, Catharine, sister of the 

Protector, 1S6 ; m., first, Roger 

Whitstone, ibid. ; second, Colonel 

John Jones, 188 ; issue : 

(1) Henry, three other sons; 

Levina (see Beke), 186 
Cromwell, Dorothy, the Protectress, 

33-36 ; parentage and marriage, 37 ; 

death, ibid. : issue, ibid. 
Cromwell, Dorothy, third daughter 

of the Protector Richard, 29 
Cromwell, Dorothy, fifth daughter of 

the Protector Richard, 38 
Cromwell, Dorothy, seventh daughter 

of the Protector Richard, birth 

and marriage, 40 : death, 41 
Cromwell, Elizabeth, daughter of 

Walter, 7 
Cromwell, Elizabeth, sister of the 

Protector, 185 ; letter to from 

Oliver, 186 
Cromwell, Elizabeth, the Protectress, 

petition of, 20, 24, 35 
Cromwell, Elizabeth, second daughter 

of the Protector, 20, 93, no; 

m. John Claypoole, no; letter 

from to Lady Elizabeth Cromwell, 
112 ; death and burial, 113 ; issue, 
Cromwell, Elizabeth, daughters of the 
Lord-Lieutenant: (1) died young, 
(2) married William Russell (see 
Russell, Elizabeth) 
Cromwell, Elizabeth, eldest daughter 
of the Protector Richard, 37-39 

Cromwell, Elizabeth, of Hampstead, 
56, 59, 109 

Cromwell, Frances, fourth daughter of 
the Protector, 20, 21, 128 ; m. the 
Hon. Robert Rich, 123 ; and Sir 
John Russell, 126 ; issue, 127, 128 

Cromwell, Francis, younger son of 
Sir Richard, brother of " the 
Golden Knight," 17 ; possible 
descendants, ibid. 

Cromwell, Francis, third son of the 
Lord-Lieutenant, 48 

Cromwell, Geessan (? Gershom), of 
Annapolis, 255 

Cromwell, Henry, son of "the Golden 
Knight," 14, 17, 183; issue: 
Henry, 183 

Cromwell, Henry, fourth son of 
the Protector, 19, 21, 38 ; early 
career and marriage, 43 ; Lord- 
Lieutenant of Ireland, ibid. : death, 
44 ; conformed to the Established 
Church, 45 ; petition to Charles II., 
ibid. ; issue, 48 et seq. ; letter from 
Dr. Owen to, 89 ; correspondence 
with Lord Fauconberg, 117, 119; 
letter from Mary Cromwell to, 122 ; 
90, 116, 120 

Cromwell, Henry, the poet, 57 

Cromwell, Henry, eldest son of Sir 
Oliver, Royalist, 16 

Cromwell, Henry, son of above, 16 ; 
retook name of Williams and voted 
for Restoration, ibid. ; died a poor 
man, ibid. 

Cromwell, James, eldest grandson of 
Sir Oliver, a Colonel in the Royalist 
army, 16 

Cromwell, James, fifth son of the 
Protector, 19, 86 

Cromwell, Jane, sister of the Pro- 
tector, m. John Disbrowe, 190 

Cromwell, John, fuller, of Wimble- 
don, 2 

Cromwell, John, son of John the 

fuller, 3 ; will, 4 
Cromwell, John, son of Sir Oliver, 
sent by the Prince of Wales to 
intercede with his cousin Oliver for 
the King's life, 15 
Cromwell, John, described as a de- 
scendant of John, son of Sir Oliver 
of Hinchinbroke, 264 
Cromwell, John, of Fairfield, Balti- 
more, 259 ; issue : 

Richard, 259 ; issue : Richard, 
John (issue: Richard, M.D., of 


The House of Cromwell. 

Baltimore), 260 ; Thomas, John, 
M.D., 260 

Cromwell, John, will : children, Mar- 
garet, John, Hannah, Anne, 261 

Cromwell, John Hammond, son of 
Thomas Cromwell, of Huntingdon- 
shire, 262 ; issue : 

Henrietta Maria (see Reynolds, 
R., and Briscoe, J.), Matilda (see 
Harlan), Frances, Delia (see Keene, 
R. H.), 263 

Cromwell, Katharine, daughter of 
Walter, 7 ; m. Morgan Williams, 8 

Cromwell, Letitia, of Hampstead, 56, 
59, 109 

Cromwell, Major Henry, second son 
of the Lord-Lieutenant, 48, 52 ; 
marriage, 53 ; death, 54 ; issue : 

Oliver, Benjamin Hewling, 
Henry, William " of Kirby Street," 
Richard (see below), Henry, Thomas 
(see below), Oliver, Mary, Hannah, 

Cromwell, Major Stephen, 264 [55 

Cromwell, Margaret, sister of the 
Protector, m. (first wife) Colonel 
Valentine Wanton, 188 

Cromwell, Mary, third daughter of 
the Protector, 20, 44, 115; letter 
from to Mrs. Henry Cromwell, 53 ; 
m. Lord Fauconberg, 117; her 
beauty, 118; death, 121; letter 
from to Henry Cromwell, 122 

Cromwell, Mary, third daughter of 
the Protector Richard, 38 

Cromwell, Mr. Oliver, 101 

Cromwell, Mrs. C. T., 264 

Cromwell, Oliver, eldest son of Sir 
Henry "the Golden Knight," 14; 
entertains James I. and is knighted 
by him, ibid. ; wives and progeny, 
15 ; prodigal hospitality and sale of 
estates, ibid. ; 17 

Cromwell, Oliver, vii-x ; descended 
from Katharine, daughter of Walter 
Cromwell, 8 ; birth, baptism, edu- 
cation, early life, marriage, and 
entry into Parliament, 17-19 ; issue, 
19 ; unspeakable grief at the death 
of his eldest son, 23 ; death of his 
second son, 27 ; inquiries after a 
grandchild, 38 ; feeling of Henry 
Cromwell's wife towards him, 47 ; 
the last of his blood and name, 66 ; 
his body hung at Tyburn gallows, 
88 ; letters to his daughter Bridget, 
93, 94; letter to from Oliver 
St. John, 97 ; blood united with | 

that of Ireton and Hampden, 9S ; 
parental anxiety, 1 1 1 ; checkmates 
Jeremiah White, 124; the suitors 
of his daughter Frances, 123-126 ; 
brothers and sisters, 185 ; letter 
from to Elizabeth Cromwell, his 
sister, 186 ; anecdotes and traits, 
198-218 ; singular medal of, 219 ; 
corpse exhumed, 220 ; tablet in 
Westminster Abbey, 221 ; tomb of, 
222-224 ; head of, 224, 225 ; per- 
sonal relics, 226-231 ; portraits of, 
232-234 ; standard of, 235, 236 ; 
coins, 237-239 ; Church policy of, 

Cromwell, Oliver, second son of the 
Protector, 19, 22, 24, 25 ; letter 
from to the Steward of the City of 
Norwich, 26 ; death, 27 

Cromwell, Oliver, eldest son of the 
Lord-Lieutenant, 48 

Cromwell, Oliver, son of the Pro- 
tector Richard, 29 

Cromwell,01iver, second son of the Pro- 
tector Richard, 38, 39, 41 ; patriotic 
proposal, 41 ; rejected from Parlia- 
ment, ibid. ; death and will, 42 

Cromwell, Oliver, of Cheshunt, 59, 

63, 64-66 ; issue : [(see Russell) 

Oliver, Elizabeth Oliveria, 64 

Cromwell, Philip, son of " the Golden 
Knight," 14, 17 ; knighted by 
James I., 184 ; issue : 

Philip, Oliver, 184; Thomas 
(issue : Henry), 185 ; Richard, 
resumed name of Williams, ibid. 

Cromwell, Ralph de (sixth), of 
Lambley, Notts, 3 

Cromwell, Rear-Admiral Henry, 137 

Cromwell, Richard, son of "the 
Golden Knight," 183, 184 

Cromwell, Richard, third son of the 
Protector, 19, 21, 22, 27 ; career 
and death, 28, 29 ; character and 
disposition, 30-32 ; story of his 
twenty years' exile, 33-36 ; issue, 

37; 90 
Cromwell, Richard, fourth son of the 

Lord-Lieutenant, 48 
Cromwell, Richard, grandson of 

Henry, Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, 

3 8 
Cromwell, Richard, fifth son of Major 

Henry Cromwell, 57-59 ; issue : 

Robert, Oliver, Elizabeth, Anne, 

Eleanor, Letitia (see Elizabeth and 

Letitia of Hampstead), 59 



Cromwell, Richard, son of John, 

Cromwell, Richard, M.D., of Balti- 
more, 258, 260 ; daughter Eliza- 
beth, ibid. 

Cromwell, Richard, acquires land in 
America, 259 

Cromwell, Robert, second son of" the 
Golden Knight," 14, 17, 19 

Cromwell, Robert, eldest son of the 
Protector, 19 ; youth, 22 ; death, 
23 ; the Protector's grief, ibid. ; 
entry of burial, 24, 25 

Cromwell, Robina, sister of the Pro- 
tector, m., first, Dr. Peter French, 
second, Dr. John Wilkins, 190 ; 
issue, ibid. 

Cromwell, Sidney, 264 

Cromwell, Sir Henry, "the Golden 
Knight," son of Sir Richard, 14 ; 
marriage, ibid.; issue, 17, 183 

Cromwell, Sir Richard (see Williams, 
Richard), estates of Ramsey Abbey, 
in Huntingdonshire, granted to 
him, 13 ; honours bestowed upon 
him, ibid. ; builds manor-houses at 
Ramsey and Hinchinbrook, ibid. ; 
marriage, 14 

Cromwell, Thomas, son of Walter, 
7 ; member of the household of 
Cardinal Wolsey, 4 ; instituted 
registration of births, marriages, 
and deaths, 7 ; early life, 9 ; em- 
ployed at Antwerp, 10 ; journey 
to Rome, ibid. ; enters the service 
of Cardinal Wolsey, 12 ; suppresses 
the monasteries, ibid. : will and 
death, 13 

Cromwell, Thomas, grandson of 
Henry, Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, 


Cromwell, Thomas, seventh son of 
Major Henry Cromwell, 61 ; twice 
married, ibid ; issue : 

(1) Oliver, Henry, Thomas, 
Elizabeth, ibid. ; Anne (see Field), 
ibid. ; (2) Oliver (see, of Cheshunt), 
Thomas, Richard, Elizabeth, 
Hannnh Ilewling, Susanna, ibid. 

Cromwell, Thomas, cousin of Richard 
Cromwell, of F'airfield, 260 

Cromwell, Thomas, will : sons, 
Thomas, Oliver ; brother, John 
Ashman ; exors., William Crom- 
well, John Ashman, John Crom- 
well, George Bailey, 261 

Cromwell, Vincent, son of Thomas 

Cromwell, of Huntingdonshire, 
262 ; issue : 

John, Benjamin (issue : John, 
Oliver, Alvin, William, Howard, 
Vincent, Marcus, Caroline, Nancy), 
263 ; Joseph, Joshua, Vincent, 
Oliver, Sarah, Rebecca, Hannah 
(see Ford), Rachel, Mary, 264 

Cromwell, W'alter, son of John the 
fuller, 3 ; succeeded his father, 4 ; 
various descriptions of, 5 ; death, 7 

Cromwell, W T illiam, of Palm Hall, 
Norwell, 3 

Cromwell, William, fourth son of 
Ralph de Cromwell, 3 

Cromwell, William, fifth son of the 
Lord-Lieutenant, 48 

Cromwell, William, grandson of 
Henry Cromwell, 47 

Cromwell, William, son of Sir Oliver, 
in the service of the Elector- Pala- 
tine, 15 

Cromwell, William, will : sons, Wil- 
liam, Alexander, Joseph, Wool- 
ghist ; witnesses, John Cromwell, 
Joshua Cromwell, George Ashman, 

Cromwell, William, will : wife, Eliza- 
beth Trahearn ; brothers, John, 
Richard ; sons, William, Thomas, 
260, 261 

Cromwell, William Henry, of Phila- 
delphia, 265 

Cromwell of Calvert Co., John and 
William, 260 ; latter's grandsons, 
William and John, ibid. 

Cromwell, village of, 2 

Cromwells in the Fen counties, 1 

Cromwells of Lincolnshire, 3 

Cromwells of Nottinghamshire, 3 

Cromwells of Washington : William, 
Katharine, Thomas, 258 

Cross, Mary, daughter of Alexander 
Cross, m. Henry Frankland, 131 

Crumwell, Lord, of Westminster, 1 

Cust, Evelyn, daughter of Reginald 
Cust, m. Arthur Lowther Pelham, 

Cuyler, Eliza, daughter of Sir Corne- 
lius Cuyler, m. Ralph Berners, 108 

Darnley, John Stuart Bligh, Earl of, 
m. Harriet Mary Pelham, 162 ; 
issue : 

Edward Henry Stuart, Kathleen 
Susan Emma, and others, 163 

Dawson, Mary Jay, daughter of 



The House of Cromwell. 

William Dawson, m.Colville Frank - 

land, 159 
D'Aye Mary (v. Russell), m. Robert 

D'Aye of Soham, 50 ; issue : 

Russell, Saunders (Mrs.), Eliza- 
beth (see Addison), ibid. 
De Grey, Thomas Philip Robinson, 

Earl, Baron Lucas and Baron 

Grantham, 173 ; issue : 

Anne Florence, Baroness Lucas 

(see Cowper), Mary Gertrude (see 

Vyner), ibid. 
Delpratt, Joseph, m. Sarah Eleanor 

Barnard, 165 ; issue : 
Eleanor Josephine, ibid. 
Delpratt, Samuel, of Jamaica, 165 
Denison, Robert, m. Charlotte 

Hotham, 166 
D'Eye, Henrietta Fox (v. Addison), 

m. George H. Rust D'Eye, 51 ; 

issue : 

Henrietta Fanny, ibid. ; George 

Edgar, Agnes Elizabeth, Isabel, 

Jane Louisa, Henry, Katharine 

Alice, Evelyn, Anne Georgina, 

Mabel, Emily, 52 
Disbrowe, Colonel John, "warned 

home," 36 ; m. Jane, sister of the 

Protector, 190 
Dobble, Robert Brownell, m. Elizabeth 

Mary Polhill, 99 ; issue : 
Sybil Mary, 99 
Dorsay, Mary Hammond, 263 
Drew, John, second husband of Agnes 

Surriage, 137 
Dundas, Sir David, m. Lucy Anne 

Pelham (second wife), 162 
Dunn, Margaret Williams, daughter 

of General William Dunn, R.A., 

m. Albert William Orme Whin- 

yates, 147 
Dyer, Rebecca (v. Russell), m. Wil- 
liam Dyer of Ilford, 49 ; issue : 
William Andrew, Charles Adams, 

Thomas John, Mary Eliza, Louisa, 


Earl, Captain, m. Maria Theresa 
Villiers, 177 

Elderton, Flora Helen, daughter of 
Charles A. Elderton, m. Charles 
Frederick Field, 76 

Elizabeth, Queen, Sir Henry Crom- 
well knighted by, 14 ; 69 

Ellis, Elizabeth (v. Peachey), m. Rev. 
Mr. Ellis of Milborne, Cambs., 52 ; 

Thomas, William, Elizabeth, and 

daughter m. Mr. Burbage 
Errington, Charlotte, descended from 

an old Puritan family named Not- 

cutt, m. Alfred Field, 79 
Evershed, Arthur, M.D., of Ampthill, 

m. Mary Hester Katherine Field, 76 
Eyre, Rebecca, sister of Sir Charles 

Eyre, first wife of John Russell, 128 

Fane, Augusta, daughter of John, 
Earl of Westmoreland, m. John, 
second Baron Boringdon, and Earl 
of Morley, 176 

Fane Julian, son of John, eleventh 
Earl of Westmoreland, m. Adine 
Eliza Anne, daughter of George, 
sixth Earl Cowper, 175 

Fauconberg, Thomas Bellasyse, Vis- 
count Henry Cromwell's attach- 
ment to, 44 ; m. Mary Cromwell, 
117 ; letters from to Henry Crom- 
well, ibid., 119; aids in the 
Restoration, 120 ; royal favours, 
ibid. ; death, ibid. ; 1 30 

Field, Alfred, of New York, 79 ; 
issue : 

Henry Cromwell, Rosa, 79 

Field, Anne, daughter of Thomas 
Cromwell, m. John Field, of 
Newington, 61, 70 ; issue : 

Henry, 71 (issue: Henry Crom- 
well, 71 ; Barron, Chief Justice, 
72 ; Francis John, Accountant- 
General to India House, 73 ; 
Esther, 73 ; Edmund, Frederick, 
Rector of Reepham, 73 ; Mar- 
riott, 74 ; Maria Letitia, 74) ; 
Oliver, of New York, 74 (issue : 
Oliver, John, Joseph, Thomas, and 
daughters) ; John, Umpire at the 
Mint, 74 (issue : Henry, Charles, 
Frederick, 75 ; Henry William, 
Queen's Assay - Master, 75, see 
below ; Emma Katharine, 76 ; 
Charles Frederick, 76, see below ; 
Oliver Cromwell, 76 ; Samuel 
Pryer, 77, see below) ; William, 
Unitarian minister, 77 (issue : 
Edwin Wilkins, 78, see below ; 
Arthur, 78; Tohn Hampden, Emma, 
Ferdinand Emmans, Laura, Alger- 
non Sidney (issue), 79 ; Alfred, 
79, see above ; Caroline (issue; 
Parker), 79 ; Alice, Lucy, 79, 
Horace (issue), 79 ; Leonard) 
Anne, 79 (see Gwinnel) ; Letitia, 



80 (see Wilkins), Elizabeth, Sophia, 
Mary, 80 

Field, Charles Frederick, 76 ; issue : 
Charles John Elderton, Flora 
Georgiana, Oliver Cromwell, 
Katharine Mary Ida, 76 

Field, Edwin Wilkins, 78 ; life of, 
80-86 ; twice married, 78 ; issue : 

(1) Rogers; (2) Basil, Allan 
(issue), Walter (issue), Mary, 
Grace, Susan, Emily, 78 

Field, Henry William, 75 ; issue : 
Mary Hester Katherine (issue, 
Evershed) ; Katharine Anne Rus- 
sell (issue, Snelling) ; Harriet 
Elizabeth Pryer, Frances Anna 
Ollyffe, Henry Cromwell Beck- 
with Letitia Eliza (issue, Thomas), 

Field, John, of Newington, 59, 70 

Field, Samuel Pryer, 77 ; issue : 
Cyril, Bertha, Oliver, Maud, 77 

Fleetwood, Anne Nancy, daughter of 
Bridget Cromwell, 109 

Fleetwood, Cromwell, son of Bridget 
Cromwell, 108 

Fleetwood, Lieut. -General Charles, 
30, 44, 49, 60, 71 ; marriage with 
Bridget Ireton, 90 ; in social ob- 
scurity at Stoke Newington, 91 ; 
abstract of his will, 96 ; children 
by Bridget Ireton, 108 ; 102, 116 

Fleetwood, Mary, daughter of Bridget 
Cromwell, m. Nathaniel Carter, 109 

Ford, Nathaniel, 264 

Fowler, Anne, daughter of Dinah 
Bowles, and last survivor of the 
family, 145 

Fowler, Edward, son of Bishop 
Fowler, m. Mary Chadwick, 190 ; 
issue : Anna Maria, Elizabeth, 191 

Fox, Anne, daughter of Thomas Fox, 
of Newlands, Curdworth, co. War- 
wick, m. William Addison, 51 

Francis, Georgina Ann, daughter of 
George P'ranklandjin. J. T. Francis, 

Frankland, Admiral Sir Thomas, 
fifth Bart., 137; marriage, 138; 
naval career, 138, 139 ; issue : 

Thomas, sixth Bart, (see below), 
William, 139 ; Roger (issue : 
Frederick William, eighth Bart. ; 
Rear-Admiral Edward Augustus, 
140 ; Emma, see Chaplin ; Admiral 
Charles Colville, Matilda, see 
Robison, George (issue : Georgina, 

Augustus Charles), Katharine 
Henrietta, Octavia, see Mont- 
gomery, Louisa, Arthur, Sophia, 
Albert Henry, 141), 140 ; Mary 
(see Roche), Sarah, 141 ; Harriet, 
Anne (see Lewis and Hare), 142 ; 
Dinah (see Bowles), 143 ; Katha- 
rine (see Whinyates), 145 ; Char- 
lotte (see Nicholas), 149 ; Grace 
(see Gosset), 154 

Frankland, Henry, fourth son of 
Sir Thomas Frankland, second 
Bart., 131 ; issue : 

Charles Henry, fourth Bart. 
(see above) ; Thomas, fifth Bart. 
(see below) ; William, Richard, 
Robert, Harriet, Frederick (issue, 
see Powney), 131 

Frankland, Sir Charles Henry, fourth 
Bart., 133 ; his connection with 
Agnes Surriage, ibid. : in the earth- 
quake at Lisbon, 135 ; marriage 
and death, 136 

Frankland, Sir Frederick William, 
eighth Bart., 157, 158 ; issue : 

Frederick Roger, 158 ; Thomas, 
Harry Albert, William Adolphus 
(see below), Colville (issue), 
Frederica, Eliza Henrietta Augusta 
(see Vacher), Maria Margaret Isa- 
bella, 159 

Frankland, Sir Robert, seventh Bart., 
assumed surname of Russell, 156; 
issue : 

Augusta Louisa (see Walsing- 
ham), Caroline Agnes, Emily Anne 
(see Galfrey), 156 ; Julia Roberta 
(see Neville), Rosalind Alicia (see 
Astiey), 157 

Frankland, Sir Thomas, second Bart., 
m. Elizabeth Russell, second 
daughter of Frances Cromwell, 
128, 129, 130, 131 

Frankland, Sir Thomas, third Bart., 
twice married, 132 ; issue : 

(1) Diana (see Lichfield), and 
others, 132 

Frankland, Sir Thomas, sixth Bart., 
156 ; issue : 

Robert, seventh Bart., and 

Frankland, Sir William, first Bart., 

Frankland, Sir William Adolphus, 
ninth Bart., 159 ; issue : 

Frederick, present Bart., and 


The House of Cromwell. 

French, Dr. Peter, first husband of 
the Protector's sister Robina, 190 ; 
issue : 

Elizabeth (see Tillotson), 190 

Gallwey, Sir William Payne, m. 
Emily Anne Frankland, 1 56 ; 
issue : 

Ralph William, Edwin, Lionel, 
Wyndham, Harry, Leonora, Anne, 
Bertha Louisa, Isabel Julia, 157 

Gardner, Emma Elizabeth (v. Rus- 
sell of Cheshunt), m. Herbert 
Calthorpe Gardner, 67 ; issue : 

Herbert Prescott, Emma Louisa, 

Gatton, Sarah, daughter of Ebenezer 
Gatton, m. Richard, fifth son of 
Major Henry Cromwell, 57 

Gee, Ann, m. Sir Francis Russell, 
sixth Bart., 130 

Gee, Co.lonel William, m. Arabella 
Talbot (second wife), 164; issue: 
Roger, 164 ; issue : Sarah Eliza 
beth (see Barnard), Caroline (see 
Hotham), 164 

Gibson, Mrs. Anna, letter from the 
Protector Richard to, 31 ; her 
birth, marriage, and death, 39 

Girtin, Mary Hog, daughter of 
Thomas Calvert Girtin, m. A. F. 
Barnard, 100 

Gittings, Elizabeth, daughter of 
Thomas Gittings, m. Oliver Field, 


Glyn, Alice Carr, daughter of Lord 
Wolverton, m. Rev. Francis Godol- 
phin Pelham, 162 

Goderich, Viscount (see Ripon, Earl) 

Godolphin, Henrietta Juliana, 
daughter of Francis, fifth Duke of 
Leeds, m. Thomas, second Earl of 
Chichester, 161 

Gordon, Adjutant -General Robert, 
m. Adeline Letitia Collier, 154 

Gosset, Grace, daughter of Admiral 
Sir Thomas Frankland, m. Matthew 
Gosset, Vicomte of Jersey, 154; 
issue : 

William Matthew, Henry (Ad- 
miral), Charles, Grace (see Cal- 
laghan), 154. Arthur ; issue : 
Augusta Louisa, Emma, Arthur 
Welleslev, Matthew William 
Henry (Brigadier - General), Mary 
Harriet, 155 ; Philip Henry, 
Laura Henrietta, Octavia Georgina 

Emily, Gertrude Maria (see Shad- 
well), Grace Amelia, Adelaide 

Louisa Julia, Edward Frankland 

(issue), 156 
Goulton, Sarah, daughter of Charles 

Goulton, m. Thomas Constable, 

Grantham, Sir Thomas Robinson, 

first Baron, m. Frances Worsley, 

167 ; issue : 
Thomas, second Baron (see 

below), Frederick, Theresa (see 

Boringdon), 172 
Grantham, Thomas, second Baron, 

172 ; issue : 
Thomas Philip (see De Grey), 

Frederick John (see Ripon), 172 
Gray's Inn, 43, 55, 60 
Greenhill, Samuel, m. Elizabeth 

Russell, 129 ; issue : 
John Russell (issue : Robert), 

129, 130 
Griscom, Elizabeth, m. William Clay- 

poole of Philadelphia, 256 
Gulston, Justina Maria Stepney, 

daughter of Joseph Gulston, m. 

George Baring Browne Collier, 

Gunton, Simon, reference in his 

" History of Peterborough" to the 

Protector's son Oliver, 25 
Gwinnel, Anne, daughter of Thomas 

Gwinnel, m. Henry Cromwell 

Field, 72 
Gwinnel, Thomas, of Worcester, m. 

Anne Field, 79 ; issue : 

Thomas Cromwell, 79; Anne 

Sophia, Amelia, Diana, 80 ; Eliza, 

80 (issue, Johnston) 
Gwyther, George, assumed surname 

of Leslie and m. Henrietta Anne, 

Countess of Rothes, 163 

Hagar, John, m. Elizabeth Bendysh, 

Hale, Octavia, daughter of General 

Hale, m. Marmaduke Constable, 

Hame, Harriet, m. Marcus Worsley, 

Hamilton, Florence Selina, daughter 

of William John Hamilton, second 

wife of Hon. Thomas Villiers Lister, 

Hammond, Family of, 264, 265 
Hampden, John, 98 
Hampton Court, 20, 54, 117, 1 18 



Harcourt, Sir William Vernon, m. 

Maria Theresa Lister, 178 ; issue : 
Lewis Reginald, 178 
Hare, Rev. Robert, second husband of 

Anne, fourth daughter of Admiral 

Sir Thomas P'rankland, 142 
Harlan, Mr., m. Matilda Cromwell, 

Harris, Katharine Gertrude, sister of 

the first Earl of Malmesbury, m. 

Frederick Robinson, 172 
Harrison, Emma Catharine, daughter 

of William Harrison, m. Charles 

Andrew Russell, 67 
Haswell, Patience, second wife of 

Charles Polhill, 99 
Haward, Rachel, m. T. C. Girtin, 

Hawksworth, Amelia, daughter of 

Francis Ramsden Hawksworth, 

second wife of George Hotham, 126 
Haworth, Martin E., m. Mary Eliza- 
beth Leslie, 163 
Henry VIII., knights Richard 

Williams, 9 
Herbert, Hon. Auberon, m. Florence 

Amabel, daughter of George, sixth 

Earl Cowper, 174 
Hewling, Hannah, daughter of 

Benjamin Hewling, m. Henry 

Cromwell, 53, 103 
Hill, Elizabeth (v. Addison), m. John 

Hill, 50 ; issue : 
John, William, Eden, 50 
Hinchinbrook, estates of the Convent 

of granted to Sir Richard Crom- 
well, 13 ; manor-house erected, 

ibid. ; Queen Elizabeth and James I. 

entertained at, 14 ; sold by Sir 

Oliver, 15 
Hobart, Sarah Louisa Albinia, 

daughter of Robert, fourth Earl 

of Bucks, m. Frederick John, Earl 

Ripon, 172 
Hollis, Gertrude, sister of Thomas 

Hollis, Duke of Newcastle, second 

wife of David Polhill, 98 
Holmes, Mr., m. Mary Russell, 129 
Ilordern, Ellen Frances, daughter of 

Rev. Peter Hordern, m. Sir John 

Lubbock, 166 
Horsley, Sarah, daughter of Job 

Horsley, m. George Frederick 

Russell, 67 
Hotham, Gertrude, daughter of Lieut. - 

Colonel Hotham, m. Christopher 

Neville, 170 

Hotham, Lieut. -Colonel George, m. 
Caroline Gee (first wife), 164; 
issue : 

William (Rear Admiral), 165 ; 
George, twice married (issue : (1) 
Richard, 165, Harriet, (2) Arthur, 
Francis, Alice, Laura), 166; Charles, 
166 ; John, twice married (issue : 
(2) Charles, John, Caroline, Fanny, 
Gertrude), 166; Sarah (see Creyke), 
Charlotte (see Denison), Gertrude 
(see Neville), Diana Caroline (see 
Brown), Harriet (see Lubbock), 

Huddlestone, Mary Esther (v. Russell 
of Cheshunt), m. Thomas Huddle- 
stone, 68 

Hulton, Amelia Maria, daughter of 
William Hulton, m. Bishop Henry 
Montague Villiers, 177 

Huntingdon, Oliver Cromwell re- 
turned to Parliament for, 18 ; he 
sells his property there, ibid. ; 19 

Huntingdon, estates of the Priory of 
granted to Sir Richard Cromwell, 

Huntingdonshire, estates in granted 
to Sir Richard Cromwell, 13 

Hursley Lodge, near Rornsey, Hants, 
the Protector Richard leaves his 
wife and children at, at the Re- 
storation, 28, 29, 34, 37, 38, 40-42 

Ireland, Henry Cromwell Lord-Lieu- 
tenant of, 43 ; lands of Cromwell 

in, 45-47 
Ireton, Bridget, third daughter ol 

Bridget Cromwell, 40, 92, 102, 121 ; 

m. Thomas Bendysh, ibid. ; issue : 
Thomas, Bridget, Henry (see 

below), 107 
Ireton, Elizabeth, daughter of Bridget 

Cromwell, 97 ; m. Thomas Polhill 

of Otford, ibid. ; issue : 

David (see Polhill), Henry, 

Charles, 97 
Ireton, Henry, eldest son of Bridget 

Cromwell, 97 
Ireton, Henry, marriage of with 

Bridget Cromwell, 87 ; career, 8S ; 

death at Limerick, 43 
Ireton, Jane, second daughter of 

Bridget Cromwell, 99 ; m. Richard 

Lloyd, ibid. ; and later to William 

Barnard, 100 ; issue : 

(1) Jane (see Morse), 1 00 ; (2) 

William (issue : William), IOO 


The House of Cromwell. 

James I., Oliver Cromwell, eldest son 
of "the Golden Knight," knighted 
by, 14 ; 69 

Jarret, Dinah, daughter of John 
Jarret, m. Rev. Henry Denny 
Berners, 108 

Jarrett, Herbert Newton, m. Martha 
Berners, 108 [108 

Jarrett, Rachel, m. William Berners, 

Jebb, Major-General Sir Joshua, m. 
Amelia Rose Pelham, 161 

Jeffreys, Anne Geraldine, daughter of 
M. B. Jeffreys, first wife of Major 
Ashton Cromwell Warner, 69 

Johnston, Frederick Erskine, m. Cle- 
mentina Frances Collier, 154 

Johnston, Patrick, banker, m. Eliza 
Gwinnel, 80 ; issue : 

Patrick, Janet Eliza, Henry 
Cromwell, Thomas, 80 

Jones, Colonel John, second husband of 
the Protector's sister Catharine, 1S8 

Keene, Richard H., m. Delia Crom- 
well, 263 

Kendall, William, of Bourton, m. 
Letitia Wilkins, 80 ; issue : 

Herbert William, Amelia Letitia, 
Edmund, Agnes, Harriet, Henry 

Kerr, Lord Walter, son of the Marquis 
of Lothian, m. Amabel, daughter 
of George, sixth Earl Cowper, 175 

Kinder, Letitia, daughter of Robert 
Kinder, second wife of Edwin 
Wilkins Field, 78 

Lambeth, copyhold land held by John 
Cromwell in, 3 ; his burial there, 3 ; 
extracts from churchwardens' ac- 
counts, 4 

Langmead W., of Plymouth, m. 
Laura Field, 79 

Lanishen, near Cardiff, John Williams 
migrated from, 8 

Laroche, Katharine, daughter of Job 
Laroche, M.P., m. Charles Berners, 

Laying, Melissa, daughter of the Rev. 
Mr. Laying, m. Frederick Frank- 
land, 131 

Leslie, Hon. George Waldegrave, 
m. Henrietta A. M., Countess of 
Rothes, 164 

Lewis, Anne, fourth daughter of 
Admiral Sir Thomas Frankland, m. 
John Lewis, 142 ; issue : 
Thomas Frankland (issue: Thomas 

Frankland,.?^ below), Anne, Louisa, 

Lewis, Right Hon. Sir Thomas Frank- 
land, 138, 139 ; Poor Law Commis- 
sioner, 142 ; twice married, ibid. ; 
issue : 

(1) George Cornewall, second 
Bart., 142 (see below) ; Gilbert 
Frankland, third Bart, (issue : Ed- 
ward Frankland, Herbert Edmund 
Frankland, Lindsay Frankland, 
Mary Anna, Eleanor), 143 

Lewis, Sir George Cornewall. m. 
Maria Theresa Villiers, relict of 
Thomas Henry Lister, 178 

Lichfield, Diana, Countess of, daughter 
of Sir Thomas Frankland, third 
Bart., m. George Henry Lee, Earl 
of Lichfield, 132 

Liddell, Elizabeth Charlotte, daughter 
of Lord Ravens worth, wife of 
Edward Ernest Villiers, 177 

Lievesley, Eliza, daughter of Maurice 
Lievesley, m. John Henry Crom- 
well Russell, 68 

Lincoln's Inn, Oliver Cromwell studies 
law at, 18 ; Richard Cromwell ad- 
mitted to, 28 

Lister, Elizabeth, daughter of Rev. J. 
Lister, m. Thomas Worsley, 168 

Lister, Thomas Henry, m. (first hus- 
band) Maria Theresa Villiers, 178 ; 
issue : 

Hon. Thomas Villiers, twice m. 
(issue: (1) George Coryton, three 
other sons, three daughters, 178 ; 
(2) a daughter), 178 ; Maria The- 
resa (see Harcourt), 178 ; Alice 
Beatrice (see Borthwick), 179 

Lloyd, Richard, first husband of Jane 
Ireton, 99 

Lockhart, Mr. Ambassador, ix ; m. 
Robina Sewster, 189 

Loughborough, Lord, m. Violet Aline 
Vyner, 175 

Lubbock, Sir John William, m. 
Harriet Hotham, 161 ; issue : 

John, present Bart, (issue : John 
Birkbeck, Norman, Rolfe Arthur, 
Amy Harriet, Constance Mary, 
Gertrude, Florence), 166 ; Henry 
James, Neville, Beaumont William, 
Montague, Frederick, 166 ; Alfred, 
Edgar, Mary Harriet (see Birk- 
beck), Diana Hotham (see Rodney), 
Henrietta Harriet, 167 
Ludlow, Edmund, friend of Ireton, 



88 ; his " Memoirs " quoted, ibid., 

115 ; 92, 95 
Lumley, Lady Anne, daughter of 

Richard, first Earl of Scarborough, 

second wife of Frederick Meinharcit 

Frankland, 132 
Luson, Mr. Hewling, 39, 56, 102- 

105, 121 
Lysaght, Percy P., m. Charlotte Amy 

Rachel Chalmer, 148 

Major, Dorothy, daughter of Richard 
Major, of Hursley and Merdon, 
wife of the Protector Richard (see 
the Protectress Dorothy) 

Marriott, J. P., m. Lucy Henrietta 
Strickland, 171 

Marshall, Sarah, m. Charles Polhill, 99 

Martin, Sarah, of Birmingham, m. 
Algernon Sidney Field, 79 

Mashams of Otes, the, 22 

Mason, Anne, daughter of Thomas 
Mason, m. George Frankland, 141 

Maynard, Henry, purchases Newport 
and Easton from Sir Oliver Crom- 
well, 15 

Meath, lands of Cromwell in, 45 

Midleton of Ireland, George, fourth 
Viscount, m. Frances Pelham, 
161 ; issue : 

Frances Anne (see Thomas), 161 

Mills, Anna, daughter of Rev. T. 
Mills, of Coval Hall, Chelmsford, 
m. Henry William Field, 76 

Mills, Rev. Richard, m. Mary, 
daughter of Richard Russell, 127 ; 
issue : 

Thomas (issue : Frederick Rus- 
sell, Richard), 128 

Milner, Georgina Selina Septimia, 
daughter of Sir William Milner, 
first wife of Sir C. W. Strickland, 

Mitchell, Ellen Kate, daughter of 
Rowland Mitchell, m. Rear- Admiral 
Frederick T. Pelham, 161 

Montgomery, Octavia, daughter of 
Roger Frankland, 141 

Morgan, Augusta, daughter of Thomas 
Morgan, m. Arthur Gosset, 155 

Morse, Amelia, m. Henry Vansittart, 

Morse, Mary, m. Mr. Oliver Crom- 
well, 101 

Morse, Mary, daughter of Morgan 
Morse, m. Oliver Cromwell of 
Cheshunt, 64 

Morse, Nicholas (or Henry), m. Jane 
Lloyd, daughter of Jane Ireton, 99 ; 
issue : 

David, Henry, Nicholas, Daniel, 
Elizabeth, Jane, Anne, 99(^Oyle, 
Burroughs, Roberts) 

Morse, Nicholas, Governor of Madras, 

Morshead, Louisa, daughter of Henry 
Anderson Morshead, m. George 
W. E., eleventh Earl of Rothes, 

Mortimer, John, a Somersetshire 
squire, 29 ; m. Dorothy, seventh 
daughter of the Protector Richard, 

Morton, Archbishop of Canterbury, 
makes a free grant of land to Walter 
Cromwell, 6 

Murfyn, Frances, daughter of Sir 
Thomas Murfyn, Lord Mayor of 
London, m. Sir Richard Crom- 
well, 14 

Murray, Captain James Hamilton, 
m. Fanny Pelham, 161 

Murray, Charles Knight, m. Hen- 
rietta Anne Leslie, 163 

Murray, Hon. Louisa Anne, daughter 
of Lord George Murray, Bishop of 
St. David's, m. Sir Robert Frank- 
land, seventh Bart., 156 

Nelson, Mrs., of Mildenhall (v. 
Russell), 50 

Nevill, Elizabeth, m. Cromwell Fleet- 
wood, 108 

Neville, Christopher, m. Anne Eliza- 
beth Acklom, 170 ; issue : 

Christopher (issue : Charlotte, 
George), 170; George, 170; Ann 
Elizabeth (second wife of Sir C. W. 
Strickland), 171 

Neville, Ralph Neville Grenville, 
eldest son of George Neville, m. 
Julia Roberta Frankland, 157 ; 
issue : 

Robert, George, Hugh, Louisa, 
Agnes Magdalen, Beatrice, Ethel- 
dreda, 157 

Neville, Rev. Christopher, m. Ger- 
trude Hotham, 166; issue: 
Charlotte, George, 166 

Newport Pagnell, death of Captain 
Oliver Cromwell at, 27 

Nicholas, Charlotte, daughter of 
Admiral Sir Thomas Frankland, 
m. Robert Nicholas, 149 ; issue : 
Edward, Robert, 149 ; William. 


The House of Cromwell. 

150-152 ; Thomas, Charles, Char- 
lotte, Sophia, Frances, Harriet (see 
Collier), 153 ; Ellenor (see Sutton), 
Maria, 154 

Nicholas, Major Griffin, 149 

Noble, Elizabeth, m. John Russell, 
Greenhill, 129 

Noble, Rev. Mark, vii, 17, 18, 30, 
38, 40, 44, 101, 114, 133, 185, 188, 
191, 254, 255, 265 

Norris, Mrs. Sidney, 258, 260 

Owen, Dr. John, preacher of Ireton's 
funeral sermon, 88 ; letter from to 
Henry Cromwell, 89, 105 

Oxford, Dr. and Mrs. Anna Gibson 
and Elizabeth Cromwell at, 39 ; 
Henry Ireton educated at, 87 ; in- 
vestment of, ibid. 

Oyle, Mr., m. Elizabeth Morse, 100 ; 
issue : 

Elizabeth (see Codrington), 100 

Pallavicini, Sir Horace, former hus- 
band of Sir Oliver Cromwell's 
second wife, 15 

Palmer, C. R., m. daughter of Grace 
Callaghan, 155 

Parker, Captain John, m. Katherine 
Caroline Leslie, 163 

Parker, Reginald A., m. Caroline 
Field, 79 

Peachey, Margaret (v. Russell), m. 
Edward Peachey, 52 ; issue : 

Elizabeth, m. Richard Peachey 
(issue : Richard, William, and 
Elizabeth, see Ellis), 52 

Pelham, Lady Anne, daughter of 
Frederick Meinhardt Frankland, m. 
Thomas, Lord Pelham, afterwards 
Earl of Chichester, 114, 132, 160 ; 
issue : 

Thomas, second Earl ; Henrietta 
Anne (see Rothes), Henry (issue : 
Katharine Elizabeth Anne, Fanny, 
see Murray), 160, 16 1 ; Frances 
(see Midleton), Lucy (see Sheffield), 
Emily, George (Bishop), 161 

Pelham, Lord, afterwards Earl of 
Chichester, 113, 114, 132, 160 

Pennyman, Dorothy, m. James 
Worsley, 167 

Pennyman, James Whyte, grandson 
of James Worsley, 167 

Pengelly, Mrs. Rachel, mentioned 
in the Protector Richard's will, 

Pengelly, Sir Thomas, friend of the 
Protector Richard, 28, 31 

Phillips, Miss, m. Allan Held, 78 

Pierce, Richard, father of Agnes 
Surriage, 133 

Piers, Florence Louisa, daughter of 
W. Stapleton Piers, second wife of 
Major Ashton Cromwell Warner, 

Pierson, Jane, daughter of Admiral 
Sir W. H. Pierson, m. Samuel 
Pryer Field, 77 

Polhill, Thomas, of Otford, m. Eliza- 
beth Ireton, 97 

Polhill, Charles, 99 ; twice married, 
ibid. ; issue : 

(1) Tryphena Penelope (issue, 
Stafford), (2) George (see below), 
Charles, David, Patience, David, 
Thomas Alfred, 99 

Polhill, David, M.P., of Cheapstead, 
98 ; leader of the Kentish Peti- 
tioners, ibid.; thrice married, ibid. ; 
issue : 

(3) Charles (see above), Thomas, 
Henry, John, Elizabeth, 98 

Polhill, George, 99 ; issue : 

Charles (issue : Beatrice Mary, 
see Beadnell, Elizabeth Mary, see 
Dobble), Mary Elizabeth Camp- 
bell, Frederick Campbell, George, 
Henry Western Onslow, 99 

Pollard, Eliza Smith, daughter of 
William Pollard, m. F. P. Barnard, 

Porteous, Mary, daughter of Robert 
Porteous, m. George Polhill, 99 

Powle, Katharine, daughter of Right 
Hon. Henry Powle, m. Henry 
Ireton, 97 

Powney, Peniston, m. daughter of 
Frederick Frankland (issue : Me- 
lissa), 131 

Prescott, Elizabeth Oliveria, grand- 
daughter of Oliver Cromwell of 
Cheshunt, m. Frederick Joseph 
Prescott, of Theobalds, Herts, 67 ; 
issue : 

Frederick George, Emma Eliza- 
beth (see Gardner), George Frederick 
(issue : Mary, Edward, Ernest, 
Mildred), Charles Andrew (issue : 
Charlotte Cromwell, Charles Cave 
Cromwell, Oliveria Cromwell, 
Kenneth Loder Cromwell), Edward 
Barker (issue : Edward Frederick 
William), Lucy Esther, Augusta 



Sophia (see Burn), Henry Warner, 
Edgar Grote (issue : Henry 
Frederick, Edward Barker, Edgar 
Evelyn, Margaret Oliveria, Herbert, 
Nelly Margaret, Isabel Katharine), 
Oliveria Louisa, 68 

Pryer, Mary, daughter of Charles Pryer 
of Titchfield, m. John Field, 74 

Putney, land called "Cromwell's" 
at, 3 ; lands held by Walter Crom- 
well, 4-6 

Ramsey Abbey estate granted to Sir 

Richard Cromwell, 13; manor- 
house erected, ibid. ; becomes the 

property of Colonel Titus, 16 
Randolph, H. Hammond, 264 
Rattenbury, Hannah, 260, 261 ; 

Elizabeth, 260 
Rattenbury, John, will: nephew John 

Cromwell, 261 
Reynolds, Reuben, m. Henrietta 

Maria Cromwell 263 ; issue : 
Dr. John Cromwell Reynolds 

and others, ibid. 
Reynolds, Sir John, m. Sarah Russell, 

Rhett, Sarah, daughter of the Chief 

Justice of South Carolina, m. 

Admiral Sir Thomas Frankland, 

fifth Bart., 13S 
Rich, Hon. Robert, m. Frances 

Cromwell, 123, 125; his death, 126 
Ripon, Frederick John Robinson, 

Viscount Goderich and Earl, 172 ; 

issue : 

George Frederick Samuel, second 

Earl (see below) ; Eleanor Hen- 
rietta Victoria, 172 
Ripon, George Frederick Samuel 

Robinson, second Earl and first 

Marquis, 174 ; issue : 

Frederick Oliver, Lord de Grey ; 

Mary Sarah, 174 
Ripon, Henrietta Anne Theodosia, 

Marchioness of, 175 
Rivett, John, son of Colonel Rivett, 

m. Frances Russell, 129 
Rivett, Mary Joanna Cutts, daughter 

of Colonel Rivett, m. Charles 

Russell, 129 
Roberts, Mrs. Anne, daughter of Jane 

Morse, 100 
Robertson, Sarah Anne Catherina, 

daughter of Katharine Whinyates, 

first m. Lieut. James Robertson, 

148 ; issue : 

James Alexander, Sarah Mary 

Emily (see Chalmer), 148 
Robison, Matilda, daughter of Roger 

Frankland, m. Lieut. -Colonel W. 

Robison, 141 
Roche, Mary, eldest daughter of 

Admiral Sir Thomas Frankland, 

m. Sir Boyle Roche, Bart., 141 
Roehampton, lands at granted to 

Walter Cromwell, 6 
Rodney, William P., m. Diana 

Hotham Lubbock, 167 
Rolt, Anne, daughter of Peter Rolt, 

m. Clarence Augustus Collier, 


Rothes, George William Evelyn, 
eleventh Earl of, 163 ; issue : 

George William Evelyn, twelfth 
Earl ; Henrietta Anderson Mors- 
head, Countess (see Leslie), 164 

Rothes, George Wdliam Leslie, tenth 
Earl of, m. Henrietta Anne Pelham, 
160 ; issue : 

Amelia, Mary, 163 ; Henrietta 
Anne (Countess), 163 ; issue : 
George William Evelyn, eleventh 
Earl, Thomas Jenkins, Henrietta 
Anne (see Murray), Mary Elizabeth 
(see Haworth), Anna Maria (see 
Courtenay), Katherine Caroline 
(see Parker), 163 

Roundell, Mary, daughter of Rev. 
D. R. Roundell, second wife of 
John Hotham, 166 

Russell, Christian, eldest daughter of 
Fiances Cromwell, 128 

Russell, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir 
Francis Russell of Chippenham, 
m. Henry Cromwell, fourth son of 
the Protector, 43 ; death, 47 ; issue 
48 ; letter to her from Lady Clay- 
poole, 112 

Russell, Elizabeth, daughter of the 
Lord - Lieutenant, m. William 
Russell of Fordham, 49 ; issue : 

O'Brian William, Henry, John, 
William, Edward, Thomas, Francis 
(issue: Thomas, William, Rebecca, 
see Dyer), Mary (see D'Aye), Sarah 
(see Wilkins), 49 ; Mrs. Nelson, 
.Margaret (see Peachey), 50 

Russell, Elizabeth, second daughter 
of Frances Cromwell, m. Sir 
Thomas Frankland, second Bart., 
128, 130 ; issue : 

Thomas, third Bart, (see Frank- 
land), William, John, Henry (see 


The House of Cromwell. 

Frankland), Richard, 131; Frederick 
Meinhardt (see Pelham), Robert, 
Elizabeth (see Talbot), Frances or 
Mary (see Worsley), Arabella, 132 
Russell, Elizabeth Oliveria, daughter 
of Oliver Cromwell of Cheshunt, 
m. Thomas Artemidorus Russell, 
64, 66 ; the last of the Protector's 
blood, ibid. ; issue : 

Elizabeth Oliveria (see Prescott), 
Artemidorus Cromwell (issue : 
Avarilla Oliveria Cromwell, see 
Bush), Mary Esther (see Armstrong 
and Huddlestone), John Henry 
Cromwell (issue : Eliza Clementina 
Frances Cromwell), 68 ; Thomas 
Artemidorus Cromwell and Thomas 
Artemidorus, Letitia Cromwell (see 
Whitfield), Charles William Crom- 
well, Emma Bridget (see Warner), 
Russell, Gerard, 49 
Russell, John, third son of Frances 
Cromwell, 128 ; twice married, 
ibid. ; issue : 

(1) Frances, Charles (issue: Mary, 
John, Mary, Elizabeth, see Green- 
hill), 129 
Russell, Rich, second son of Frances 
Cromwell, 127 ; twice married, 
ibid. ; issue : 

(1) Mary (see Mills), 127 
Russell, Sarah, daughter of Sir 
Francis Russell, m. Sir John Rey- 
nolds, 127 
Russell, Sir Francis, 43, 49, 125, 127 
Russell, Sir Francis, sixth Bart., 130 
Russell, Sir Frederick William Frank- 
land (see Frankland) 
Russell, Sir George, tenth Bart., 130 
Russell, Sir John, eighth Bart., 130 
Russell, Sir John, ninth Bart., 130 
Russell, Sir John, of Chippenham, 35, 
125; second husband of Frances 
Cromwell, 126 
Russell, Sir Robert Frankland 

assumes name of, 156 
Russell, Sir Robert Greenhill, 156 
Russell, Sir William, 49 
Russell, Sir William, fourth Bart., 129 
Russell, Sir William, fifth Bart., 129 
Russell, Sir William, seventh Bart., 

Russell, Victoria, daughter of Earl 
Russell, m. Rev. Henry Montague 
Villiers, 178 

Russell, William, of Fordham, 49 
Rycroft, Mary, daughter of Sir 

Richard Rycroft, m. Bishop George 

Pelham, 161 

St. John, Mrs., cousin to the Pro- 
tector, 22, 23 

St. Neot's, estates of the Priory of 
granted to Sir Richard Cromwell, 

Salmond, James, m. Rachel Marian 

Constable, 170; issue: 
Edward, 170 
Saltrey, estates of the Priory of 

granted to Sir Richard Cromwell, 13 
Sanford, John Langton, vii, viii 
Saunders, Miss, m. Henry Berners, 

Say, Rev. Mr., 41, 102, 121 
Scarth, Katharine Margaret, daughter 

of Isaac Scarth, m. Sir Frederick 

W. Frankland Russell, 158 
Sewster, John, m. the Protector's 

sister Anna, 189; issue: 

John (issue), Robert, Lucy, 

Robina (see Lockhart), Catharine, 

Anna, 189 
Shad well, F. B., m. Gertrude Maria 

Gosset (issue), 156 
Shaftesbury, Earl of, reference in 

Diary of to the death of Frederick 

Vyner, 175 
Shafto, Eleanor, daughter of Rev. 

Slingsby Duncombe Shafto, m. 

Robert Charles Vyner, 175 
Sharpe, Mary, niece of Samuel Rogers, 

the poet, first wife of Edwin Wilkins 

Field, 78 
Sheffield, first Earl of, m. Lucy 

Polham, 161 
Shelley, Tryphena Penelope, daughter 

of Sir John Shelley, of Mitchel 

Grove, first wife of Charles Polhill, 

Sherwill, William, father of Mary 

Westby, m. William Cromwell, 

" of Kirby Street," 55 
Shute, Martha, sister of the first 

Viscount Barrington, m. Henry 

Bendysh, 107 
Skelmersdale, Edward Bootle Wil- 

braham, Baron, m. Alice Villiers, 

181 ; issue : 

Edward George, Villiers Richard, 

Randle Arthur, Reginald Francis, 

Alice Maud, Constance Adela, 



Florence Mary, Bertha Mabel, 
Edith Cecil, 181 
Skinner, Mary, daughter of Nicholas 
Skinner, second wife of Thomas, 
seventh son of Major Henry Crom- 
well, 61 
Slaenforth, William, m. Elizabeth 

Worsley, 167 
Smelt, Dorothy, daughter of William 
Smelt, m. Sir Thomas Frankland, 
sixth Bart., 156 
Smith, Abel, m. Susan Emma Pel- 
ham, 163 
Smith, Frances, daughter of Thomas 
Smith, of Whinston, first wife of 
Fleetwood, 92 
Smith, Frances Katherine, daughter 
of Francis Smith, m. Alfred Bar- 
nard, 100 
Smith, Katharine, of Colskirk, m. 

Thomas Bendysh, 107 
Smith, Virginia Katharine, daughter 
of Eric Carrington Smith, m. 
Francis Hyde Villiers, 181 
Smith, William, uncle of Walter 

Cromwell, 5 
Snelling, William Henry, of the 
Admiralty, m. Katharine Anne 
Russell Field, 76 
Spence, Miss, m. Henry Field 

Wilkins, 80 
Spinney Abbey, death of Henry 
Cromwell, Lord-Lieutenant of 
Ireland, at, 19, 44 ; his children 
born there, 48 ; sold by Major 
Henry Cromwell, 54 ; 55 
Squire's Mount, Hampstead, family 

residence of the Fields, 85 
Stacey, Mrs., of Oswego, 263 
Stafford, George, m. Tryphena 
Penelope Polhill, 99 ; issue : 
Charles, Thomas George, 99 
Stanley, Frederick Arthur, son of 
Edward, fourteenth Earl of Derby, 
m. Constance Villiers, 181 ; 
issue : 

Edward George Villiers, Victor 
Albert, Geoffrey, Arthur, Ferdi- 
nand Charles, Katharine Mary, 
and others, 181 
Steward, Elizabeth, of Ely, mother of 

Oliver Cromwell, 19 
Steward, Sir Thomas, maternal uncle 

to Oliver Cromwell, 18 
Stott, Ann, daughter of Samuel Stott, 
m. Thomas Barnard, 100 

Streatfeild, Martha, daughter of 
Thomas Streatfeild, of Sevenoaks, 
m. Charles Polhill, 98 

Strickland, Sir George, seventh Bart., 
m. Mary Constable, 170; issue : 

Charles William, eighth Bart., 
twice married (issue: (1) Walter 
William ; (2) Frederick, Eustace 
Edward, Henry, Esther Anne), 
171 ; Frederick, 170 ; Henry 
Strickland {see Constable), Lucy 
Henrietta {see Marriott), 171 

Sunman, Mary Rus.-ell {v. Addison), 
m. Robert Sunman, 50 ; issue : 
Mary Addison, Robert, 50 

Surriage, Agnes, the celebrated beauty, 
133 ; her connection with Sir 
Charles Henry Frankland, fourth 
Bart., ibid. ; in earthquake at 
Lisbon, 135; marriages, 136, 137 ; 
death, 137 

Sutton, Mrs. Ellenor, daughter of 
Charlotte Nicholas, 154 

Sykes, Lucy Elizabeth, daughter of 
Rev. Christopher Sykes, m. Charles 
Hotham, 166 

Talbot, Elizabeth (z>. Russell), daughter 
of Sir Thomas Frankland, m. Roger 
Talbot, 132 ; issue : 

Arabella or Elizabeth {see Gee), 

Tattershall Castle, near Boston, Lin- 
colnshire, 1 

Tatton, Henrietta, daughter of Thomas 
William Tatton, m. Bishop John 
Thomas Pelham, 162 

Temple, Hon. Frances, sister of Lord 
Palmerston, m. Admiral Sir William 
Bowles, 144 

Tennant, Charles, m. Gertrude Bar- 
bara Rich Collier, 154 

Thomas, Inigo Freeman, m. Frances 
Anne, daughter of fourth Viscount 
Midleton, 161 

Thomas, Ralph, solicitor, m. Letitia 
Eliza Field, 76 

Thompson, Maria, daughter of Henry 
Thompson, first wife of John Ho- 
tham, 166 

Thurlbone, Joanna, of The Chequers, 
Bucks, second wife of John Russell, 

Thurloe, 30, 91, 117, 123, 218 

Tidman, Frances, daughter of John 
Tidman, first wife of Thomas, 


The House of Cromwell. 

seventh son of Major Henry Crom- 
well, 61 

Tillotson, Archbishop, 107 ; second 
husband of the Protector's sister 
Robina, 190 ; issue : 

A son, Elizabeth, Mary {see Chad- 
wick), 190 

Tilsley, George, of Chipping Norton, 
m. Harriet Wilkins, 80 

Todd, Elizabeth, 259, 261 

Topham, Diana, daughter of Francis 
Topham, first wife of Sir Thomas 
Frankland, third Bart., 132 

Trahearn, Elizabeth, 260 

Trevor, Elizabeth, first wife of David 
Polhill, 98 

Usborne, Edith Alice, daughter of 
Thomas M. Usborne, m. Ralph 
William Gallwey, 157 

Vacher, Major F. S. , m. Eliza Hen- 
rietta Augusta Frankland, 159 

Vansittart, Henry, Governor of Bengal, 

Vidal, Mary Mabel, m. Edward Frank- 
land Gosset, 156 

Villiers, George, son of Thomas, Earl 
of Clarendon, m. Theresa, daughter 
of first Baron Boringdon, 176 ; 
issue : 

George William Frederick, fourth 
Earl of Clarendon {see Clarendon), 
Thomas Hyde, Right Hon. Charles 
Pelham Villiers, Chairman of the 
Anti-Corn Law League, 176; Ed- 
ward Ernest (issue : Ernest, Maria 
Theresa, see Earl, Edith, see Bulwer- 
Lytton, Elizabeth), Henry Mon- 
tague, see below, 177 ; Augustus 
Algernon, Maria Theresa {see Lister 
and Lewis), 178 

Villiers, Henry Montague, Bishop, 
177 ; issue : 

Henry Montague (issue : Henry 
Montague, John Russell, Thomas 
Lister, another son, Frances Ade- 
laide, Gwendolen Mary, Rhoda 
Victoria, Margaret Evelyn, Dorothy, 
Mabel Agatha, Katharine Helen), 
177, 178 ; Frederick Ernest, Amy 
Maria {see Cheese), Gertrude Fanny, 
Mary Agneta, Evelyn Theresa, 178 

Vyner, Captain Henry, m. Mary 
Gertrude, daughter of Earl de 
Grey, 174 ; ssue : 

Henry Frederick, Reginald Ar- 
thur, Robert Charles (issue : Mary 
Evelyn, see Compton, Violet Aline, 
see Loughborough) ; Frederick 
Grantham, Henrietta Anne Theo- 
dosia, Marchioness of Ripon, 175 ; 
Theodosia, Marchioness of North- 
ampton, 176 

Walsingham, Thomas de Grey, fifth 
Baron, m. Augusta Louisa Frank- 
land, 156 ; issue : 

Thomas, sixth Baron, 156 

Walter, Louisa, m. William Matthew 
Gosset, 154 

Wandsworth, fulling mill in, leased 
to John Cromwell, of Norwell, 2, 3 

Warner, Emma Bridget {v. Russell of 
Cheshunt), m. Captain Richard 
Warner, 69 ; issue : 

Ashton Cromwell, twice married 
(issue : (1) Ashton Darell Crom- 
well ; (2) Bridget Nora Cromwell, 
Lionel Ashton Piers, Maijorie Ellin, 
Esther Hastings), 69 ; Richard Ed- 
ward (issue : Constance Emma 
Cromwell, Leonard Ottley, Mary 
Challoner, Basil Hall, Richard 
Cromwell, Lawrence Dundas, 
Wynyard Alexander, Marmaduke), 
Wynyard Huddleston, 70 

Warren, Joan, daughter of Sir Ralph 
Warren, Lord Mayor of London, 
m. Sir Henry Cromwell, 14 

Warton, Caroline, daughter of Sir 
Warton Penyman Warton, m. 
Roger Gee, 164 

Watt, Caroline, daughter of Richard 
Watt, first wife of George Hotham, 

Wauton, Colonel Valentine, m. (first 
wife) Margaret, sister of the Pro- 
tector, 23, 188, 189 ; issue: 

George, Valentine, George, 
Robert, Anna, Ralph (?), 189 

Waylen, James, v 

Webb, Harriet Lavinia, daughter of 
Rev. R. Holden Webb, m. Arthur 
Wellesley Gosset, 155 

Webber, Rev. G. H., m. Frances 
Worsley, 168 

Westby, Mary, widow of Thomas 
Westby, of Linton, m. William 
Cromwell " of Kirby Street," 55 
Westenra, Hon. Norah, m. Gilbert 
Stirling Chalmer, 148 



Westminster, *' Lorde Crumwell " of, 

Westminster Abbey, 38, 88, 109, 220, 

Weston, Elizabeth, m. Henry Berners, 

Whalley, Sarah Marianne, m. General 
Frederick William Whinyates, 
R.E., 147 

Whinyates, Katharine, sixth daughter 
of Admiral Sir Thomas Frankland, 
m. Major Thomas Whinyates, 145; 
issue : 

Thomas, Admiral, 145 ; Russell 
Manners Mertolu, Edward Charles, 
General, K.C.B., K.H., 146; 
George Burrington, Frederick Wil- 
liam, General, R. E. (issue: Har- 
riet, Emily Marianne, Frederick 
Thomas, Edward Henry, Francis 
Arthur, Albert William Orme, Amy 
Octavia, Charles Elidon), Francis 
Frankland, General, 147 ; Sarah 
Anne Catherina (see Robertson and 
Vour.ghusband), Amy, Rachel, 
Ellen Margaret, Isabella Jane, 
Mercy, Caroline Charlotte, Octavia, 
Letitia, 145 

Whi thread, Samuel, m. Isabel Char- 
lotte Pelham, 163 ; issue : 

Maud (m. Charles Whitbread), 

White, Jeremiah, chaplain to the 
Protector Oliver, 35, 57, 123-125 

White, Christina, daughter of Edward 
White of Glasgow, m. Horace 
Field, 79 

Whitehall, 37, 49, 57, in 

Whitfield, Letitia Cromwell (v. Rus- 
sell of Cheshunt), m. Frederick 
Whitfield, M.D., 69 ; issue : 
Amy, Elizabeth (?), 69 

Whitstone, Roger, first husband of 
the Protector's sister Catharine, 

Wilkins, Dr. John, 34, 35, m. the 
Protector's sister Robina, 190 

Wilkins, Mary, daughter of William 
Wilkins, Baptist minister, m. Wil 
liam Field, 78 

Wilkins, Mrs. Robina, 113 (see Crom- 
well, Robina) 

Wilkins, Sarah (v. Russell), m. Mar- 
tin Wilkins of Soham, 49, 52 

Wilkins, Rev. William, m. as second 
wife Letitia Field, So ; issue : 

William, Letitia (issue, Ken- 
dall), Henry Field, Harriet, 80 
Williams resumed as family name by 
the elder branch of the Cromwells, 


Williams, Clara, daughter of II. Wil- 
liams, m. Augustus Charles Frank- 
land, 141 

Williams, John, father of Morgan, 8 

Williams, John, son of above, a Yeo- 
man of the Crown, 8 

Williams, Morgan, m. Katharine 
Cromwell, 8 

Williams, Richard, son of Katharine 
Cromwell, 8 ; knighted and assumes 
name of Cromwell, 9 (see Crom- 
well, Sir Richard) 

Wills and Registers containing names 
of Cromwells, 191-106 

Wilson, Rachel, m. Vincent Crom- 
well, 263 

Wimbledon, Court Rolls of the Manor 
of, 2 

Wimbledon, John Cromwell buried 
at, 3 ; Walter Cromwell dies at, 7 

Wolverton, Charlotte, daughter of 
Charles Wolverton of Great Yar 
mouth, m. W T illiam Oliver Crom 
well Addison, 51 

Woolgrish or Woolghist, Venetia, m 
Thomas Cromwell of Huntingdon 
shire, 262 

Worsley, Frances or Mary (v. Russell) 
daughter of Sir Thomas Frankland 
m. Thomas Worsley, 132 ; issue : 

Thomas (issue : Edward, George, 
see below, and others), 168 ; James 
(issue : James, Ralph, Richard 
Dorothy), 167 ; Mary (see Constable) 
Elizabeth (see Slaenforth), Katha 
rine, Frances (see Grantham), 167 

Worsley, George, 168 ; issue : 

George, Edward, William (see 
below), Marcus (issue), Thomas, 
Frederick Cayley, Septimus Launce- 
lot, Henry Francis (issue), Charles 
Valentine, Arthur, Digby Edmund, 
Isabella (.rtr Blackden), Philadelphia 
I Coltman), Anne, Frances (see 
Webber), ibid. 

Worsley, William, 168 ; issue : 

Thomas Robinson, William Cay- 
ley, Sophia Harriet, Arthington, 
Katherine Louisa, Anna Barbara, 

Worthington, William, 261 


The House of Cromwell. 

Wrangham, Philadelphia Frances 
Esther, daughter of Archdeacon 
Wrangham, m. Edward William 
Barnard, 165 

Yeoman, Mary Jametta Hale, daugh- 
ter of Major Constantine Yeoman, 
m. Richard Edward Warner, 70 

Yorke, Mary Jemima, daughter of 

Philip, second Earl Hardwicke, m. 

Thomas, second Baron Grantham, 

Younghusband, Captain Robert, 

second husband of Sarah Anne 

Catherine Whinyates, 148 

Elliot Stock, 62, Paternoster Row, London, E.C. 

In demy 8vo., handsomely printed in antique style, and bound in cloth. (Shortly.) 

East Anglia and the Great Civil 






Author of " Hertfordshire during the Great Civil IVar" " Fragments of Two Centuries" etc. 

To the men of the Fens and East Anglia history has given a foremost place in the Great Civil 
War between King Charles I. and his Parliament, but has not deigned to tell their story. 

The pages of " East Anglia and the Great Civil War " will tell the story, with a degree of 
local colour not hitherto attempted, of the doings of Oliver Cromwell and his neighbours ; and of 
the Evolution, from the cradle of Cromwell's home and influence in the Fens, of the famous 
" Ironsides " of History. 

While no pains have been spared in the way of original research to merit the attention of the 
studious, at the same time the book will present a graphic and impartial narrative which should 
secure for it the interest of the general reader in each of the seven counties of the famous 
"Eastern Association," and of that wider public which must ever find an interest in anything 
concerning the greatest drama in all our history. 

Tastefully printed and bound in cloth, price 8s. net. 

Hertfordshire during the Great Civil 
War and the Long Parliament. 


and ESSEX. 


Author of '" Fragments of Two Centuries," etc. 

"As a picture of the way in which this turmoil affected the daily life of the people, Mr. 
Kingston's volume is not without considerable value." — Times. 

" Demanding long labour and research, impartial enthusiasm, and clear judgment. It will 
be fortunate if other authors deal with other periods in the history of Hertfordshire as happily 
as Mr. Kingston has treated the troubled days of the Cavaliers." — Morning Post. 

" His work will form a useful addition to works like Clutterbuck's History of the County."— 
Daily News. 

" It would, we think, be difficult to find a more attractive account than this. The volume 
contains matter of great historical interest, sufficient to justify its presence in every library in the 
county." — Hertfordshire Illustrated Rez'iew. 


Also in crown 8vo., hound in rough leather, price 51. Fifty large-paper copies, 
Roxburgh, \o.s. 6d. net. 

Cromwell's Soldier's Bible. 


Compiled by EDWARD CALAMY, and issued for the use of the Commonwealth Army in 1642. 

With a Biographical Introduction and a Preface by 
Field-Marshal the Right Hon. VUcount WOLSELEY, K.P., G.C.B. 

" This is indeed a truly interesting character. The leather cover, the singular bookbinder's 
stitch, the rough paper, the old world spelling, and withal we are seemingly brought face to face 
with the man and his sturdy soldiers who did so much for England. ' The Soldier's Pocket Bible ' 
is to us one of the unfading leaves in the wreath of the uncrowned king. Viscount Wolseley's 
Preface and the Introduction add much to the value of this reproduction of one of the most 
speaking relics of the Crcmwelhan age." — Baptist Messenger. 


In demy 81/0., cloth, price x$s. net [subscribers only). 

The Note- Book of Tristram Risdon 

(Author of the Survey of the County of Devon). 1603- 1623. 

Transcribed and edited from the original Manuscript in the Library of the Dean 

and Chapter of Exeter. 


Local Secretary to the Society of Antiquaries of London ; Corresponding Member of the British Archxological 
Association ; Fellow of the Anthropological Institute, 


HENRY G. PORTER (late R.N.). 
In crown 4I0. , printed in old face type, and handsomely bound, price 10s. 6d. 

Hereward, the Saxon Patriot : 

& ^Distort) xrf his ICifc artb Character, toith a ^ccorb of his Qxutstoxs artb 


By Lieut. -General HARWARD. 
In fcap. folio, paper cover, price 2s. 6d. 

First Steps in a Pedigree 

And Family Record. 

By SPENCER A. WOOLWARD, Vicar of Totternhoe, Dunstable. 

In two handsome volumes, demy 8vo., tastefully printed, and bound in Roxburgh. 250 
copies only ; price to Subscribers, £3 13J. 6d. Each copy is numbered and signed. 

Boyne's Trade Tokens, 

Issued in England, Wales, and Ireland in the Seventeenth Century, by Corpora- 
tions, Tradesmen, and Merchants. A New and greatly Augmented Edition, with 
Notes of Family, Heraldic, and Topographical Interest respecting the various 
Issuers of the Tokens, and connecting them with Important Families of the Present 
Day. Illustrated with Engravings and Plates. 
Edited by G. C. WILLIAMSON. 

Tastefully printed on antique paper , in 8vo. size, and appropriately bound , price js. 6d. 

Medieval Lore ; 

a Preface by William Morris, Author of " The Earthly Paradise," etc. 

" Illustrates one of the best methods of making us realise the life and thought of a long-past 
epoch. The extracts given are delightful. Even ordinary readers will find a quaint charm in the 
way legend, folk-lore, and actual knowledge are mixed up in Bartholomew's descriptions." — 
Book man.